# rsync

rsync(1)                          User Commands                         rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files

DESCRIPTION
Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It can
copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options that control
every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of
the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by
sending only the differences between the source files and the existing
files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring
and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and
permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would
ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
mirroring)

GENERAL
Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
current host (it does not support copying files between two remote
hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using
a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell transport
is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single colon
(:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double
colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL
SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote

Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always a
server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned
process.

SETUP
See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for
its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different
remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source and
a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update protocol
is used to update the file by sending only the differences in the data.
Note that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c) into a
list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by
rsync itself (exactly the same as all other Posix-style programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the containing
directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the following
commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the
attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash
to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both of
these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.

The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first, or
with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
these examples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
not as easy to use as the first method.

If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For
instance:

rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO
ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of
accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON
FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION below).

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so, you
will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This may
be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.
On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
connections to port 873.

You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The string
may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the
rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string).  For
example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost
(%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that
program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
using the default shell of the system() call.

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell
access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and
then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if
you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon
is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able to use
features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon. (For
another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on
that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-
daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value
(for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This means that
you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-
shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the --rsh
option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling
incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how
to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
confuse someone when the files are transferred in a different order than
what was given on the command-line.

If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either
separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-
updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer order, but does make
the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files
and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
"arvidsjaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
targets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
connection.  I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the
command:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTION SUMMARY
Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Please refer
to the detailed description below for a complete description.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--mkpath                 create the destination's path component
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

OPTIONS
Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
letter) options.  The full list of the available options are described
below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long variant, not a short.
If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after the
long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When
specifying a parameter, you can either use the form --option=param or
replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may need to be quoted in
some manner for it to survive the shell's command-line parsing.  Keep in
mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your shell,
so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into your home directory
(remove the '=' for that).

--help, -h (*)
Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync
and exit.  (*) The -h short option will only invoke --help when
used without other options since it normally means --human-

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
default list of compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in
capabilities, a link to the rsync web site, and some

--verbose, -v
This option increases the amount of information you are given
during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A single
-v will give you information about what files are being
transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly
more information at the end.  More than two -v options should only
be used if you are debugging rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to use these
newer options in addition to, or in place of using --verbose, as
any fine-grained settings override the implied settings of -v.
Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
will limit how high of a level the various individual flags can be
set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then any
info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher value than what
would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
information output you want to see.  An individual flag name may
be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
increasing the output of that flag (for those that support higher
levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag names,
what they output, and what flag names are added for each increase
in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format and
--itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
information on what is output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or
more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was too
above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being
the default output level, and higher numbers increasing the output
of that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the
verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note that some debug messages will only be output when
--stderr=all is specified, especially those pertaining to I/O and
buffer debugging.

Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to the
server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
values for each side of the transfer, as well as to specify a new
debug option that is only present in one of the rsync versions.
If you want to duplicate the same option on both sides, using
brace expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This
works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This option controls which processes output to stderr and if info
messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings can be
abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The 3
possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes to
send an error directly to stderr, even if the process is on
the remote side of the transfer.  Info messages are sent to
the client side via the protocol stream.  If stderr is not
available (i.e. when directly connecting with a daemon via
a socket) errors fall back to being sent via the protocol
stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get
written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
This causes stderr to become line-buffered (instead of raw)
and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and error
messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging or
using several levels of verbosity, this option can help to
avoid clogging up the transfer stream (which should prevent
any chance of a deadlock bug hanging things up).  It also
enables the outputting of some I/O related debug messages.

o      client - causes all rsync messages to be sent to the client
side via the protocol stream.  One client process outputs
all messages, with errors on stderr and info messages on
stdout.  This was the default in older rsync versions, but
can cause error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead
of the messages.  If you're pushing files to an older
rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all since that idiom
has been around for several releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began the
forwarding of a non-default setting to the remote side, though
rsync uses the backward-compatible options --msgs2stderr and --no-
msgs2stderr to represent the all and client settings,
respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
option names to maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This option decreases the amount of information you are given
during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from
the remote server.  This option is useful when invoking rsync from
cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client
at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
(due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size
and have the same modification timestamp.  This option turns off
this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be updated.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
modified time to just looking for files that have changed in size.
This is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
value.  The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.  If
you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least version
3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT
filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second
resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up to 1
second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in
it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-window=0
(aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're
copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving rsync is older
than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a
"quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
file that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data
in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things down
significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be done
to transfer changed files)

The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.  The
receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for changed
files, and will checksum any file that has the same size as the
corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed size or a
changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-
file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but
that automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do
with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be
updated?" check.

The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the
server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
(--cc) option or an environment variable that is discussed in that
option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above
equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r is
not implied.

Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify
-H.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
"no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g. --no-
D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances
(e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may
specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-"
prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
(--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
-a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
--files-from option for more details).

--recursive, -r
(-d).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins
the transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have
been completed.  This incremental scan only affects our recursion
algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It is
also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least
version 3.0.0.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
--delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-
updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode when you
specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the
connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
--delete-delay option that is a better choice than using --delete-
after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive
option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

--relative, -R
Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names specified
on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the
last parts of the filenames.  This is particularly useful when you
want to send several different directories at the same time.  For
example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine.

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
"foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If you're
dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may need to
use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With a
modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can
insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that
the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be
abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use a
chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
commands.) If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This option affects the default behavior of the --relative option.
When it is specified, the attributes of the implied directories
from the source names are not included in the transfer.  This
means that the corresponding path elements on the destination
system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied
directories are created with default attributes.  This even allows
these implied path elements to have big differences, such as being
a symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path"
and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If "path/foo"
is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the receiving
rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a
directory, and receive the file into the new directory.  With
--no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file"
using the existing path elements, which means that the file ends
up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this
also affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).

When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to
use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you
request and you wish the implied directories to be transferred as
normal directories.

--backup, -b
With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
--backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-
times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is also in
effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing
excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up
files from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own
filter rules, you may need to manually insert your own
exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it
has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules
specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added rule
would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.  This
can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally specify
a backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the files
backed up in the specified directory will keep their original
filenames).

Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with
"../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot
go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to
delete it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used
with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~ if no
--backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

--update, -u
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination
and have a modified time that is newer than the source file. (If
an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
other special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
the sender and receiver is always considered to be important
enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
requests to be transferred.

--inplace
This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs
to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a new
copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete,
rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the destination
file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be
visible through other hard links to the destination file.
Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a
multiply-linked destination file will result in a "tug of
war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the
transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While
a super user can update any file, a normal user needs to be
granted write permission for the open of the file for
writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
reduced if some data in the destination file is overwritten
before it can be copied to a position later in the file.
This does not apply if you use --backup, since rsync is
smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for
the transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this
for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large files with block-
based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are disk
bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-write
filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents of a file
that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
--delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also

--append
This special copy mode only works to efficiently update files that
are known to be growing larger where any existing content on the
receiving side is also known to be the same as the content on the
sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you aren't 100%
sure that all the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.
You should thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out any
files that do not fit this criteria.

Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying any of
the existing content in the file (it only verifies the content
that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on the
receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file on
the sending side (which means that new files are trasnferred).

This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content
attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does
not need to be transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any
directories or non-regular files.

--append-verify
This special copy mode works like --append except that all the
data in the file is included in the checksum verification (making
it much less efficient but also potentially safer).  This option
can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all the files in the
transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append option for
more details.

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
--append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or
the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either
append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories
it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).
If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes
precedence.

The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
--list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
--recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in the
listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn this
off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
(or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*'
to get an older rsync to list a single directory without
recursing.

--mkpath
Create a missing path component of the destination arg.  This
allows rsync to create multiple levels of missing destination dirs
and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.  Keep
in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if you want
the entire destination path to be treated as a directory when
copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that it
existed).

For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar in
the sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if either
do not yet exist:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
in the sub/dir/bar directory:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

destination.

When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point
outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like
ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself
when --relative is used.  This option has no additional effect if

Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose
output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative
symlinks to refer to other names inside the /src and /dest
directories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a trailing
slash) to "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks to any
files outside of "subdir".

This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside
the copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Using
this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected
results.

This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the
receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
(see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a symlink
to a unexpected place.

The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
directory or a symlink to a directory.

The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you
need it to affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.
(Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the sender.)

This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures
support directory of the source code.

This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory
with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete
anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a
directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

side.

source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a
trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up right.
For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
directory.

For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains
a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the
"foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives the file into the
symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted
user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could
then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real
directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink
references.  For backup copies, you are better off using something
hierarchy.

side.

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
link together the corresponding files on the destination.  Without
this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as though
they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
links on the destination exactly matches that on the source.
Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
linking than what is present in the source file list), the
copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.  However,
if one or more of the paths have content differences, the
normal file-update process will break those extra links
(unless you are using the --inplace option).

o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
--link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
associations.

Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are
inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has extra
will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace option to
avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your files
are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended
changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace
option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files are
hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the data
for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been
found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked
set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable
incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

--perms, -p
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be
the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
existing permissions, though the --executability option
might change just the execute permission for the file.

o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
source file's permissions masked with the receiving
directory's default permissions (either the receiving
process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
destination directory's default ACL), and their special
permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.

Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's
behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as
cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and
includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
directories when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older
rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission
bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while
overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created
directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for
rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask
even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it is the
version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

--executability, -E
This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x' is
turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination file's
executability differs from that of the corresponding source file,
rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'
permissions.

o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

--acls, -A
This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the
same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not
compatible.

--xattrs, -X
This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
attributes to be the same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.
A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be able to
backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see the
--fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more
filter options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own
system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be
deleted.  For example, to skip the system namespace, you could
specify:

--filter='-x system.*'

To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could
specify a negated-user match:

--filter='-x! user.*'

To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify a
receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

--filter='-xr *'

Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr values
(e.g.  those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
(e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with
--fake-super.

--chmod=CHMOD
This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
"chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.  The
resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that
the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this
option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is
not enabled.

In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1)
manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a
directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that
should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.  For
example, the following will ensure that all directories get marked
set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are user-
writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting
permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.

--owner, -o
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file
to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiving rsync
is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-
super options).  Without this option, the owner of new and/or
transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving
side.

The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
discussion).

--group, -g
This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file
to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving program is
not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified),
only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side is a
member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is
set to the default group of the invoking user on the receiving
side.

The preservation of group information will associate matching
names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This option
has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the super-user

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
sockets and fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

--write-devices
This tells rsync to treat a device on the receiving side as a
regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

This option implies the --inplace option.

Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present
on the receiving side of the transfer, especially if running rsync
as root.

This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

--times, -t
This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have
not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing
-t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files
haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t).

--atimes, -U
This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination
files to the same value as the source files.

If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
access times on the transferred files without needing to run rsync
an extra time after a file is transferred.

Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have been
built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
--open-noatime when this option is repeated.

--open-noatime
This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems
that support it) to avoid changing the access time of the files
that are being transferred.  If your OS does not support the
O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.  Note
also that some filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime
on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set.

--crtimes, -N,
This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the
destination files to the same value as the source files.

--omit-dir-times, -O
This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of
directories in incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-
recursive copying normally does an early-create pass of all the
sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to be able
to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away
(without having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying
has finished).  This early-create idiom is not necessary if
directory modify times are not being preserved, so it is skipped.
Since early-create directories don't have accurate mode, mtime, or
ownership, the use of this option can help when someone wants to
avoid these partially-finished directories.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
modification times (see --times).

--super
This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the
--groups option, and copying devices via the --devices option.
This is useful for systems that allow such activities without
being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get
errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the super-user.
To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-
super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities
by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended
attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).  This
includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default),
the file's device info (device & special files are created as
empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to
be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for
safety) or that would limit the owner's access (since the real
super-user can always access/change a file, the files we create
can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended
attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and
to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is
used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use
the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just
for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you wish a
local copy to enable this option just for the source files,
combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

file.

--sparse, -S
Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space
on the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created
might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of
kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file is in
effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because
rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
combination of --sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting
filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
no positive effect at all.

If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
(as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel
version and filesystem type support creating holes in the
allocated data.

--dry-run, -n
This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes
(and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most
commonly used in combination with the --verbose, -v and/or
--itemize-changes, -i options to see what an rsync command is
going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same
on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file
transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes
received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are too
small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run where no
file transfers were needed.

--whole-file, -W
This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which
causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
destination are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-
writing option is in effect.

--checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
name is specified, it is used for both the transfer checksums and
(assuming --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer checksums.  If
two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name affects the
transfer checksums, and the second name affects the pre-transfer
checksums (-c).

The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

o      auto (the default automatic choice)

o      xxh128

o      xxh3

o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

o      md5

o      md4

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default checksum list compiled into
your version (which may differ from the list above).

If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name, the --whole-
file option is forced on and no checksum verification is performed
on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for the second
(or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

The "auto" option is the default, where rsync bases its algorithm
choice on a negotiation between the client and the server as
follows:

When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses
the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also
in the server's list of choices.  If no common checksum choice is
found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync is too old
to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on the
protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of
MD4 based on protocol age).

The default order can be customized by setting the environment
variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of
acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&"
character, it is separated into the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the string
(or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the
default checksum list is used.  This method does not allow you to
specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre-transfer
checksum, and it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names.
A list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment
list.

--one-file-system, -x
This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
the same device as being on the same filesystem.

If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes
of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-
point directory are inaccessible).

is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
extraneous files).

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
requests to be transferred.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the
destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or nothing

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
requests to be transferred.

This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
--link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that
got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore-
existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get
tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
(meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and have
been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

Note that you should only use this option on source files that are
quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up in a
particular directory over to another host, make sure that the
finished files get renamed into the source directory, not directly
written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer a file that
is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write the files into
a different directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets
rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet finished (e.g.
name the file "foo.new" when it is written, rename it to "foo"
when it is done, and then use the option --exclude='*.new' for the
rsync transfer).

Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and
output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not stayed
unchanged.

--delete
This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a
request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent
directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see
the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
--recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very
good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
see what files are going to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.  This
is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors)
on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on
the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-errors
option.

The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN
options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.  However,
if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will
choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0
or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an

--delete-before
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight
for space and removing extraneous files would help to make the
transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay before the
start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the transfer to
timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to use
the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync
to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
--recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See
--delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed
during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed after
the transfer completes.  This is useful when combined with
--delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient than using
--delete-after (but can behave differently, since --delete-after
computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are
done).  If the number of removed files overflows an internal
buffer, a temporary file will be created on the receiving side to
hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it
during the transfer).  If the creation of the temporary file
fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which
it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See
--delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase
of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old,
non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan
all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
--recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for more details on
file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any files
on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).  See the
FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions
behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files
from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more
details on file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option
suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file.
This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was
initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-
args option a step farther: each missing arg will become a
deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the
receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if
--force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list
entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only
output.

--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is
to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional unless
the --recursive option was also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.
If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped
through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync outputs a
warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and exits
with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
condition also occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as
"unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you
can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
string to indicate the numeric units or left unqualified to
specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along with the
units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
requests to be transferred.

The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
(mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a two-letter suffix that
ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples
of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-
case that you want to use.

Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset
by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest possible
value is usually 8192P-1.

Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1
is 2147483649 bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-
size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring small,
junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE
and other information.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-
size=0.

--max-alloc=SIZE
By default rsync limits an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB
in size.  For most people this limit works just fine and prevents
a protocol error causing rsync to request massive amounts of
memory.  However, if you have many millions of files in a
transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to
split up your transfer into multiple parts, you can increase the
per-allocation limit to something larger and rsync will consume
more memory.

Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of
allocated memory.  It is a sanity-check value for each individual
allocation.

See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

You can set a default value using the environment variable
RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by this
option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the --max-alloc
option, you can override an environmental value by specifying
--max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending the option to
the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

--block-size=SIZE, -B
This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
size of each file being updated.  See the technical report for
details.

Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as
detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted a
byte count.

--rsh=COMMAND, -e
This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
program to use for communication between the local and remote
copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection
to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section
"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.

Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
shell connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is
being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port that
was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port
value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if a
non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such as
an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to a default or
alternate port.

Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must use
spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and
args from each other, and you can use single- and/or double-quotes
to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).  Note
that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string gives
you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need to
pay attention to which quotes your shell is parsing and which
quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as
-e.

option.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-
path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the
help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command
sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the
remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

--remote-option=OPTION, -M
This option is used for more advanced situations where you want
certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-super
to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation to
the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that
will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data to
expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
cryptic fashion.

Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
option you want to pass.  This makes your usage compatible with
the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
take steps to protect them.

When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
and the "remote" side is the receiver.

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal
in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).
If this bug affects your version of popt, you can use the version
of popt that is included with rsync.

--cvs-exclude, -C
This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses a
similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
(these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state
.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
*.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln
core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. --filter=RULE, -f This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. --from0, -0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). --protect-args, -s This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$, ;, &, etc.).
Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the
shell doing it).

If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the
remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
character-set.  The translation happens before wild-cards are

You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
environment variable.  If this variable has a non-zero value, this
option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled
by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified
positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and
--no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since this option
was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is
older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
enabled by default (with is overridden by both the environment and
the command-line).  Run rsync --version to check if this is the
case, as it will display "default protect-args" or "optional
protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]
This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified
after a colon) the GROUP for the copy operations.  This only works
if the user that is running rsync has the ability to change users.
If the group is not specified then the user's default groups are
used.

This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as
root into or out of a directory that might have live changes
happening to it and you want to make sure that root-level read or
write actions of system files are not possible.  While you could
alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes
you need the root-level host-access credentials to be used, so
this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of the
operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection is
established.

The option only affects one side of the transfer unless the
transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
--remote-option to affect the remote side, such as -M--copy-
as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support file
provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a
"localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing to
setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify remote options
that affect the side of the transfer that is using the host-spec
(and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote
directory to the user's home dir).

For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user
"joe":

sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
those that are available to that user, and makes it impossible for
the joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a change
to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change.

The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir as
user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on
your $PATH): sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/ --temp-dir=DIR, -T This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated destination file. Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added). This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer. In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time. If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial- dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.) --fuzzy, -y This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer. If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination directories that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest. Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this. --compare-dest=DIR This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory). If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup. This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory. Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --copy-dest and --link-dest. NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy). --copy-dest=DIR This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy. This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred. Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --link-dest. --link-dest=DIR This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory. The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together. An example: rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user,
or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's
"Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such
directories).  If a match is found that differs only in
attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a
match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
selected to try to speed up the transfer.

This option works best when copying into an empty destination
hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and
that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.  Also,
itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.  Note that prior to
version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be
found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file

Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as
an additional check after the file is updated.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination

Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

--compress, -z
With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to
the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being
transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose one
for you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice
(--zc) option.

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into

When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses
the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also
in the server's list of choices.  If no common compress choice is
found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync is too old
to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be "zlib".

The default order can be customized by setting the environment
variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-separated list of
acceptable compression names.  If the string contains a "&"
character, it is separated into the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the string
(or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the
default compress list is used.  Any unknown compression names are
discarded from the list, but a list with only invalid names
results in a failed negotiation.

There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject
a -z option and require the use of -zz because their compression
library was not compatible with the default zlib compression
method.  You can usually ignore this weirdness unless the rsync
server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

suffixes that will be transferred with no (or minimal)
compression.

--compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of
the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress is used.
The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which

The compression options that you may be able to use are:

o      zstd

o      lz4

o      zlibx

o      zlib

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into
your version (which may differ from the list above).

Note that if you see an error about an option named --old-compress
or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --compress-
choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in a backward-
compatible manner that more rsync versions understand.  This error
indicates that the older rsync version on the server will not
allow you to force the compression type.

Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib"
algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream
(to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib
implementation).

--compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for
the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compression
treats level 0 as "off").

The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect.
Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when
the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine this
option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
of the choice in effect.  For example:

rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9 with
6 being the default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off, and
specifying -1 chooses the default of 6.

For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to 22 with
3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0.

If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is
silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end up
with the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was
chosen.

If you want to know the compression level that is in effect,
specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated string" results.  This
will report something like "Client compress: zstd (level 3)"
(along with the checksum choice in effect).

--skip-compress=LIST
Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed as
little as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a per-
file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression
algorithm has an "off" level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no
compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms that support
changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level
minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a
matching file.  At this time, only zlib & zlibx compression
support this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
separated by slashes (/).  You may specify an empty string to
indicate that no files should be skipped.

Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of
a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no
special meaning).

The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special
meaning.

Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

--skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this
version of rsync are:

3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz
iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a
m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg mpv
mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx opus
otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx squashfs
sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war
webm webp xz z zip zst

This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but
one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped
suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be
configured to a different default).

--numeric-ids
With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both
ends.

By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
what ownership to give files.  The special uid 0 and the special
group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the
--numeric-ids option is not specified.

If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
"use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on
how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be
mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING is one
or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any matching
FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the
receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and
TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string,
which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do
NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*'
matches everything).  You may instead specify a range of ID
numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option,
and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not
transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these
values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side
(typically "root").  All other FROM names match those in use on
the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
receiving side.

Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as
having an empty name for the purpose of matching.  This allows
them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For
instance:

--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name.
This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be
the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option
must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have
permissions to set that group.

(-s).

--chown=USER:GROUP
This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP.
This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap
directly, but it is implemented using those options internally, so
you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no
mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP is empty,
the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading
colon must be supplied.

If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same as
specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.  If

--timeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

--contimeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting
to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you to specify a
option in the --daemon mode section.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the
default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the double-
colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL).  See
also this option in the --daemon mode section.

--sockopts=OPTIONS
This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).  Read
the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some
of the options you may be able to set.  By default no special
socket options are set.  This only affects direct socket
connections to a remote rsync daemon.

This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell
transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync
defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using
non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as little
as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case.

The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

--itemize-changes, -i
Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made
to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly the
same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the
option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
other verbose messages).

The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The
general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced
by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type,
and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if
they are being modified.

The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
host (sent).

o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local

o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the
item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing

o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item

o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
might have attributes that are being modified).

o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area
contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

The other letters in the string indicate if some attributes of the
file have changed, as follows:

o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

o      "+" - the file is newly created.

o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to
spaces).

o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old).

o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

o      A c means either that a regular file has a different
checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
or special file has a changed value.  Note that if you are
sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag
will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will
be updated by the file transfer.

o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
updated to the sender's value (requires --times).  An
alternate value of T means that the modification time will
be set to the transfer time, which happens when a
file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
(Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the
s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for
this time-setting failure.)

o      A p means the permissions are different and are being
updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user
privileges).

o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to
the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
set the group).

o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the
access (use) time is different and is being updated to the
sender's value (requires --atimes); n means the create time
(newness) is different and is being updated to the sender's
value (requires --crtimes); b means that both the access
and create times are being updated.

o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

o      The x means that the extended attribute information is
being changed.

One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed
(assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it
logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message).

--out-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L" is
assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option,
which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a
significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device,
or a touched directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes
escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-
changes option was used), the logging of names increases to
mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the
receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes
option for a description of the output of "%i".

Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer
unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in
which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer.
When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also
specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being
transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of
course, by the out-format output).

--log-file=FILE
This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This
is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested
for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer logging will
be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See the --log-
file-format option if you wish to override this.

Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what
is happening:

rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put
into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also
be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you specify
an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log
file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the
"log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option
is not is '%i %n%L'.

--stats
This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file
transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent to
--info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3
if combined with 2 or more -v options.

The current statistics are as follows:

o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic
sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.  The
total count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example: "(reg:
5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals
for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and
special files.  If any of value is 0, it is completely
omitted from the list.

o      Number of created files is the count of how many "files"
(generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
total count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).

o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
(generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
total count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if
protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal
files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc.
Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
transfer.  This does not count any size for directories or
special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
sizes for just the transferred files.

o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had
to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated
files.

o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when
recreating the updated files.

o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of
duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that the
sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
sent from the client side to the server side.

o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes
that rsync received by the client side from the server
side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the
bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us,
which makes the stats more consistent.

--8-bit-output, -8
This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the
output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in
the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All control
characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this
option's setting.

The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.
For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3
possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the
decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output
numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger
units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
the level by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable
(--no-h) option.

The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
(kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example, a
1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that
a period is your local decimal point).

Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable
manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify a
--no-h option prior to one or more -h options.  See the --list-
only option for one difference.

--partial
By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it is more
desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the
--partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to
specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (instead
of writing it out to the destination file).  On the next transfer,
rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the
resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served
its purpose.

Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-
dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will
simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using
rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
(such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the
partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed,
and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.  Note
that the directory is only removed if it is a relative pathname,
as it is expected that an absolute path is to a directory that is
reserved for partial-dir work.

If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the above
--partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-
partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1)
the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other
rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.
For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over
partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify
--delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R .rsync-
partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless
you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data
during the current run.)

IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users
or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial
files go when --partial is specified.  For instance, instead of
using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could
set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just
use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for
partial transfers.  The only times that the --partial option does
not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was
specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2)
when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-
dir, that partial file is now updated in-place instead of creating
yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest + tmp instead
of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both ends of the transfer
to be at least version 3.2.0.

For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
--partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal
of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of
destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing
the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a
holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all
the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
--partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.  See
the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how
this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you
can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be
lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full
file list in memory in order to be able to iterate over it at the
end.

This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the
receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to
--partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in
the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files
will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and
(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed
updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).

for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-
dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

--prune-empty-dirs, -m
This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
directories from the file-list, including nested directories that
have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync
is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
include/exclude/filter rules.

Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size
option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
directory match the transfer rule.

Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can
prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the
perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the
file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance, this
option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the
file-list:

--filter 'protect emptydir/'

Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only
creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf
files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in
the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-
directories being used instead of an exclude):

rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to
you).

--progress
This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress
of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something to watch.
With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
--info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for
those info flags takes precedence (e.g.
"--info=flist0 --progress").

While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress
line that looks like this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4
seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the
literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched
part of the file.

When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line
with a summary line that looks like this:

1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the
5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session,
and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if
they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files
in the file-list.

In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total
number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the
scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it
will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows
the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
"to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total
count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and
each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase
by the number of the files added to the list).

-P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose
is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
transfer that may be interrupted.

There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify
--info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without
scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to
specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a
signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIGINFO
is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently support a
SIGINFO signal).  When the client-side process receives one of
those signals, it sets a flag to output a single progress report
which is output when the current file transfer finishes (so it may
take a little time if a big file is being handled when the signal
arrives).  A filename is output (if needed) followed by the
--info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you don't know which
of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal
all of them (since the non-client processes ignore the signal).

CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill
it.

This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an
rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
file should contain just the password on the first line (all other
lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is
world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-
owned file.

This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport
such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's
documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote
shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after
the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have
also specified a password in the daemon's config file).

--early-input=FILE
This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early
exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data is to
give the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted
filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"
script).

The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

--list-only
This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single source
arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to
turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-
listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source
arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Caution: keep in
mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell
into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
without using this option. For example:

rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
affected by the --human-readable option.  By default they will
contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just digits
in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from
an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an
error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is because a
file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older
rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this problem, either
specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a
directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content
of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second.  The
RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m").
If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See
the --max-size option for a description of all the available
suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies no limit.

For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded
to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per
second is possible.

Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both
limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep
the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some burstiness
may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps
to bring the average rate into compliance.

Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent.
This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when
the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow
when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed
in a future version.

--stop-after=MINS
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified number
of minutes has elapsed.

Rsync also accepts an earlier version of this option: --time-
limit=MINS.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to
the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the
connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use even
when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can tell
the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
should the need arise.

--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point
in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified
in a numeric format of year-month-dayThour:minute (e.g.
2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose to
separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In
all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point
in time where the supplied information matches.  If the value
specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an
error.

For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight
local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies the
next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next month
where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the next
59th minute after the hour.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to
the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the
connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use even
when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can tell
the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
should the need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote host may
have a different default timezone than your local host.

--write-batch=FILE
Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists and
always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib
choices.  If you want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-
choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

--only-write-batch=FILE
destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
transport the changes to the destination system via some other
means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of
the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination
system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted
from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over
the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and
thus can't write the batch).

Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
details.

--protocol=NUM
Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of
rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
--write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run
the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be
used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this
option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
remote charset separated by a comma in the order
--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing
or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a
CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default
setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected
via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
supports, you can run "iconv --list".

If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will
translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are

Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter
files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on
both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two
sides that need to be accounted for.

When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it,
the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"
configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you
actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local
charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has direct control over,
such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync
daemon, as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh
when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used as the remote shell.
For other remote shells you'll need to specify the
"--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever ipv4/ipv6 hint
options it uses).

These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option
will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will contain
"no IPv6" if is the case.

--checksum-seed=NUM
Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
(the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed).  By default
the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the
current time().  This option is used to set a specific checksum
seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block
checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random
checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default
of time() for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the
host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read the
config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and
respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page
for more details.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows you
to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  This
makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config
manpage.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
extra details.

--config=FILE
This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This is
only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
/etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell
program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically
$HOME). --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance: rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid --no-detach When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller. --no-detach is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --log-file=FILE This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file. --log-file-format=FORMAT This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off. --sockopts This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax. --verbose, -v This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section. --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon). These options also exist in the regular rsync options section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --help, -h When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon. FILTER RULES The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file). As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped. Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command- line. Filter rules have the following syntax: RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_). Here are the available rule prefixes: exclude, '-' specifies an exclude pattern. include, '+' specifies an include pattern. merge, '.' specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. dir-merge, ':' specifies a per-directory merge-file. hide, 'H' specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. show, 'S' files that match the pattern are not hidden. protect, 'P' specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. risk, 'R' files that match the pattern are not protected. clear, '!' clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#". Note that the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file). If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule. Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options. INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns can take several forms: o if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions. Thus /foo would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule). An unqualified foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. o if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device. o rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' . o a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes. o use '**' to match anything, including slashes. o a '?' matches any character except a slash (/). o a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]]. o in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present. This means that there is an extra level of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters compared to a pattern that has none. e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". o if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on down.) o a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in version 2.6.7. Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance for exclusion before its content. In this way include/exclude patterns are applied recursively to the pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the transfer). The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage as rsync finds the files to send. For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded. Excluding one of those parent directories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off rsync's recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it never sees in the cut- off section of the directory hierarchy). The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule. For instance, this won't work: + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found + /file-is-included - * This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option. Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules works fine: + /some/ + /some/path/ + /some/path/this-file-is-found + /file-also-included - * Here are some examples of exclude/include matching: o "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o o "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo o "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory o The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option) o The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*") The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-": o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modifier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination. o An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching file/dir names). If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option). MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per- directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS- compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir- merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file. Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per- directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o - foo* This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per- directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would add the dir- merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For example: cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b + foo.o :C - *.old EOT rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of$HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C". LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules). ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files). PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete- after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules' --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest BATCH MODE Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees. Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually. To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples:$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$scp foo* remote:$ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
"foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the two examples
reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right
rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote
host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine
first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to
use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit the script
file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no other
option is trying to use standard input, such as the "--exclude-
from=-" option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to
be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the batch
update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees is
encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.
This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the
command got interrupted.  If you wish to force the batched-update to
always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the -I
option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
tree will probably be in a partially updated state.  In that case, rsync
can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the
protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to have the creating
rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.  (Note
that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as
the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be changed.
For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch, --files-from is
dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are not needed
unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any
filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
"here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use this
to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell
script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the
batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
version uses a new implementation.

Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link
in the source directory.

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target
on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-
unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to
to have any effect.)

with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".."  components to ascend from
the directory being copied.

Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is
in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't
mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

other options to affect).

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

DIAGNOSTICS
rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
cryptic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for
its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote
shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat
should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error from
rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
(such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-

If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying
the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show why each
individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate
64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an option
was specified that is supported by the client and not by the
server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore patterns
in .cvsignore files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for more
details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable.
(First supported in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure that
it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon.
You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user
intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to a
remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is set,

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
.cvsignore file.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.
See the comments on the --modify-window option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical
values

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.

VERSION
This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example
script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a

CREDITS
COPYING for details.

A web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.  Please
contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-

THANKS
Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies
if I have.

AUTHOR
rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many
people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by Wayne
Davison.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at
https://lists.samba.org/.

rsync 3.2.3                        07 Aug 2020                          rsync(1)