rsync(1)                          User Commands                         rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

           rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It can
       copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
       remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options that control
       every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of
       the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
       algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by
       sending only the differences between the source files and the existing
       files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring
       and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
       in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
       requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
       quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using
       a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell transport
       is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single colon
       (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double
       colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL
       is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-
       SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
       server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always a
       server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned

       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
       a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for
       its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different
       remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source and
       a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update protocol
       is used to update the file by sending only the differences in the data.
       Note that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c) into a
       list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by
       rsync itself (exactly the same as all other Posix-style programs).

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
       size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
       additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the containing
       directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the following
       commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the
       attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash
       to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both of
       these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first, or
       with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

           rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

           rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
       not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For

           rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
       In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO
       ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of
              accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
              the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so, you
       will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to the
       password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This may
       be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.
       On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
       setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
       wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The string
       may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the
       rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string).  For

           export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
           rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
           rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that
       program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell
       access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and
       then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if
       you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon
       is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able to use
       features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon. (For
       another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
       local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on
       that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-
       daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value
       (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This means that
       you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-
       shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the --rsh

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
       daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling
       incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how
       to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the files are transferred in a different order than
       what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either
       separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-
       updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer order, but does make
       the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files
       and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile

               rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
               rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection.  I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the

           rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a            archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
       --no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r          recurse into directories
       --relative, -R           use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
       --backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u             skip files that are newer on the receiver
       --inplace                update destination files in-place
       --append                 append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
       --mkpath                 create the destination's path component
       --links, -l              copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L         transform symlink into referent file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links      only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links             ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
       --munge-links            munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks, -k      transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks, -K      treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       --hard-links, -H         preserve hard links
       --perms, -p              preserve permissions
       --executability, -E      preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
       --owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group, -g              preserve group
       --devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
       --specials               preserve special files
       -D                       same as --devices --specials
       --times, -t              preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
       --open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J    omit symlinks from --times
       --super                  receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
       --preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
       --write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing               skip creating new files on receiver
       --ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del                    an alias for --delete-during
       --delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
       --delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
       --delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
       --delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
       --ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
       --max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
       --partial                keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING         custom username mapping
       --groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP       simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only              skip files that match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR          hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       --protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS        bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats                  give some file-transfer stats
       --8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h     output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress               show progress during transfer
       -P                       same as --partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
       --password-file=FILE     read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only              list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE        read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

       --daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
       --address=ADDRESS        bind to the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
       --no-detach              do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
       --log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long variant, not a short.
       If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after the
       long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When
       specifying a parameter, you can either use the form --option=param or
       replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may need to be quoted in
       some manner for it to survive the shell's command-line parsing.  Keep in
       mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your shell,
       so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into your home directory
       (remove the '=' for that).

       --help, -h (*)
              Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync
              and exit.  (*) The -h short option will only invoke --help when
              used without other options since it normally means --human-

       --version, -V
              Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

              The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
              default list of compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in
              capabilities, a link to the rsync web site, and some
              license/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A single
              -v will give you information about what files are being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
              give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly
              more information at the end.  More than two -v options should only
              be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to use these
              newer options in addition to, or in place of using --verbose, as
              any fine-grained settings override the implied settings of -v.
              Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
              exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
              will limit how high of a level the various individual flags can be
              set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then any
              info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher value than what
              would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
              daemon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
              information output you want to see.  An individual flag name may
              be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
              output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
              increasing the output of that flag (for those that support higher
              levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag names,
              what they output, and what flag names are added for each increase
              in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format and
              --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or
              more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was too
              old to understand them).  See also the "max verbosity" caveat
              above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being
              the default output level, and higher numbers increasing the output
              of that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
              --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note that some debug messages will only be output when
              --stderr=all is specified, especially those pertaining to I/O and
              buffer debugging.

              Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to the
              server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
              values for each side of the transfer, as well as to specify a new
              debug option that is only present in one of the rsync versions.
              If you want to duplicate the same option on both sides, using
              brace expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This
              works in zsh and bash:

                  rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

              This option controls which processes output to stderr and if info
              messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings can be
              abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The 3
              possible choices are:

              o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes to
                     send an error directly to stderr, even if the process is on
                     the remote side of the transfer.  Info messages are sent to
                     the client side via the protocol stream.  If stderr is not
                     available (i.e. when directly connecting with a daemon via
                     a socket) errors fall back to being sent via the protocol

              o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get
                     written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
                     This causes stderr to become line-buffered (instead of raw)
                     and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and error
                     messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging or
                     using several levels of verbosity, this option can help to
                     avoid clogging up the transfer stream (which should prevent
                     any chance of a deadlock bug hanging things up).  It also
                     enables the outputting of some I/O related debug messages.

              o      client - causes all rsync messages to be sent to the client
                     side via the protocol stream.  One client process outputs
                     all messages, with errors on stderr and info messages on
                     stdout.  This was the default in older rsync versions, but
                     can cause error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead
                     of the messages.  If you're pushing files to an older
                     rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all since that idiom
                     has been around for several releases.

              This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began the
              forwarding of a non-default setting to the remote side, though
              rsync uses the backward-compatible options --msgs2stderr and --no-
              msgs2stderr to represent the all and client settings,
              respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
              option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet, -q
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from
              the remote server.  This option is useful when invoking rsync from

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
              that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size
              and have the same modification timestamp.  This option turns off
              this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be updated.

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified time to just looking for files that have changed in size.
              This is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
              mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.  If
              you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least version
              3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
              Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT
              filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second
              resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up to 1

              If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
              nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in

                  rsync alias -a -a@-1
                  rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-window=0
              (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're
              copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving rsync is older
              than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a
              "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
              file that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data
              in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things down
              significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be done
              to transfer changed files)

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.  The
              receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for changed
              files, and will checksum any file that has the same size as the
              corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed size or a
              changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-
              file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but
              that automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do
              with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be
              updated?" check.

              The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the
              server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
              (--cc) option or an environment variable that is discussed in that
              option's section.

       --archive, -a
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r is
              not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify

              You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g. --no-
              D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances
              (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may
              specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-"
              prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
              the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
              incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins
              the transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have
              been completed.  This incremental scan only affects our recursion
              algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It is
              also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least
              version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-
              updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode when you
              specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the
              connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
              request this improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also the
              --delete-delay option that is a better choice than using --delete-

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive
              option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       --relative, -R
              Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names specified
              on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the
              last parts of the filenames.  This is particularly useful when you
              want to send several different directories at the same time.  For
              example, if you used this command:

                  rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine.
              If instead you used

                  rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
              elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the symlink
              via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If you're
              dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may need to
              use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With a
              modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can
              insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                  rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that
              the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be
              abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use a
              chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing files:

                  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
              commands.) If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                       remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the --relative option.
              When it is specified, the attributes of the implied directories
              from the source names are not included in the transfer.  This
              means that the corresponding path elements on the destination
              system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied
              directories are created with default attributes.  This even allows
              these implied path elements to have big differences, such as being
              a symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path"
              and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If "path/foo"
              is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the receiving
              rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a
              directory, and receive the file into the new directory.  With
              --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file"
              using the existing path elements, which means that the file ends
              up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this
              link preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will
              also affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to
              use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you
              request and you wish the implied directories to be transferred as
              normal directories.

       --backup, -b
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
              --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-
              times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is also in
              effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
              filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing
              excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up
              files from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own
              filter rules, you may need to manually insert your own
              exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it
              has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules
              specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added rule
              would never be reached).

              This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
              backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.  This
              can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally specify
              a backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the files
              backed up in the specified directory will keep their original

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
              want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with
              "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot
              go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to
              delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used
              with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~ if no
              --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       --update, -u
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination
              and have a modified time that is newer than the source file. (If
              an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
              source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
              other special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
              the sender and receiver is always considered to be important
              enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
              other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
              has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
              requests to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs
              to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a new
              copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete,
              rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the destination

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be
                     visible through other hard links to the destination file.
                     Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a
                     multiply-linked destination file will result in a "tug of
                     war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the
                     transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While
                     a super user can update any file, a normal user needs to be
                     granted write permission for the open of the file for
                     writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwritten
                     before it can be copied to a position later in the file.
                     This does not apply if you use --backup, since rsync is
                     smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for
                     the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this
              for a copy.

              This option is useful for transferring large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are disk
              bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-write
              filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents of a file
              that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This special copy mode only works to efficiently update files that
              are known to be growing larger where any existing content on the
              receiving side is also known to be the same as the content on the
              sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you aren't 100%
              sure that all the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.
              You should thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out any
              files that do not fit this criteria.

              Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying any of
              the existing content in the file (it only verifies the content
              that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on the
              receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file on
              the sending side (which means that new files are trasnferred).

              This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content
              attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does
              not need to be transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any
              directories or non-regular files.

              This special copy mode works like --append except that all the
              data in the file is included in the checksum verification (making
              it much less efficient but also potentially safer).  This option
              can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all the files in the
              transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append option for
              more details.

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or
              the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either
              append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
              Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories
              it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).
              If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
              --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in the
              listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn this

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*'
              to get an older rsync to list a single directory without

              Create a missing path component of the destination arg.  This
              allows rsync to create multiple levels of missing destination dirs
              and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.  Keep
              in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if you want
              the entire destination path to be treated as a directory when
              copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that it
              would if the path component of the destination had already

              For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar in
              the sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if either
              do not yet exist:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

              If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
              in the sub/dir/bar directory:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links, -l
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the

       --copy-links, -L
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
              specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
              exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point
              outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like
              ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself
              when --relative is used.  This option has no additional effect if
              --copy-links was also specified.

              Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
              the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose
              output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
              directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
              transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative
              symlinks to refer to other names inside the /src and /dest
              directories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a trailing
              slash) to "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks to any
              files outside of "subdir".

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside
              the copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Using
              this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
              quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a symlink
              to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
              option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you
              need it to affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.
              (Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures
              whether it wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks"
              parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks" perl script in the
              support directory of the source code.

       --copy-dirlinks, -k
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they
              would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory
              with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete
              anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a
              directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a
              trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up right.
              For example:

                  rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       --keep-dirlinks, -K
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains
              a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the
              receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink
              "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives the file into the
              new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps the
              symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted
              user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could
              then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real
              directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink
              references.  For backup copies, you are better off using something
              like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       --hard-links, -H
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  Without
              this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as though
              they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches that on the source.
              Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                     linking than what is present in the source file list), the
                     copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.  However,
                     if one or more of the paths have content differences, the
                     normal file-update process will break those extra links
                     (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links, the linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are
              inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has extra
              hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage
              will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace option to
              avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your files
              are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended
              changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace
              option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files are
              hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the data
              for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been
              found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked
              set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable
              incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       --perms, -p
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be
              the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source file's permissions masked with the receiving
                     directory's default permissions (either the receiving
                     process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's
              behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as
              cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
              destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and
              includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

                  rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                  rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
              enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
              directories when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older
              rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission
              bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while
              overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created
              directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for
              rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask
              even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it is the
              version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

       --executability, -E
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
              executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x' is
              turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination file's
              executability differs from that of the corresponding source file,
              rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
                     permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the
              same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not

       --xattrs, -X
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.
              A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be able to
              backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see the
              --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more
              filter options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
              affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own
              system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
              what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be
              deleted.  For example, to skip the system namespace, you could

                  --filter='-x system.*'

              To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could
              specify a negated-user match:

                  --filter='-x! user.*'

              To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify a
              receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

                  --filter='-xr *'

              Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr values
              (e.g.  those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
              (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.  The
              resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that
              the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this
              option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is
              not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1)
              manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a
              directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that
              should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.  For
              example, the following will ensure that all directories get marked
              set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are user-
              writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
              executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting
              permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       --owner, -o
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file
              to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiving rsync
              is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-
              super options).  Without this option, the owner of new and/or
              transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

       --group, -g
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file
              to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving program is
              not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified),
              only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side is a
              member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is
              set to the default group of the invoking user on the receiving

              The preservation of group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This option
              has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the super-user
              (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

              This tells rsync to treat a device on the receiving side as a
              regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

              This option implies the --inplace option.

              Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present
              on the receiving side of the transfer, especially if running rsync
              as root.

              This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

       --times, -t
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have
              not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing
              -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
              causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files
              haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t).

       --atimes, -U
              This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination
              files to the same value as the source files.

              If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
              help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
              access times on the transferred files without needing to run rsync
              an extra time after a file is transferred.

              Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have been
              built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
              --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

              This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems
              that support it) to avoid changing the access time of the files
              that are being transferred.  If your OS does not support the
              O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.  Note
              also that some filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime
              on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set.

       --crtimes, -N,
              This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the
              destination files to the same value as the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
              This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of
              directories in incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-
              recursive copying normally does an early-create pass of all the
              sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to be able
              to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away
              (without having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying
              has finished).  This early-create idiom is not necessary if
              directory modify times are not being preserved, so it is skipped.
              Since early-create directories don't have accurate mode, mtime, or
              ownership, the use of this option can help when someone wants to
              avoid these partially-finished directories.

       --omit-link-times, -J
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the
              --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices option.
              This is useful for systems that allow such activities without
              being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get
              errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the super-user.
              To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities
              by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended
              attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).  This
              includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default),
              the file's device info (device & special files are created as
              empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to
              be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for
              safety) or that would limit the owner's access (since the real
              super-user can always access/change a file, the files we create
              can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
              also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended
              attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and
              to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is
              used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use
              the --remote-option (-M) option:

                  rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just
              for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you wish a
              local copy to enable this option just for the source files,
              combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space
              on the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created
              might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of
              kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file is in
              effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because
              rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

              Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
              combination of --sparse and --inplace.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
              use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

              If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
              (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel
              version and filesystem type support creating holes in the
              allocated data.

       --dry-run, -n
              This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes
              (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most
              commonly used in combination with the --verbose, -v and/or
              --itemize-changes, -i options to see what an rsync command is
              going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same
              on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
              Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file
              transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes
              received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are too
              small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run where no
              file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
              This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which
              causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
              be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
              destination are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-
              writing option is in effect.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
              This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
              name is specified, it is used for both the transfer checksums and
              (assuming --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer checksums.  If
              two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name affects the
              transfer checksums, and the second name affects the pre-transfer
              checksums (-c).

              The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

              o      auto (the default automatic choice)

              o      xxh128

              o      xxh3

              o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

              o      md5

              o      md4

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default checksum list compiled into
              your version (which may differ from the list above).

              If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name, the --whole-
              file option is forced on and no checksum verification is performed
              on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for the second
              (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

              The "auto" option is the default, where rsync bases its algorithm
              choice on a negotiation between the client and the server as

              When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses
              the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also
              in the server's list of choices.  If no common checksum choice is
              found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync is too old
              to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on the
              protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of
              MD4 based on protocol age).

              The default order can be customized by setting the environment
              variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of
              acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&"
              character, it is separated into the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the string
              (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the
              default checksum list is used.  This method does not allow you to
              specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre-transfer
              checksum, and it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names.
              A list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment

       --one-file-system, -x
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
              directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
              directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes
              of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-
              point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
              requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the
              destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or nothing
              would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
              requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
              --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
              directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore-
              existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and have
              been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source files that are
              quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up in a
              particular directory over to another host, make sure that the
              finished files get renamed into the source directory, not directly
              written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer a file that
              is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write the files into
              a different directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets
              rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet finished (e.g.
              name the file "" when it is written, rename it to "foo"
              when it is done, and then use the option --exclude='*.new' for the
              rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and
              output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not stayed

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
              the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a
              request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see
              the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very
              good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.  This
              is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors)
              on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on
              the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-errors

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN
              options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.  However,
              if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will
              choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0
              or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an
              older rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight
              for space and removing extraneous files would help to make the
              transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay before the
              start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the transfer to
              timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to use
              the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync
              to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
              updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See
              --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed
              during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed after
              the transfer completes.  This is useful when combined with
              --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient than using
              --delete-after (but can behave differently, since --delete-after
              computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are
              done).  If the number of removed files overflows an internal
              buffer, a temporary file will be created on the receiving side to
              hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it
              during the transfer).  If the creation of the temporary file
              fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which
              it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See
              --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase
              of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old,
              non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan
              all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
              --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any files
              on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).  See the
              FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions
              behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files
              from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
              files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option
              suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was
              initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-
              args option a step farther: each missing arg will become a
              deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the
              receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
              non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if
              --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
              is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list
              entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is
              to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional unless
              the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.
              If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped
              through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync outputs a
              warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and exits
              with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
              warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as
              "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you
              can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
              way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate the numeric units or left unqualified to
              specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along with the
              units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
              requests to be transferred.

              The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
              (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
              single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
              units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a two-letter suffix that
              ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples
              of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-
              case that you want to use.

              Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest possible
              value is usually 8192P-1.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1
              is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring small,
              junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE
              and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-

              By default rsync limits an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB
              in size.  For most people this limit works just fine and prevents
              a protocol error causing rsync to request massive amounts of
              memory.  However, if you have many millions of files in a
              transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to
              split up your transfer into multiple parts, you can increase the
              per-allocation limit to something larger and rsync will consume
              more memory.

              Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of
              allocated memory.  It is a sanity-check value for each individual

              See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
              specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

              Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

              You can set a default value using the environment variable
              RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by this
              option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the --max-alloc
              option, you can override an environmental value by specifying
              --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending the option to
              the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
              size of each file being updated.  See the technical report for

              Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as
              detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted a
              byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
              shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection
              to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section

              Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
              will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
              shell connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is
              being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port that
              was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port
              value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if a
              non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such as
              an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to a default or
              alternate port.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must use
              spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and
              args from each other, and you can use single- and/or double-quotes
              to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).  Note
              that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string gives
              you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need to
              pay attention to which quotes your shell is parsing and which
              quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-
              path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the
              help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command
              sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
              standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the
              remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you want
              certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
              For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-super
              to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation to
              the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that
              will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data to
              expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
              option you want to pass.  This makes your usage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal
              in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).
              If this bug affects your version of popt, you can use the version
              of popt that is included with rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses a
              similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state
                  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
                  *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln
                  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and
              any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line.
              This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified
              explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get
              inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a
              command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and
              --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C"
              and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).  The
              first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the
              .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time import of the
              CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain
              files from the list of files to be transferred.  This is most
              useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text below also
              mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that
              separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your
              command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules
              to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a
              shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these
              options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a
              FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank lines
              in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If
              FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a
              FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).  Blank lines
              in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If
              FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to
              transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the
                     path information that is specified for each item in the
                     file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create
                     directories specified in the list on the destination rather
                     than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you
                     want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on the command-line
                     has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a
                     works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R
                     and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
              source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                  rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that
              dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind
              that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since
              it is not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of the
              (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the
              path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the
              duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                  rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
              rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path
              elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the input
              is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up
              being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually
              unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       --from0, -0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are
              terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
              This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any
              merged files specified in a --filter rule.  It does not affect
              --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are
              split on whitespace).

       --protect-args, -s
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
              special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.).
              Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the
              shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.  The translation happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If this variable has a non-zero value, this
              option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled
              by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified
              positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and
              --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since this option
              was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
              disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is
              older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled by default (with is overridden by both the environment and
              the command-line).  Run rsync --version to check if this is the
              case, as it will display "default protect-args" or "optional
              protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

              This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
              as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

              This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified
              after a colon) the GROUP for the copy operations.  This only works
              if the user that is running rsync has the ability to change users.
              If the group is not specified then the user's default groups are

              This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as
              root into or out of a directory that might have live changes
              happening to it and you want to make sure that root-level read or
              write actions of system files are not possible.  While you could
              alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes
              you need the root-level host-access credentials to be used, so
              this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of the
              operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection is

              The option only affects one side of the transfer unless the
              transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
              --remote-option to affect the remote side, such as -M--copy-
              as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or support file
              provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a
              "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing to
              setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify remote options
              that affect the side of the transfer that is using the host-spec
              (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote
              directory to the user's home dir).

              For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user

                  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

              This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
              those that are available to that user, and makes it impossible for
              the joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a change
              to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change.

              The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir as
              user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on
              your $PATH):

                  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when
              creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each temporary
              file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
              Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the
              specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they
              will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file
              in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is
              on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename
              each received temporary file over the top of the associated
              destination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does
              this by copying the file over the top of the destination file,
              which means that the destination file will contain truncated data
              during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even if the
              destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a
              temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into
              place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up
              disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be
              enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of
              disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates
              option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into
              subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of
              the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the
              arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell
              rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use
              the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells
              rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a
              subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-
              dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then
              rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with
              an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       --fuzzy, -y
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm looks
              in the same directory as the destination file for either a file
              that has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named
              file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed
              up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any
              matching alternate destination directories that are specified via
              --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine
              as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against
              doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
              directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the
              sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
              directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just
              files that have changed from an earlier backup.  This option is
              typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from
              a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in
              one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more
              closely match a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy
              unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a
              local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a
              flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause
              rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged
              file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs
              will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard
              linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files must be
              identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly
              ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.  An

                  rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
              check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user,
              or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's
              "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such
              directories).  If a match is found that differs only in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a
              match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
              selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This option works best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and
              that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.  Also,
              itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.  Note that prior to
              version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be
              found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file
              already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as
              an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       --compress, -z
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to
              the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being
              transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

              Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose one
              for you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice
              (--zc) option.

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into
              your version.

              When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses
              the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also
              in the server's list of choices.  If no common compress choice is
              found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync is too old
              to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be "zlib".

              The default order can be customized by setting the environment
              variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-separated list of
              acceptable compression names.  If the string contains a "&"
              character, it is separated into the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the string
              (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the
              default compress list is used.  Any unknown compression names are
              discarded from the list, but a list with only invalid names
              results in a failed negotiation.

              There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject
              a -z option and require the use of -zz because their compression
              library was not compatible with the default zlib compression
              method.  You can usually ignore this weirdness unless the rsync
              server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

              See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of file
              suffixes that will be transferred with no (or minimal)

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
              This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of
              the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress is used.
              The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
              instead implies --no-compress.

              The compression options that you may be able to use are:

              o      zstd

              o      lz4

              o      zlibx

              o      zlib

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into
              your version (which may differ from the list above).

              Note that if you see an error about an option named --old-compress
              or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --compress-
              choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in a backward-
              compatible manner that more rsync versions understand.  This error
              indicates that the older rsync version on the server will not
              allow you to force the compression type.

              Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib"
              algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream
              (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
              instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
              as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for
              the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compression
              treats level 0 as "off").

              The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect.
              Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when
              the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine this
              option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
              of the choice in effect.  For example:

                  rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

              For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9 with
              6 being the default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off, and
              specifying -1 chooses the default of 6.

              For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to 22 with
              3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

              For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0.

              If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is
              silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
              something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end up
              with the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was

              If you want to know the compression level that is in effect,
              specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated string" results.  This
              will report something like "Client compress: zstd (level 3)"
              (along with the checksum choice in effect).

              Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed as
              little as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a per-
              file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression
              algorithm has an "off" level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no
              compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms that support
              changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level
              minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a
              matching file.  At this time, only zlib & zlibx compression
              support this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).  You may specify an empty string to
              indicate that no files should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of
              a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no
              special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this
              version of rsync are:

                  3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz
                  iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a
                  m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg mpv
                  mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx opus
                  otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx squashfs
                  sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war
                  webm webp xz z zip zst

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but
              one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped
              suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be
              configured to a different default).

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
              what ownership to give files.  The special uid 0 and the special
              group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the
              --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on
              how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be
              mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING is one
              or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any matching
              FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the
              receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and
              TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string,
              which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do
              NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*'
              matches everything).  You may instead specify a range of ID
              numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

                  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these
              values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side
              (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those in use on
              the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as
              having an empty name for the purpose of matching.  This allows
              them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

                  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name.
              This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be
              running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option).  For
              the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option
              must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have
              permissions to set that group.

              If your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-args

              This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP.
              This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap
              directly, but it is implemented using those options internally, so
              you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no
              mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP is empty,
              the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading
              colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same as
              specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.  If
              your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-args (-s).

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting
              to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you to specify a
              specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See also this
              option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the
              default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the double-
              colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
              syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL).  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).  Read
              the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some
              of the options you may be able to set.  By default no special
              socket options are set.  This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.

              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell
              transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync
              defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using
              non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as little
              as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case.

              The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made
              to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly the
              same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the
              option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The
              general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced
              by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type,
              and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if
              they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the
                     item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing
                     of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area
                     contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string indicate if some attributes of the
              file have changed, as follows:

              o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

              o      "+" - the file is newly created.

              o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to

              o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old).

              o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note that if you are
                     sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag
                     will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will
                     be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means that the modification time will
                     be set to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
                     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the
                     s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for
                     this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the
                     access (use) time is different and is being updated to the
                     sender's value (requires --atimes); n means the create time
                     (newness) is different and is being updated to the sender's
                     value (requires --crtimes); b means that both the access
                     and create times are being updated.

              o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information is
                     being changed.

              One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
              output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed
              (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it
              logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message).

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option,
              which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a
              significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device,
              or a touched directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes
              escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-
              changes option was used), the logging of names increases to
              mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the
              receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes
              option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer
              unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in
              which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer.
              When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also
              specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being
              transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of
              course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This
              is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested
              for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
              transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer logging will
              be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See the --log-
              file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what
              is happening:

                  rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put
              into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also
              be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you specify
              an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log
              file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the
              "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option
              is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file
              transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
              transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent to
              --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3
              if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic
                     sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.  The
                     total count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example: "(reg:
                     5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals
                     for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and
                     special files.  If any of value is 0, it is completely
                     omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
                     total count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
                     total count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal
                     files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
                     algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc.
                     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size for directories or
                     special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had
                     to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when
                     recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of
                     duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes
                     that rsync received by the client side from the server
                     side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the
                     bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us,
                     which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the
              output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in
              the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All control
              characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this
              option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.
              For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
              followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
              set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the
              decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output
              numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger
              units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the level by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example, a
              1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that
              a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
              not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
              Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable
              manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify a
              --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.  See the --list-
              only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it is more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the
              --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to
              specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (instead
              of writing it out to the destination file).  On the next transfer,
              rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the
              resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served
              its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-
              dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will
              simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using
              rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the
              partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed,
              and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.  Note
              that the directory is only removed if it is a relative pathname,
              as it is expected that an absolute path is to a directory that is
              reserved for partial-dir work.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the above
              --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-
              partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1)
              the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other
              rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.
              For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over
              partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify
              --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R .rsync-
              partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless
              you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data
              during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users
              or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial
              files go when --partial is specified.  For instance, instead of
              using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could
              set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just
              use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for
              partial transfers.  The only times that the --partial option does
              not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was
              specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2)
              when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-
              dir, that partial file is now updated in-place instead of creating
              yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest + tmp instead
              of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both ends of the transfer
              to be at least version 3.2.0.

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
              --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal
              of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of
              destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing
              the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a
              holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all
              the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
              each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
              --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.  See
              the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how
              this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you
              can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be
              lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full
              file list in memory in order to be able to iterate over it at the

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the
              receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in
              the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files
              will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and
              (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed
              updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-
              dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
              directories from the file-list, including nested directories that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync
              is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the
              file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance, this
              option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the

                  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only
              creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf
              files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in
              the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-
              directories being used instead of an exclude):

                  rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
              work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress
              of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something to watch.
              With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for
              those info flags takes precedence (e.g.
              "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress
              line that looks like this:

                  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4
              seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched
              part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line
              with a summary line that looks like this:

                  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the
              5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session,
              and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if
              they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files
              in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total
              number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the
              scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it
              will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
              recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows
              the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
              "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total
              count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and
              each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase
              by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose
              is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
              transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
              based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
              this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify
              --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without
              scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to
              specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

              Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a
              signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIGINFO
              is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently support a
              SIGINFO signal).  When the client-side process receives one of
              those signals, it sets a flag to output a single progress report
              which is output when the current file transfer finishes (so it may
              take a little time if a big file is being handled when the signal
              arrives).  A filename is output (if needed) followed by the
              --info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you don't know which
              of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal
              all of them (since the non-client processes ignore the signal).

              CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file should contain just the password on the first line (all other
              lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is
              world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-
              owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport
              such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's
              documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote
              shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after
              the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have
              also specified a password in the daemon's config file).

              This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early
              exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data is to
              give the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted
              filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"

              The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single source
              arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to
              turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-
              listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source
              arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Caution: keep in
              mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell
              into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
              without using this option. For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
              affected by the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
              output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just digits
              in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from
              an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an
              error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is because a
              file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older
              rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this problem, either
              specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a
              directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content
              of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second.  The
              RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m").
              If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
              units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See
              the --max-size option for a description of all the available
              suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded
              to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per
              second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both
              limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep
              the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some burstiness
              may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps
              to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent.
              This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when
              the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow
              when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed
              in a future version.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified number
              of minutes has elapsed.

              Rsync also accepts an earlier version of this option: --time-

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to
              the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the
              connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use even
              when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can tell
              the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
              should the need arise.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point
              in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified
              in a numeric format of year-month-dayThour:minute (e.g.
              2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose to
              separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

              The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
              specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In
              all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point
              in time where the supplied information matches.  If the value
              specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an

              For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight
              local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies the
              next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next month
              where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the next
              59th minute after the hour.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to
              the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the
              connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use even
              when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can tell
              the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
              should the need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote host may
              have a different default timezone than your local host.

              Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists and
              always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib
              choices.  If you want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-
              choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
              portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of
              the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination
              system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted
              from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over
              the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and
              thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
              read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
              creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of
              rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
              --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run
              the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be
              used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on
              the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
              default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
              remote charset separated by a comma in the order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
              ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing
              or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a
              CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default
              setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected
              via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
              supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will
              translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
              being sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from option.

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
              ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two
              sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it,
              the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"
              configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you
              actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
              ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has direct control over,
              such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync
              daemon, as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh
              when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used as the remote shell.
              For other remote shells you'll need to specify the
              "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever ipv4/ipv6 hint
              options it uses).

              These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option
              will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will contain
              "no IPv6" if is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed).  By default
              the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the
              current time().  This option is used to set a specific checksum
              seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block
              checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random
              checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default
              of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read the
              config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and
              respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page
              for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows you
              to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  This
              makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config
              option.  See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This is
              only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell
              program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
              the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
              This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
              starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the
              parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first
              module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified without
              spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name
              instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string
              instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file.  It
              also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in
              which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file
              and has the same syntax.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the daemon's
              verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
              used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets
              that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of
              these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work
              around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already
              in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying
              --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              These options also exist in the regular rsync options section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option
              will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will contain
              "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --help, -h
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing
              the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer
       (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly
       specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
       include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each
       name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in
       turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude
       pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that
       filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the
       filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-
       line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
       follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

       exclude, '-'
              specifies an exclude pattern.

       include, '+'
              specifies an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
              specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
              specifies a per-directory merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
              specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.

       show, 'S'
              files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect, 'P'
              specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
              files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
              clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or
       long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).
       The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against
       the names of the files that are going to be transferred.  These patterns
       can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular
              spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against
              the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^ in
              regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name of "foo" at
              either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the
              merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An unqualified
              foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the
              algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as
              if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the
              filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point
              in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named
              "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
              a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the
              root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory,
              not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a
              wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards
              are present.  This means that there is an extra level of backslash
              removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters compared to a
              pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar"
              (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to
              avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**",
              then it is matched against the full pathname, including any
              leading directories.  If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so
              "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the
              starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  This behavior was added
              in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to right, with
       each directory having a chance for exclusion before its content.  In this
       way include/exclude patterns are applied recursively to the pathname of
       each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the transfer).  The
       exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage as rsync
       finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded.  Excluding one of those parent
       directories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off rsync's
       recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz"
       ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it never sees in the cut-
       off section of the directory hierarchy).

       The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a
       trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path"
       directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy
       to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before
       the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that
       need to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect both
              sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide (H) and
              show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
              specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the
              -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o"
              are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that
              was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

       o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr
              copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching file/dir
              names).  If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a default xattr
              filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
       directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its
       rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule.
       For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it
       traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists
       into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files
       must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that
       is being scanned for the available files to transfer.  These rule files
       may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to
       affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE

       Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           . /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
              of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.
              Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated
              specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that
              prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules
              (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
              default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier,
              which would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would
              treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-
              merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory
              rules apply only on the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies
              sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the rules
              in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule
              prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory
       where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each
       subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules
       from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the
       inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together
       in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to
       override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the
       list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a
       per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current
       merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-
       directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a
       pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the
       dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o
           - foo*

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the
       start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent
       dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated
       per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
       directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path"
       and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and
       only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part
       of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore
       file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to affect
       where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory
       .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever
       you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-
       merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules
       (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           - *.old
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all
       the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than
       at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules
       that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules.  To
       affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions,
       the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should
       omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your
       filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while
       parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are
       inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
       out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the
       "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are
       anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of the transfer as
       a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the
       transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with
       a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to
       changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the
       output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the
       --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves
       without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds
       this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:

           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that
       the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way is to
       include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-
       after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same
       exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
       command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

           rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
              --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the
       per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
       should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical
       systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.  In order to do
       this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply
       the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees.  The
       write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all
       the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical
       destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multiple
       destination trees.  Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer
       the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of
       sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with
       the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and
       the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch
       option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh"
       appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating
       a destination tree using the associated batch file.  It can be executed
       using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
       destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original
       destination path.  This is useful when the destination tree path on the
       current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.


           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
       and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
       "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
       into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the two examples
       reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to get the right
              rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
              the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine
              first.  This example avoids the script because it needed to
              use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit the script
              file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no other
              option is trying to use standard input, such as the "--exclude-
              from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to
       be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the batch
       update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees is
       encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
       appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.
       This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the
       command got interrupted.  If you wish to force the batched-update to
       always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the -I
       option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
       tree will probably be in a partially updated state.  In that case, rsync
       can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
       destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
       one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the
       protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
       to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to have the creating
       rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.  (Note
       that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
       older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
       to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as
       the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be changed.
       For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch, --files-from is
       dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are not needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use this
       to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell
       script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the
       batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link
       in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target
       on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-
       unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to
       on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to be
       omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links
       to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start
       with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".."  components to ascend from
       the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is
       in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't
       mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
       cryptic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for
       its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote
       shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying
       the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show why each
       individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate
              64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an option
              was specified that is supported by the client and not by the

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore patterns
              in .cvsignore files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for more

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable.
              (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
              option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure that
              it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon.
              You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run
              authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user
              intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to a
              remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is set,
              the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.
       See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example
       script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See the file
       COPYING for details.

       A web site is available at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.  Please
       contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-
       loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and
       our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
       Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies
       if I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many
       people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by Wayne

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

rsync 3.2.3                        07 Aug 2020                          rsync(1)