SA(8)                        System Manager's Manual                       SA(8)

       sa -  summarizes accounting information

       sa     [ -a | --list-all-names ]
              [ -b | --sort-sys-user-div-calls ]
              [ -c | --percentages ] [ -d | --sort-avio ]
              [ -D | --sort-tio ] [ -f | --not-interactive ]
              [ -i | --dont-read-summary-files ]
              [ -j | --print-seconds ] [ -k | --sort-cpu-avmem ]
              [ -K | --sort-ksec ] [ -l | --separate-times ]
              [ -m | --user-summary ] [ -n | --sort-num-calls ]
              [ -p | --show-paging ] [ -P | --show-paging-avg ]
              [ -r | --reverse-sort ] [ -s | --merge ]
              [ -t | --print-ratio ] [ -u | --print-users ]
              [ -v num | --threshold num ] [ --sort-real-time ]
              [ --debug ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
              [ --other-usracct-file filename ] [ --ahz hz ]
              [ --other-savacct-file filename ]
              [ [ --other-acct-file ] filename ]

       sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as recorded
       in the acct file.  In addition, it condenses this data into a summary
       file named savacct which contains the number of times the command was
       called and the system resources used.  The information can also be
       summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information into a file
       named usracct.

       If no arguments are specified, sa will print information about all of the
       commands in the acct file.

       If called with a file name as the last argument, sa will use that file
       instead of the system's default acct file.

       By default, sa will sort the output by sum of user and system time.  If
       command names have unprintable characters, or are only called once, sa
       will sort them into a group called `***other'.  If more than one sorting
       option is specified, the list will be sorted by the one specified last on
       the command line.

       The output fields are labeled as follows:

               sum of system and user time in cpu minutes

               "elapsed time" in minutes

               cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

               average number of I/O operations per execution

               total number of I/O operations

               cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)

               user cpu time in cpu seconds

               system time in cpu seconds

       Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the
       table, but after each numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every
       row.  For example, you might see `79.29re', meaning 79.29 cpu seconds of
       "real time".

       An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but didn't
       call exec.

       GNU sa takes care to implement a number of features not found in other
       versions.  For example, most versions of sa don't pay attention to flags
       like `--print-seconds' and `--sort-num-calls' when printing out commands
       when combined with the `--user-summary' or `--print-users' flags.  GNU sa
       pays attention to these flags if they are applicable.  Also, MIPS' sa
       stores the average memory use as a short rather than a double, resulting
       in some round-off errors.  GNU sa uses double the whole way through.

       The availability of these program options depends on your operating
       system.  In specific, the members that appear in the struct acct of your
       system's process accounting header file (usually acct.h ) determine which
       flags will be present.  For example, if your system's struct acct doesn't
       have the `ac_mem' field, the installed version of sa will not support the
       `--sort-cpu-avmem', `--sort-ksec', `-k', or `-K' options.

       In short, all of these flags may not be available on your machine.

       -a, --list-all-names
              Force sa not to sort those command names with unprintable
              characters and those used only once into the ***other group.
       -b, --sort-sys-user-div-calls
              Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by the
              number of calls.
       -c, --percentages
              Print percentages of total time for the command's user, system,
              and real time values.
       -d, --sort-avio
              Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
       -D, --sort-tio
              Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O
       -f, --not-interactive
              When using the `--threshold' option, assume that all answers to
              interactive queries will be affirmative.
       -i, --dont-read-summary-files
              Don't read the information in the system's default savacct file.
       -j, --print-seconds
              Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print seconds
              per call.
       -k, --sort-cpu-avmem
              Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
       -K, --sort-ksec
              Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
       -l, --separate-times
              Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two
              are added together and listed as `cpu'.
       -m, --user-summary
              Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a per-
              user basis.
       -n, --sort-num-calls
              Sort the output by the number of calls.  This is the default
              sorting method.
       -p, --show-paging
              Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps.
       -P, --show-paging-avg
              Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps divided
              by the number of calls.
       -r, --reverse-sort
              Sort output items in reverse order.
       -s, --merge
              Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files
              savacct and usracct.
       -t, --print-ratio
              For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of system
              and user times.  If the sum of system and user times is too small
              to report--the sum is zero--`*ignore*' will appear in this field.
       -u, --print-users
              For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and
              command name.  After printing all entries, quit.  *Note*: this
              flag supersedes all others.
       -v num --threshold num
              Print commands which were executed num times or fewer and await a
              reply from the terminal.  If the response begins with `y', add the
              command to the `**junk**' group.
              It really doesn't make any sense to me that the stock version of
              sa separates statistics for a particular executable depending on
              whether or not that command forked.  Therefore, GNU sa lumps this
              information together unless this option is specified.
       --ahz hz
              Use this flag to tell the program what AHZ should be (in hertz).
              This option is useful if you are trying to view an acct file
              created on another machine which has the same byte order and file
              format as your current machine, but has a different value for AHZ.
              Print verbose internal information.
       -V, --version
              Print the version number of sa.
       -h, --help
              Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to
              standard output and exits.
              Sort the output by the "real time" field.
       --other-usracct-file filename
              Write summaries by user ID to filename rather than the system's
              default usracct file.
       --other-savacct-file filename
              Write summaries by command name to filename rather than the
              system's default SAVACCT file.
       --other-acct-file filename
              Read from the file filename instead of the system's default ACCT
       acct   The raw system wide process accounting file. See acct(5) for
              further details.
              A summary of system process accounting sorted by command.
              A summary of system process accounting sorted by user ID.
       There is not yet a wide experience base for comparing the output of GNU
       sa with versions of sa in many other systems.  The problem is that the
       data files grow big in a short time and therefore require a lot of disk
       The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg
       <>. The man page was adapted from the accounting
       texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <>.
       acct(5), ac(1)

                                 1997 August 19                            SA(8)