GETGROUPS(2)                Linux Programmer's Manual               GETGROUPS(2)

       getgroups, setgroups - get/set list of supplementary group IDs

       #include <unistd.h>

       int getgroups(int size, gid_t list[]);

       #include <grp.h>

       int setgroups(size_t size, const gid_t *list);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           Since glibc 2.19:
           Glibc 2.19 and earlier:

       getgroups() returns the supplementary group IDs of the calling process in
       list.  The argument size should be set to the maximum number of items
       that can be stored in the buffer pointed to by list.  If the calling
       process is a member of more than size supplementary groups, then an error

       It is unspecified whether the effective group ID of the calling process
       is included in the returned list.  (Thus, an application should also call
       getegid(2) and add or remove the resulting value.)

       If size is zero, list is not modified, but the total number of
       supplementary group IDs for the process is returned.  This allows the
       caller to determine the size of a dynamically allocated list to be used
       in a further call to getgroups().

       setgroups() sets the supplementary group IDs for the calling process.
       Appropriate privileges are required (see the description of the EPERM
       error, below).  The size argument specifies the number of supplementary
       group IDs in the buffer pointed to by list.  A process can drop all of
       its supplementary groups with the call:

           setgroups(0, NULL);

       On success, getgroups() returns the number of supplementary group IDs.
       On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set to indicate the error.

       On success, setgroups() returns 0.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno
       is set to indicate the error.

       EFAULT list has an invalid address.

       getgroups() can additionally fail with the following error:

       EINVAL size is less than the number of supplementary group IDs, but is
              not zero.

       setgroups() can additionally fail with the following errors:

       EINVAL size is greater than NGROUPS_MAX (32 before Linux 2.6.4; 65536
              since Linux 2.6.4).

       ENOMEM Out of memory.

       EPERM  The calling process has insufficient privilege (the caller does
              not have the CAP_SETGID capability in the user namespace in which
              it resides).

       EPERM (since Linux 3.19)
              The use of setgroups() is denied in this user namespace.  See the
              description of /proc/[pid]/setgroups in user_namespaces(7).

       getgroups(): SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

       setgroups(): SVr4, 4.3BSD.  Since setgroups() requires privilege, it is
       not covered by POSIX.1.

       A process can have up to NGROUPS_MAX supplementary group IDs in addition
       to the effective group ID.  The constant NGROUPS_MAX is defined in
       <limits.h>.  The set of supplementary group IDs is inherited from the
       parent process, and preserved across an execve(2).

       The maximum number of supplementary group IDs can be found at run time
       using sysconf(3):

           long ngroups_max;
           ngroups_max = sysconf(_SC_NGROUPS_MAX);

       The maximum return value of getgroups() cannot be larger than one more
       than this value.  Since Linux 2.6.4, the maximum number of supplementary
       group IDs is also exposed via the Linux-specific read-only file,

       The original Linux getgroups() system call supported only 16-bit group
       IDs.  Subsequently, Linux 2.4 added getgroups32(), supporting 32-bit IDs.
       The glibc getgroups() wrapper function transparently deals with the
       variation across kernel versions.

   C library/kernel differences
       At the kernel level, user IDs and group IDs are a per-thread attribute.
       However, POSIX requires that all threads in a process share the same
       credentials.  The NPTL threading implementation handles the POSIX
       requirements by providing wrapper functions for the various system calls
       that change process UIDs and GIDs.  These wrapper functions (including
       the one for setgroups()) employ a signal-based technique to ensure that
       when one thread changes credentials, all of the other threads in the
       process also change their credentials.  For details, see nptl(7).

       getgid(2), setgid(2), getgrouplist(3), group_member(3), initgroups(3),
       capabilities(7), credentials(7)

       This page is part of release 5.13 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2021-03-22                       GETGROUPS(2)