GETTIMEOFDAY(2)             Linux Programmer's Manual            GETTIMEOFDAY(2)

       gettimeofday, settimeofday - get / set time

       #include <sys/time.h>

       int gettimeofday(struct timeval *restrict tv,
                        struct timezone *restrict tz);
       int settimeofday(const struct timeval *tv,
                        const struct timezone *tz);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           Since glibc 2.19:
           Glibc 2.19 and earlier:

       The functions gettimeofday() and settimeofday() can get and set the time
       as well as a timezone.

       The tv argument is a struct timeval (as specified in <sys/time.h>):

           struct timeval {
               time_t      tv_sec;     /* seconds */
               suseconds_t tv_usec;    /* microseconds */

       and gives the number of seconds and microseconds since the Epoch (see

       The tz argument is a struct timezone:

           struct timezone {
               int tz_minuteswest;     /* minutes west of Greenwich */
               int tz_dsttime;         /* type of DST correction */

       If either tv or tz is NULL, the corresponding structure is not set or
       returned.  (However, compilation warnings will result if tv is NULL.)

       The use of the timezone structure is obsolete; the tz argument should
       normally be specified as NULL.  (See NOTES below.)

       Under Linux, there are some peculiar "warp clock" semantics associated
       with the settimeofday() system call if on the very first call (after
       booting) that has a non-NULL tz argument, the tv argument is NULL and the
       tz_minuteswest field is nonzero.  (The tz_dsttime field should be zero
       for this case.)  In such a case it is assumed that the CMOS clock is on
       local time, and that it has to be incremented by this amount to get UTC
       system time.  No doubt it is a bad idea to use this feature.

       gettimeofday() and settimeofday() return 0 for success.  On error, -1 is
       returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

       EFAULT One of tv or tz pointed outside the accessible address space.

       EINVAL (settimeofday()): timezone is invalid.

       EINVAL (settimeofday()): tv.tv_sec is negative or tv.tv_usec is outside
              the range [0..999,999].

       EINVAL (since Linux 4.3)
              (settimeofday()): An attempt was made to set the time to a value
              less than the current value of the CLOCK_MONOTONIC clock (see

       EPERM  The calling process has insufficient privilege to call
              settimeofday(); under Linux the CAP_SYS_TIME capability is

       SVr4, 4.3BSD.  POSIX.1-2001 describes gettimeofday() but not
       settimeofday().  POSIX.1-2008 marks gettimeofday() as obsolete,
       recommending the use of clock_gettime(2) instead.

       The time returned by gettimeofday() is affected by discontinuous jumps in
       the system time (e.g., if the system administrator manually changes the
       system time).  If you need a monotonically increasing clock, see

       Macros for operating on timeval structures are described in timeradd(3).

       Traditionally, the fields of struct timeval were of type long.

   C library/kernel differences
       On some architectures, an implementation of gettimeofday() is provided in
       the vdso(7).

   The tz_dsttime field
       On a non-Linux kernel, with glibc, the tz_dsttime field of struct
       timezone will be set to a nonzero value by gettimeofday() if the current
       timezone has ever had or will have a daylight saving rule applied.  In
       this sense it exactly mirrors the meaning of daylight(3) for the current
       zone.  On Linux, with glibc, the setting of the tz_dsttime field of
       struct timezone has never been used by settimeofday() or gettimeofday().
       Thus, the following is purely of historical interest.

       On old systems, the field tz_dsttime contains a symbolic constant (values
       are given below) that indicates in which part of the year Daylight Saving
       Time is in force.  (Note: this value is constant throughout the year: it
       does not indicate that DST is in force, it just selects an algorithm.)
       The daylight saving time algorithms defined are as follows:

           DST_NONE     /* not on DST */
           DST_USA      /* USA style DST */
           DST_AUST     /* Australian style DST */
           DST_WET      /* Western European DST */
           DST_MET      /* Middle European DST */
           DST_EET      /* Eastern European DST */
           DST_CAN      /* Canada */
           DST_GB       /* Great Britain and Eire */
           DST_RUM      /* Romania */
           DST_TUR      /* Turkey */
           DST_AUSTALT  /* Australian style with shift in 1986 */

       Of course it turned out that the period in which Daylight Saving Time is
       in force cannot be given by a simple algorithm, one per country; indeed,
       this period is determined by unpredictable political decisions.  So this
       method of representing timezones has been abandoned.

       date(1), adjtimex(2), clock_gettime(2), time(2), ctime(3), ftime(3),
       timeradd(3), capabilities(7), time(7), vdso(7), hwclock(8)

       This page is part of release 5.11 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2021-03-22                    GETTIMEOFDAY(2)