shntool

SHNTOOL(1)                           local                          SHNTOOL(1)



NAME
       shntool - a multi‐purpose WAVE data processing and reporting utility


SYNOPSIS
       shntool mode ...
       shntool [CORE OPTION]


DESCRIPTION
       shntool is a command‐line utility to view and/or modify WAVE data and
       properties.  It runs in several different operating modes, and supports
       various lossless audio formats.

       shntool is comprised of three parts ‐ its core, mode modules, and
       format modules.  This helps to make the code easier to maintain, as
       well as aid other programmers in developing new functionality.  The
       distribution archive contains a file named 'modules.howto' that
       describes how to create a new mode or format module, for those so
       inclined.


   Mode modules
       shntool performs various functions on WAVE data through the use of mode
       modules.  The core of shntool is simply a wrapper around the mode
       modules.  In fact, when shntool is run with a valid mode as its first
       argument, it essentially runs the main procedure for the specified
       mode, and quits.  shntool comes with several built‐in modes, described
       below:


              len    Displays length, size and properties of PCM WAVE data

              fix    Fixes sector‐boundary problems with CD‐quality PCM WAVE
                     data

              hash   Computes the MD5 or SHA1 fingerprint of PCM WAVE data

              pad    Pads CD(hyquality files not aligned on sector boundaries
                     with silence

              join   Joins PCM WAVE data from multiple files into one

              split  Splits PCM WAVE data from one file into multiple files

              cat    Writes PCM WAVE data from one or more files to the
                     terminal

              cmp    Compares PCM WAVE data in two files

              cue    Generates a CUE sheet or split points from a set of files

              conv   Converts files from one format to another

              info   Displays detailed information about PCM WAVE data

              strip  Strips extra RIFF chunks and/or writes canonical headers

              gen    Generates CD‐quality PCM WAVE data files containing
                     silence

              trim   Trims PCM WAVE silence from the ends of files


       For more information on the meaning of the various command‐line options
       for each mode, see the MODE‐SPECIFIC OPTIONS section below.

       For convenience, each mode can specify an alternate name or alias that
       will invoke it (this feature is currently only available on systems
       that support symbolic or hard linking).  In particular, each mode is
       aliased to 'shn<mode>'.  For instance, running shnlen is equivalent to
       running shntool len - thus saving a few keystrokes.


   Format modules
       File formats are abstracted from shntool through the use of format
       modules.  They provide a means for shntool to tranparently read and/or
       write different file formats.  This abstraction allows shntool to
       concentrate on its job without worrying about the details of each file
       format.

       The following formats are currently supported:


              wav    RIFF WAVE file format

              aiff   Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF and uncompressed/sowt
                     AIFF-C only) (via 'sox'):
                     <http://sox.sourceforge.net/>

              shn    Shorten low complexity waveform coder (via 'shorten'):
                     <http://www.softsound.com/Shorten.html>
                     <http://www.etree.org/shnutils/shorten/>

              flac   Free Lossless Audio Codec (via 'flac'):
                     <http://flac.sourceforge.net/>

              ape    Monkey's Audio Compressor (via 'mac'):
                     <http://www.monkeysaudio.com/>
                     <http://supermmx.org/linux/mac/>

              alac   Apple Lossless Audio Codec (via 'alac'):
                     <http://craz.net/programs/itunes/alac.html>

              tak    (T)om's lossless (A)udio (K)ompressor (via 'takc'):
                     <http://www.thbeck.de/Tak/Tak.html>

              ofr    OptimFROG Lossless WAVE Audio Coder (via 'ofr'):
                     <http://www.losslessaudio.org/>

              tta    TTA Lossless Audio Codec (via 'ttaenc'):
                     <http://tta.sourceforge.net/>

              als    MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding (via 'mp4als'):
                     <http://www.nue.tu-berlin.de/forschung/projekte/ ‐
                     lossless/mp4als.html>

              wv     WavPack Hybrid Lossless Audio Compression (via 'wavpack'
                     and 'wvunpack'):
                     <http://www.wavpack.com/>

              lpac   Lossless Predictive Audio Compression (via 'lpac'):
                     <http://www.nue.tu-berlin.de/wer/liebchen/lpac.html>

              la     Lossless Audio (via 'la'):
                     <http://www.lossless-audio.com/>

              bonk   Bonk lossy/lossless audio compressor (via 'bonk'):
                     <http://www.logarithmic.net/pfh/bonk>

              kxs    Kexis lossless WAV file compressor (via 'kexis'):
                     <http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/kexis/>

              mkw    MKW Audio Compression format (via 'mkwcon'):
                     <http://www.etree.org/shnutils/mkwcon/>

              cust   Custom output format module (output only, useful for
                     encoding to a format that shntool does not yet support)

              term   sends output to the terminal

              null   sends output to /dev/null (output only, useful for dry‐
                     runs in several modes, such as fix mode or strip mode)


       When reading files for input, shntool automatically discovers which, if
       any, format module handles each file.  In modes where files are created
       as output, you can specify what the output format should be ‐
       otherwise, shntool decides for you by selecting the first format module
       it finds that supports output (in a default installation, this will be
       the wav format).


CORE OPTIONS
   Modeless
       When run without a mode, shntool takes these options:

       -m     Show detailed mode module information

       -f     Show detailed format module information

       -a     Show default format module arguments

       -v     Show version information

       -h     Show a help screen


GLOBAL OPTIONS
   All modes
       All modes support the following options:

       -D     Print debugging information

       -F file
              Specify a file containing a list of filenames to process.  This
              overrides any files specified on the command line or on the
              terminal.

              NOTE: Most modes will accept input filenames from a single
              source, according to the following order of precedence: file
              specified by the -F option, otherwise filenames on the command
              line, otherwise filenames read from the terminal.

       -H     Print times in h:mm:ss.{ff,nnn} format, instead of m:ss.{ff,nnn}

       -P type
              Specify progress indicator type.  type is one of: {pct, dot,
              spin, face, none}.  pct shows the completion percentage of each
              operation.  dot shows the progress of each operation by
              displaying a '.' after each 10% step toward completion.  spin
              shows a spinning progress indicator.  face shows the progress of
              each operation by displaying six emoticons that become
              increasingly happy as the operation nears completion.  none
              prevents any progress completion information from being
              displayed.  The default is pct.

       -h     Show the help screen for this mode

       -i fmt Specify input file format decoder and/or arguments.  The format
              is: "fmt decoder [arg1 ... argN]", and must be surrounded by
              quotes.  If arguments are given, then one of them must contain
              "%f", which will be replaced with the input filename.  Examples:

              -i 'shn shorten-2.3b' (use official shorten-2.3b instead of
              later versions; leave default arguments untouched)

              -i 'shn shorten -x -d 2048 %f -' (force shorten to skip the
              first 2048 bytes of each file)


       -q     Suppress non‐critical output (quiet mode).  Output that normally
              goes to stderr will not be displayed, other than errors or
              debugging information (if specified).

       -r val Reorder input files?  val is one of: {ask, ascii, natural,
              none}.  The default is natural.

       -v     Show version information

       -w     Suppress warnings

       --     Indicates that everything following it is a filename

   Output modes
       Additionally, any mode that creates output files supports the the
       following options:

       -O val Overwrite existing files?  val is one of: {ask, always, never}.
              The default is ask.

       -a str Prefix str to base part of output filenames

       -d dir Specify output directory

       -o str Specify output file format extension, encoder and/or arguments.
              Format is:  "fmt [ext=abc] [encoder [arg1 ... argN (%f =
              filename)]]", and must be surrounded by quotes.  If arguments
              are given, then one of them must contain "%f", which will be
              replaced with the output filename.  Examples:

              -o 'shn shorten -v2 - %f' (create shorten files without seek
              tables)

              -o 'flac flake - %f' (use alternate flac encoder)

              -o 'aiff ext=aif' (override default aiff extension of 'aiff'
              with 'aif')

              -o 'cust ext=mp3 lame --quiet - %f' (create mp3 files using
              lame)


       -z str Postfix str to base part of output filenames


MODE‐SPECIFIC OPTIONS
   len mode options
       -U unit
              Specifies the unit in which the totals will be printed.  unit is
              one of: {b, kb, mb, gb, tb}.  The default is b.

       -c     Do not show column names

       -t     Do not show totals line

       -u unit
              Specifies the unit in which each file will be printed.  unit is
              one of: {b, kb, mb, gb, tb}.  The default is b.

       len mode output

              The output of len mode may seem cryptic at first, because it
              attempts to convey a lot of information in just a little bit of
              space.  But it is quite easy to read once you know what the
              columns represent; and in certain columns, what each character
              in the column means.  Each column is explained below.

              length Shows the length of the WAVE data, in m:ss.nnn
                     (millisecond) format.  If the data is CD‐quality, then
                     m:ss.ff is shown instead, where ff is a number from 00 to
                     74 that best approximates the number of frames (2352‐byte
                     blocks) remaining after m:ss.  If all files are CD‐
                     quality, the total length will be shown in m:ss.ff
                     format; otherwise it will be in m:ss.nnn format.  NOTE:
                     CD‐quality files are rounded to the nearest frame; all
                     other files are rounded to the nearest millisecond.

              expanded size
                     Shows the total size of all WAVE chunks within the file
                     (header, data and any extra RIFF chunks).  Essentially
                     this is the size that the file would be if it were
                     converted to .wav format, e.g.  with shntool conv.

                     NOTE: Do not rely on this field for audio size!  If you
                     simply want to know how many bytes of audio are in a
                     file, run it through info mode, and look at the "data
                     size" field in its output.

              cdr    Shows properties related to CD‐quality files.  A 'c' in
                     the first slot indicates that the WAVE data is not [C]D‐
                     quality.  A 'b' in the second slot indicates that the CD‐
                     quality WAVE data is not cut on a sector [b]oundary.  An
                     's' in the third slot indicates that the CD‐quality WAVE
                     data is too [s]hort to be burned.

                     A '-' in any of these slots indicates that the particular
                     property is OK or normal.  An 'x' in any of these slots
                     indicates that the particular property does not apply to
                     this file, or cannot be determined.

              WAVE   Shows properties of the WAVE data.  An 'h' in the first
                     slot indicates that the WAVE [h]eader is not canonical.
                     An 'e' in the second slot indicates that the WAVE file
                     contains [e]xtra RIFF chunks.

                     A '-' in any of these slots indicates that the particular
                     property is OK or normal.  An 'x' in any of these slots
                     indicates that the particular property does not apply to
                     this file, or cannot be determined.

              problems
                     Shows problems detected with the WAVE header, WAVE data,
                     or the file itself.  A '3' in the first slot indicates
                     that the file contains an ID[3]v2 header.  An 'a' in the
                     second slot indicates that the audio data is not
                     block‐[a]ligned.  An 'i' in the third slot indicates that
                     the WAVE header is [i]nconsistent about data size and/or
                     file size.  A 't' in the fourth slot indicates that the
                     WAVE file seems to be [t]runcated.  A 'j' in the fifth
                     slot indicates that the WAVE file seems to have [j]unk
                     appended to it.

                     A '-' in any of these slots indicates that the particular
                     problem was not detected.  An 'x' in any of these slots
                     indicates that the particular problem does not apply to
                     this file, or cannot be determined.

              fmt    Shows which file format handled this file.

              ratio  Shows the compression ratio for this file.

              filename
                     Shows the name of the file that's being inspected.


   fix mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in fix mode will be based on the
       input file name with the string '-fixed' appended to it, and the
       extension will be the default extension of the output file format.  For
       example, with an output file format of shn the file 'foo.wav' would
       become 'foo-fixed.shn'.  This can be overridden with the -a and/or -z
       global options described above.

       -b     Shift track breaks backward to the previous sector boundary.
              This is the default.

       -c     Check whether fixing is needed, without actually fixing
              anything.  shntool will exit with status 0 if fixing is needed,
              and status 1 otherwise.  This can be useful in shell scripts,
              e.g.: "if shntool fix -c *; then shntool fix *; else ...; fi"

       -f     Shift track breaks forward to the next sector boundary.

       -k     Specifies that all files should be processed, even if the first
              several of them wouldn't be altered, aside from a possible file
              format change.  The default is to skip the first N files that
              wouldn't be changed from a WAVE data perspective in order to
              avoid unnecessary work.

       -n     Specifies that the last file created should not be padded with
              silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of 2352 bytes.
              The default is to pad the last file.

       -u     Round track breaks to the nearest sector boundary.


   hash mode options
       -c     Specifies that the composite fingerprint for all input files
              should be generated, instead of the default of one fingerprint
              per file.  The composite fingerprint is simply the fingerprint
              of the WAVE data from all input files taken as a whole in the
              order given, and is identical to the one that would be generated
              from the joined file if the same files were joined into one
              large file, with no padding added.  This option can be used to
              fingerprint file sets, or to identify file sets in which track
              breaks have been moved around, but no audio has been modified in
              any way (e.g. no padding added, no resampling done, etc.).

       -m     Generate MD5 fingerprints.  This is the default.

       -s     Generate SHA1 fingerprints.


   pad mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in pad mode will be based on the
       input file name with the string '-prepadded' or '-postpadded' appended
       to it, and the extension will be the default extension of the output
       file format.  For example, with an output file format of shn and pre‐
       padding specified on the command line, the file 'foo.wav' would become
       'foo-prepadded.shn'.  This can be overridden with the -a and/or -z
       global options described above.

       Be aware that some output format encoders (e.g. flac, ape)
       automatically strip headers and/or extra RIFF chunks.

       -b     Specifies that the file created should be padded at the
              beginning with silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of
              2352 bytes.

       -e     Specifies that the file created should be padded at the end with
              silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of 2352 bytes.
              This is the default action.


   join mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in join mode will be prefixed with
       'joined.', and the extension will be the default extension of the
       output file format.  For example, with an output file format of wav the
       files 'files*.wav' would become 'joined.wav'.  This can be overridden
       with the -a and/or -z global options described above.

       -b     Specifies that the file created should be padded at the
              beginning with silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of
              2352 bytes.  Note that this option does not apply if the input
              files are not CD‐quality, since padding is undefined in that
              case.

       -e     Specifies that the file created should be padded at the end with
              silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of 2352 bytes.
              This is the default action.  Note that this option does not
              apply if the input files are not CD‐quality, since padding is
              undefined in that case.

       -n     Specifies that the file created should not be padded with
              silence to make its WAVE data size a multiple of 2352 bytes.
              Note that this option does not apply if the input files are not
              CD‐quality, since padding is undefined in that case.


   split mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in split mode are of the form
       prefixNNN.ext, where NNN is the output file number, and 'ext' is the
       default extension of the output file format.  If an output file format
       of 'wav' is used, and the prefix is not altered via the -n switch
       described below, then the output file names will be
       "split-track01.wav", "split-track02.wav", etc.  This can be overridden
       with the -a and/or -z global options described above.

       For information on specifying split points, see the Specifying split
       points section below.

       -c num Specifies the number to start counting from when naming output
              files.  The default is 1.

       -e len Prefix each track with len amount of lead‐in taken from the
              previous track.  len must be given in bytes, m:ss, m:ss.ff or
              m:ss.nnn format.

       -f file
              Specifies a file from which to read split point data.  If not
              given, then split points are read from the terminal.

       -l len Specifies that the input file should be split into smaller files
              based on multiples of the len time interval.  len must be given
              in bytes, m:ss, m:ss.ff or m:ss.nnn format.

       -m str Specifies a character manipulation string for filenames
              generated from CUE sheets.  These characters, taken one‐by‐one,
              represent from/to character translation.  They must always be in
              pairs.  Some examples:


              :-     Translate all instances of ':' to '-'

              :-/-   Translate both ':' and '/' to '-'

              :-/_*x Translate ':' to '-', '/' to '_', and '*' to 'x'


       -n fmt Specifies the file count output format.  The default is %02d,
              which gives two‐digit zero‐padded numbers (01, 02, 03, ...).

       -t fmt Name output files in user‐specified format based on CUE sheet
              fields.  The following formatting strings are recognized:


              %p     Performer

              %a     Album

              %t     Track title

              %n     Track number


       -u len Postfix each track with len amount of lead‐out taken from the
              next track.  len must be given in bytes, m:ss, m:ss.ff or
              m:ss.nnn format.

       -x list
              Only extract tracks in list (comma separated, may contain
              ranges).  Examples include:


              7      Only extract track 7

              3-5    Only extract tracks 3 through 5

              2-6,9,11-13
                     Only extract tracks 2 through 6, 9, and 11 through 13


       Specifying split points
              Split points simply mark places within the WAVE data of the
              input file where tracks will be split.  They can be specified in
              any combination of the following formats:

              bytes  where bytes is a specific byte offset

              m:ss   where m = minutes and ss = seconds

              m:ss.ff
                     where m = minutes, ss = seconds and ff = frames (75 per
                     second, so ff ranges from 00 to 74)

              m:ss.nnn
                     where m = minutes, ss = seconds and nnn = milliseconds
                     (will be rounded to closest sector boundary, or the first
                     sector boundary if the closest one happens to be the
                     beginning of the file)

              CUE sheet
                     - a simple CUE sheet, in which each "INDEX 01 m:ss:ff"
                     line is converted to a m:ss.ff split point

              Split points must be given in increasing order, and must appear
              one per line.  If the byte offset calculated from the final
              split point equals the input file's WAVE data size, then it is
              ignored.  Since split points specify locations within the input
              file where tracks will be split, N split points will create N+1
              output files.  All m:ss formats will create splits on sector
              boundaries whenever the input file is CD‐quality; to force non‐
              sector‐aligned splits, use the exact byte format.


   cat mode options
       -c     Specifies that extra RIFF chunks should be suppressed from the
              output.  The default is to write the extra RIFF chunks.

       -d     Specifies that the WAVE data should be suppressed from the
              output.  The default is to write the data.

       -e     Specifies that the WAVE header should be suppressed from the
              output.  The default is to write the header.

       -n     Specifies that the NULL pad byte at end of odd-sized data chunks
              should be suppressed from the output, if present.  The default
              is to write the NULL pad byte.  This option only applies when
              WAVE data is also written, otherwise it is ignored.


   cmp mode options
       -c secs
              Sets the number of seconds of audio to use for the byte‐shift
              comparison buffer.  This option only makes sense with the -s
              option.  The default is 3 seconds.

       -f fuzz
              Sets the "fuzz factor" for determining whether byte‐shifted data
              is identical.  fuzz is a positive integer that represents the
              maximum number of allowable byte mismatches between the two
              files in the area searched by the -s option.  This allows one to
              check for differing bytes between to files that (a) are byte‐
              shifted and (b) contain at least one error in the area searched
              by the -s option.  The higher the fuzz factor, the longer the
              search takes, so set it low to begin with (8 or so), and
              increase it in small steps if needed.  NOTE: this switch can
              only be used with the -s switch.

       -l     List offsets and values of all differing bytes.  Output is
              similar to 'cmp -l'; in particular, offsets are 1‐based.  Can be
              used with the -s switch.

       -s     Check to see whether the WAVE data contained in the input files
              are identical modulo a byte‐shift.  Currently, this will only
              detect differences up to the first 529200 bytes (equal to 3
              seconds of CD‐quality data).  This can be used to compare WAVE
              data within a pre‐burned file to WAVE data in the corresponding
              track ripped from the burned CD, which is useful if the ripped
              track came from a CD burned TAO, and thus might have a 2‐second
              gap of silence at the beginning.  This option can also help
              identify a CD burner/CD reader combined read/write offset.


   cue mode options
       -c     Specifies that a simple CUE sheet should be output.  This is the
              default action.  NOTE: all input files must be CD‐quality for
              CUE sheets to be valid.

       -s     Specifies that split points in explicit byte‐offset format
              should be output.


   conv mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in conv mode will be named based on
       the input file name.  Specifically, if the input file name ends with
       the default file extension for that file's format, then the default
       extension for the desired output format will replace it; otherwise, it
       will be appended to it.  For example, for an output format of shn and a
       wav input file named 'file.wav', the converted file will be named
       'file.shn', since '.wav' is the default extension for the wav format.
       On the other hand, given the same situation above, but with an input
       file named 'file.wave', the converted file will be named
       'file.wave.shn', since '.wave' does not match '.wav'.  This can be
       overridden with the -a and/or -z global options described above.

       Be aware that some output format encoders (e.g. flac, ape)
       automatically strip headers and/or extra RIFF chunks, while others
       (e.g. sox) might adjust WAVE data sizes in rare instances in order to
       align the audio on a block boundary.

       -t     Read WAVE data from the terminal.


   info mode options
       This mode doesn't support any additional options.


   strip mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in strip mode will be based on the
       input file name with the string '-stripped' appended to it, and the
       extension will be the default extension of the output file format.  For
       example, with an output file format of wav the file 'bar.shn' would
       become 'bar-stripped.wav'.  This can be overridden with the -a and/or
       -z global options described above.

       Be aware that some output format encoders (e.g. flac, ape)
       automatically strip headers and/or extra RIFF chunks, while others
       (e.g. sox) might adjust WAVE data sizes in rare instances in order to
       align the audio on a block boundary.

       -c     Specifies that extra RIFF chunks should not be stripped.  The
              default is to remove everything that appears after the first
              data chunk.

       -e     Specifies that WAVE headers should not be made canonical.  The
              default is to canonicalize headers.


   gen mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in gen mode will be prefixed with
       'silence.', and the extension will be the default extension of the
       output file format.  For example, with an output file format of wav the
       generated file would become 'silence.wav'.  This can be overridden with
       the -a and/or -z global options described above.

       -l len Generate files containing len amount of silence.  len must be
              given in bytes, m:ss, m:ss.ff or m:ss.nnn format.


   trim mode options
       NOTE: file names for files created in trim mode will be based on the
       input file name with the string '-trimmed' appended to it, and the
       extension will be the default extension of the output file format.  For
       example, with an output file format of shn the file 'foo.wav' would
       become 'foo-trimmed.shn'.  This can be overridden with the -a and/or -z
       global options described above.

       -b     Only trim silence from the beginning of files

       -e     Only trim silence from the end of files


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       ST_DEBUG
              If set, shntool will print debugging information.  This is
              analogous to the -D global option, with the exception that
              debugging is enabled immediately, instead of when the command‐
              line is parsed.

       ST_<FORMAT>_DEC
              Specify input file format decoder and/or arguments.  Replace
              <FORMAT> with the format you wish to modify, e.g.  ST_SHN_DEC.
              The format of this variable is analagous to the -i global
              option, except that the initial format is not included.
              Examples:

              ST_SHN_DEC='shorten-2.3b'

              ST_SHN_DEC='shorten -x -d 2048 %f -'


       ST_<FORMAT>_ENC
              Specify output file format extension, encoder and/or arguments.
              Replace <FORMAT> with the format you wish to modify, e.g.
              ST_SHN_ENC.  The format of this variable is analagous to the -o
              global option, except that the initial format is not included.
              Examples:

              ST_SHN_ENC='shorten -v2 - %f'

              ST_FLAC_ENC='flake - %f'

              ST_AIFF_ENC='ext=aif'

              ST_CUST_ENC='ext=mp3 lame --quiet - %f'

       Note that command‐line options take precedence over any of these
       environment variables.


EXIT STATUS
       Generally speaking, shntool will exit with status 0 upon success, and
       status 1 if it encounters an error.  The only exception is when the
       'quit' option is selected from within the interactive file reordering
       menu, in which case the exist status will be 255.


NOTES
       shntool is a misnomer, since it processes WAVE data, not shorten data.
       The name is a holdover from its early days as 'shnlen', a program
       created specifically to extract information about WAVE data stored
       within .shn files.

       Aliases for shntool are prefixed with 'shn' instead of 'wav' to avoid
       possible collisions with existing programs.


AUTHOR
       Jason Jordan <shnutils at freeshell dot org>

       Please send all bug reports to the above address.

       The latest version of shntool can always be found at
       <http://www.etree.org/shnutils/> or <http://shnutils.freeshell.org/>.


COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2000-2009 Jason Jordan

       This is free software.  You may redistribute copies of it under the
       terms of the GNU General Public License
       <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the
       extent permitted by law.


REVISION
       $Id: shntool.1,v 1.140 2009/03/30 05:59:25 jason Exp $



shntool 3.0.10                    March 2009                        SHNTOOL(1)