SHRED(1)                         User Commands                        SHRED(1)

       shred - delete a file securely, first overwriting it to hide its

       shred [OPTIONS] FILE [...]

       Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly, in order to make it harder
       for even very expensive hardware probing to recover the data.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

       -f, --force
              change permissions to allow writing if necessary

       -n, --iterations=N
              Overwrite N times instead of the default (25)

       -s, --size=N
              shred this many bytes (suffixes like K, M, G accepted)

       -u, --remove
              truncate and remove file after overwriting

       -v, --verbose
              show progress

       -x, --exact
              do not round file sizes up to the next full block;

              this is the default for non-regular files

       -z, --zero
              add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding

       -      shred standard output

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified.  The default is not to
       remove the files because it is common to operate on device files like
       /dev/hda, and those files usually should not be removed.  When
       operating on regular files, most people use the --remove option.

       CAUTION: Note that shred relies on a very important assumption: that
       the filesystem overwrites data in place.  This is the traditional way
       to do things, but many modern filesystem designs do not satisfy this
       assumption.  The following are examples of filesystems on which shred
       is not effective:

       * log-structured or journaled filesystems, such as those supplied with

              AIX and Solaris (and JFS, ReiserFS, XFS, Ext3, etc.)

       * filesystems that write redundant data and carry on even if some

              fail, such as RAID-based filesystems

       * filesystems that make snapshots, such as Network Appliance's NFS

       * filesystems that cache in temporary locations, such as NFS

              version 3 clients

       * compressed filesystems

       In addition, file system backups and remote mirrors may contain copies
       of the file that cannot be removed, and that will allow a shredded file
       to be recovered later.

       Written by Colin Plumb.

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR

       The full documentation for shred is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and shred programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info coreutils shred

       should give you access to the complete manual.

shred (coreutils) 5.2.1            May 2007                           SHRED(1)