sigaction

SIGACTION(3P)              POSIX Programmer's Manual             SIGACTION(3P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding
       Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.


NAME
       sigaction — examine and change a signal action

SYNOPSIS
       #include <signal.h>

       int sigaction(int sig, const struct sigaction *restrict act,
           struct sigaction *restrict oact);

DESCRIPTION
       The sigaction() function allows the calling process to examine and/or
       specify the action to be associated with a specific signal. The
       argument sig specifies the signal; acceptable values are defined in
       <signal.h>.

       The structure sigaction, used to describe an action to be taken, is
       defined in the <signal.h> header to include at least the following
       members:

      ┌────────────────┬───────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────┐
      │  Member Type   Member Name   Description               │
      ├────────────────┼───────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────┤
      │void(*) (int)   sa_handler    │Pointer to a signal-catching function  │
      │                │               │or one of the macros SIG_IGN or        │
      │                │               │SIG_DFL.                               │
      │sigset_t        sa_mask       │Additional set of signals to be        │
      │                │               │blocked during execution of signal-    │
      │                │               │catching function.                     │
      │int             sa_flags      │Special flags to affect behavior of    │
      │                │               │signal.                                │
      │void(*) (int,   sa_sigaction  │Pointer to a signal-catching function. │
      │  siginfo_t *,  │               │                                       │
      │void *)         │               │                                       │
      └────────────────┴───────────────┴───────────────────────────────────────┘
       The storage occupied by sa_handler and sa_sigaction may overlap, and a
       conforming application shall not use both simultaneously.

       If the argument act is not a null pointer, it points to a structure
       specifying the action to be associated with the specified signal. If
       the argument oact is not a null pointer, the action previously
       associated with the signal is stored in the location pointed to by the
       argument oact.  If the argument act is a null pointer, signal handling
       is unchanged; thus, the call can be used to enquire about the current
       handling of a given signal. The SIGKILL and SIGSTOP signals shall not
       be added to the signal mask using this mechanism; this restriction
       shall be enforced by the system without causing an error to be
       indicated.

       If the SA_SIGINFO flag (see below) is cleared in the sa_flags field of
       the sigaction structure, the sa_handler field identifies the action to
       be associated with the specified signal.  If the SA_SIGINFO flag is set
       in the sa_flags field, the sa_sigaction field specifies a signal-
       catching function.

       The sa_flags field can be used to modify the behavior of the specified
       signal.

       The following flags, defined in the <signal.h> header, can be set in
       sa_flags:

       SA_NOCLDSTOP  Do not generate SIGCHLD when children stop or stopped
                     children continue.

                     If sig is SIGCHLD and the SA_NOCLDSTOP flag is not set in
                     sa_flags, and the implementation supports the SIGCHLD
                     signal, then a SIGCHLD signal shall be generated for the
                     calling process whenever any of its child processes stop
                     and a SIGCHLD signal may be generated for the calling
                     process whenever any of its stopped child processes are
                     continued.  If sig is SIGCHLD and the SA_NOCLDSTOP flag
                     is set in sa_flags, then the implementation shall not
                     generate a SIGCHLD signal in this way.

       SA_ONSTACK    If set and an alternate signal stack has been declared
                     with sigaltstack(), the signal shall be delivered to the
                     calling process on that stack.  Otherwise, the signal
                     shall be delivered on the current stack.

       SA_RESETHAND  If set, the disposition of the signal shall be reset to
                     SIG_DFL and the SA_SIGINFO flag shall be cleared on entry
                     to the signal handler.

                     Note:     SIGILL and SIGTRAP cannot be automatically
                               reset when delivered; the system silently
                               enforces this restriction.

                     Otherwise, the disposition of the signal shall not be
                     modified on entry to the signal handler.

                     In addition, if this flag is set, sigaction() may behave
                     as if the SA_NODEFER flag were also set.

       SA_RESTART    This flag affects the behavior of interruptible
                     functions; that is, those specified to fail with errno
                     set to [EINTR].  If set, and a function specified as
                     interruptible is interrupted by this signal, the function
                     shall restart and shall not fail with [EINTR] unless
                     otherwise specified. If an interruptible function which
                     uses a timeout is restarted, the duration of the timeout
                     following the restart is set to an unspecified value that
                     does not exceed the original timeout value. If the flag
                     is not set, interruptible functions interrupted by this
                     signal shall fail with errno set to [EINTR].

       SA_SIGINFO    If cleared and the signal is caught, the signal-catching
                     function shall be entered as:

                         void func(int signo);

                     where signo is the only argument to the signal-catching
                     function. In this case, the application shall use the
                     sa_handler member to describe the signal-catching
                     function and the application shall not modify the
                     sa_sigaction member.

                     If SA_SIGINFO is set and the signal is caught, the
                     signal-catching function shall be entered as:

                         void func(int signo, siginfo_t *info, void *context);

                     where two additional arguments are passed to the signal-
                     catching function. The second argument shall point to an
                     object of type siginfo_t explaining the reason why the
                     signal was generated; the third argument can be cast to a
                     pointer to an object of type ucontext_t to refer to the
                     receiving thread's context that was interrupted when the
                     signal was delivered. In this case, the application shall
                     use the sa_sigaction member to describe the signal-
                     catching function and the application shall not modify
                     the sa_handler member.

                     The si_signo member contains the system-generated signal
                     number.

                     The si_errno member may contain implementation-defined
                     additional error information; if non-zero, it contains an
                     error number identifying the condition that caused the
                     signal to be generated.

                     The si_code member contains a code identifying the cause
                     of the signal, as described in Section 2.4.3, Signal
                     Actions.

       SA_NOCLDWAIT  If set, and sig equals SIGCHLD, child processes of the
                     calling processes shall not be transformed into zombie
                     processes when they terminate. If the calling process
                     subsequently waits for its children, and the process has
                     no unwaited-for children that were transformed into
                     zombie processes, it shall block until all of its
                     children terminate, and wait(), waitid(), and waitpid()
                     shall fail and set errno to [ECHILD].  Otherwise,
                     terminating child processes shall be transformed into
                     zombie processes, unless SIGCHLD is set to SIG_IGN.

       SA_NODEFER    If set and sig is caught, sig shall not be added to the
                     thread's signal mask on entry to the signal handler
                     unless it is included in sa_mask.  Otherwise, sig shall
                     always be added to the thread's signal mask on entry to
                     the signal handler.

       When a signal is caught by a signal-catching function installed by
       sigaction(), a new signal mask is calculated and installed for the
       duration of the signal-catching function (or until a call to either
       sigprocmask() or sigsuspend() is made). This mask is formed by taking
       the union of the current signal mask and the value of the sa_mask for
       the signal being delivered, and unless SA_NODEFER or SA_RESETHAND is
       set, then including the signal being delivered. If and when the user's
       signal handler returns normally, the original signal mask is restored.

       Once an action is installed for a specific signal, it shall remain
       installed until another action is explicitly requested (by another call
       to sigaction()), until the SA_RESETHAND flag causes resetting of the
       handler, or until one of the exec functions is called.

       If the previous action for sig had been established by signal(), the
       values of the fields returned in the structure pointed to by oact are
       unspecified, and in particular oact->sa_handler is not necessarily the
       same value passed to signal().  However, if a pointer to the same
       structure or a copy thereof is passed to a subsequent call to
       sigaction() via the act argument, handling of the signal shall be as if
       the original call to signal() were repeated.

       If sigaction() fails, no new signal handler is installed.

       It is unspecified whether an attempt to set the action for a signal
       that cannot be caught or ignored to SIG_DFL is ignored or causes an
       error to be returned with errno set to [EINVAL].

       If SA_SIGINFO is not set in sa_flags, then the disposition of
       subsequent occurrences of sig when it is already pending is
       implementation-defined; the signal-catching function shall be invoked
       with a single argument.  If SA_SIGINFO is set in sa_flags, then
       subsequent occurrences of sig generated by sigqueue() or as a result of
       any signal-generating function that supports the specification of an
       application-defined value (when sig is already pending) shall be queued
       in FIFO order until delivered or accepted; the signal-catching function
       shall be invoked with three arguments. The application specified value
       is passed to the signal-catching function as the si_value member of the
       siginfo_t structure.

       The result of the use of sigaction() and a sigwait() function
       concurrently within a process on the same signal is unspecified.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon successful completion, sigaction() shall return 0; otherwise, −1
       shall be returned, errno shall be set to indicate the error, and no new
       signal-catching function shall be installed.

ERRORS
       The sigaction() function shall fail if:

       EINVAL The sig argument is not a valid signal number or an attempt is
              made to catch a signal that cannot be caught or ignore a signal
              that cannot be ignored.

       ENOTSUP
              The SA_SIGINFO bit flag is set in the sa_flags field of the
              sigaction structure.

       The sigaction() function may fail if:

       EINVAL An attempt was made to set the action to SIG_DFL for a signal
              that cannot be caught or ignored (or both).

       In addition, the sigaction() function may fail if the SA_SIGINFO flag
       is set in the sa_flags field of the sigaction structure for a signal
       not in the range SIGRTMIN to SIGRTMAX.

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES
   Establishing a Signal Handler
       The following example demonstrates the use of sigaction() to establish
       a handler for the SIGINT signal.

           #include <signal.h>

           static void handler(int signum)
           {
               /* Take appropriate actions for signal delivery */
           }

           int main()
           {
               struct sigaction sa;

               sa.sa_handler = handler;
               sigemptyset(&sa.sa_mask);
               sa.sa_flags = SA_RESTART; /* Restart functions if
                                            interrupted by handler */
               if (sigaction(SIGINT, &sa, NULL) == −1)
                   /* Handle error */;

               /* Further code */
           }

APPLICATION USAGE
       The sigaction() function supersedes the signal() function, and should
       be used in preference. In particular, sigaction() and signal() should
       not be used in the same process to control the same signal.  The
       behavior of async-signal-safe functions, as defined in their respective
       DESCRIPTION sections, is as specified by this volume of POSIX.1‐2008,
       regardless of invocation from a signal-catching function. This is the
       only intended meaning of the statement that async-signal-safe functions
       may be used in signal-catching functions without restrictions.
       Applications must still consider all effects of such functions on such
       things as data structures, files, and process state. In particular,
       application developers need to consider the restrictions on
       interactions when interrupting sleep() and interactions among multiple
       handles for a file description. The fact that any specific function is
       listed as async-signal-safe does not necessarily mean that invocation
       of that function from a signal-catching function is recommended.

       In order to prevent errors arising from interrupting non-async-signal-
       safe function calls, applications should protect calls to these
       functions either by blocking the appropriate signals or through the use
       of some programmatic semaphore (see semget(), sem_init(), sem_open(),
       and so on). Note in particular that even the ``safe'' functions may
       modify errno; the signal-catching function, if not executing as an
       independent thread, should save and restore its value in order to avoid
       the possibility that delivery of a signal in between an error return
       from a function that sets errno and the subsequent examination of errno
       could result in the signal-catching function changing the value of
       errno.  Naturally, the same principles apply to the async-signal-safety
       of application routines and asynchronous data access. Note that
       longjmp() and siglongjmp() are not in the list of async-signal-safe
       functions. This is because the code executing after longjmp() and
       siglongjmp() can call any unsafe functions with the same danger as
       calling those unsafe functions directly from the signal handler.
       Applications that use longjmp() and siglongjmp() from within signal
       handlers require rigorous protection in order to be portable. Many of
       the other functions that are excluded from the list are traditionally
       implemented using either malloc() or free() functions or the standard
       I/O library, both of which traditionally use data structures in a non-
       async-signal-safe manner. Since any combination of different functions
       using a common data structure can cause async-signal-safety problems,
       this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 does not define the behavior when any
       unsafe function is called in a signal handler that interrupts an unsafe
       function.

       Usually, the signal is executed on the stack that was in effect before
       the signal was delivered. An alternate stack may be specified to
       receive a subset of the signals being caught.

       When the signal handler returns, the receiving thread resumes execution
       at the point it was interrupted unless the signal handler makes other
       arrangements. If longjmp() or _longjmp() is used to leave the signal
       handler, then the signal mask must be explicitly restored.

       This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 defines the third argument of a signal
       handling function when SA_SIGINFO is set as a void * instead of a
       ucontext_t *, but without requiring type checking. New applications
       should explicitly cast the third argument of the signal handling
       function to ucontext_t *.

       The BSD optional four argument signal handling function is not
       supported by this volume of POSIX.1‐2008. The BSD declaration would be:

           void handler(int sig, int code, struct sigcontext *scp,
               char *addr);

       where sig is the signal number, code is additional information on
       certain signals, scp is a pointer to the sigcontext structure, and addr
       is additional address information. Much the same information is
       available in the objects pointed to by the second argument of the
       signal handler specified when SA_SIGINFO is set.

       Since the sigaction() function is allowed but not required to set
       SA_NODEFER when the application sets the SA_RESETHAND flag,
       applications which depend on the SA_RESETHAND functionality for the
       newly installed signal handler must always explicitly set SA_NODEFER
       when they set SA_RESETHAND in order to be portable.

       See also the rationale for Realtime Signal Generation and Delivery in
       the Rationale (Informative) volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section B.2.4.2,
       Signal Generation and Delivery.

RATIONALE
       Although this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 requires that signals that cannot
       be ignored shall not be added to the signal mask when a signal-catching
       function is entered, there is no explicit requirement that subsequent
       calls to sigaction() reflect this in the information returned in the
       oact argument. In other words, if SIGKILL is included in the sa_mask
       field of act, it is unspecified whether or not a subsequent call to
       sigaction() returns with SIGKILL included in the sa_mask field of oact.

       The SA_NOCLDSTOP flag, when supplied in the act->sa_flags parameter,
       allows overloading SIGCHLD with the System V semantics that each SIGCLD
       signal indicates a single terminated child. Most conforming
       applications that catch SIGCHLD are expected to install signal-catching
       functions that repeatedly call the waitpid() function with the WNOHANG
       flag set, acting on each child for which status is returned, until
       waitpid() returns zero. If stopped children are not of interest, the
       use of the SA_NOCLDSTOP flag can prevent the overhead from invoking the
       signal-catching routine when they stop.

       Some historical implementations also define other mechanisms for
       stopping processes, such as the ptrace() function. These
       implementations usually do not generate a SIGCHLD signal when processes
       stop due to this mechanism; however, that is beyond the scope of this
       volume of POSIX.1‐2008.

       This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 requires that calls to sigaction() that
       supply a NULL act argument succeed, even in the case of signals that
       cannot be caught or ignored (that is, SIGKILL or SIGSTOP).  The System
       V signal() and BSD sigvec() functions return [EINVAL] in these cases
       and, in this respect, their behavior varies from sigaction().

       This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 requires that sigaction() properly save and
       restore a signal action set up by the ISO C standard signal() function.
       However, there is no guarantee that the reverse is true, nor could
       there be given the greater amount of information conveyed by the
       sigaction structure. Because of this, applications should avoid using
       both functions for the same signal in the same process. Since this
       cannot always be avoided in case of general-purpose library routines,
       they should always be implemented with sigaction().

       It was intended that the signal() function should be implementable as a
       library routine using sigaction().

       The POSIX Realtime Extension extends the sigaction() function as
       specified by the POSIX.1‐1990 standard to allow the application to
       request on a per-signal basis via an additional signal action flag that
       the extra parameters, including the application-defined signal value,
       if any, be passed to the signal-catching function.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       Section 2.4, Signal Concepts, exec, kill(), _longjmp(), longjmp(),
       pthread_sigmask(), raise(), semget(), sem_init(), sem_open(),
       sigaddset(), sigaltstack(), sigdelset(), sigemptyset(), sigfillset(),
       sigismember(), signal(), sigsuspend(), wait(), waitid()

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <signal.h>

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of
       Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2013                        SIGACTION(3P)