SLAPD-SQL(5)                  File Formats Manual                 SLAPD-SQL(5)

       slapd-sql - SQL backend to slapd


       The primary purpose of this slapd(8) backend is to PRESENT information
       stored in some RDBMS as an LDAP subtree without any programming (some
       SQL and maybe stored procedures can't be considered programming, anyway

       That is, for example, when you (some ISP) have account information you
       use in an RDBMS, and want to use modern solutions that expect such
       information in LDAP (to authenticate users, make email lookups etc.).
       Or you want to synchronize or distribute information between different
       sites/applications that use RDBMSes and/or LDAP.  Or whatever else...

       It is NOT designed as a general-purpose backend that uses RDBMS instead
       of BerkeleyDB (as the standard BDB backend does), though it can be used
       as such with several limitations.  You can take a look at (OpenLDAP
       FAQ-O-Matic/General LDAP FAQ/Directories vs. conventional databases) to
       find out more on this point.

       The idea (detailed below) is to use some meta-information to translate
       LDAP queries to SQL queries, leaving relational schema untouched, so
       that old applications can continue using it without any modifications.
       This allows SQL and LDAP applications to inter-operate without
       replication, and exchange data as needed.

       The SQL backend is designed to be tunable to virtually any relational
       schema without having to change source (through that meta-information
       mentioned).  Also, it uses ODBC to connect to RDBMSes, and is highly
       configurable for SQL dialects RDBMSes may use, so it may be used for
       integration and distribution of data on different RDBMSes, OSes, hosts
       etc., in other words, in highly heterogeneous environment.

       This backend is experimental.

       These slapd.conf options apply to the SQL backend database, which means
       that they must follow a "database sql" line and come before any
       subsequent "backend" or "database" lines.  Other database options not
       specific to this backend are described in the slapd.conf(5) manual

       dbname <datasource name>
              The name of the ODBC datasource to use.

       dbhost <hostname>
       dbpasswd <password>
       dbuser <username>
              The three above options are generally unneeded, because this
              information is taken from the datasource specified by the dbname
              directive.  They allow to override datasource settings.  Also,
              several RDBMS' drivers tend to require explicit passing of
              user/password, even if those are given in datasource (Note:
              dbhost is currently ignored).

       These options specify SQL query templates for scoping searches.

       subtree_cond <SQL expression>
              Specifies a where-clause template used to form a subtree search
              condition (dn="(.+,)?<dn>$").  It may differ from one SQL
              dialect to another (see samples).  By default, it is constructed
              based on the knowledge about how to normalize DN values (e.g.
              "<upper_func>(ldap_entries.dn) LIKE CONCAT('%',?)"); see
              upper_func, upper_needs_cast, concat_pattern and strcast_func in
              "HELPER CONFIGURATION" for details.

       children_cond <SQL expression>
              Specifies a where-clause template used to form a children search
              condition (dn=".+,<dn>$").  It may differ from one SQL dialect
              to another (see samples).  By default, it is constructed based
              on the knowledge about how to normalize DN values (e.g.
              "<upper_func>(ldap_entries.dn) LIKE CONCAT('%,',?)"); see
              upper_func, upper_needs_cast, concat_pattern and strcast_func in
              "HELPER CONFIGURATION" for details.

       use_subtree_shortcut { YES | no }
              Do not use the subtree condition when the searchBase is the
              database suffix, and the scope is subtree; rather collect all

       These options specify SQL query templates for loading schema mapping
       meta-information, adding and deleting entries to ldap_entries, etc.
       All these and subtree_cond should have the given default values.  For
       the current value it is recommended to look at the sources, or in the
       log output when slapd starts with "-d 5" or greater.  Note that the
       parameter number and order must not be changed.

       oc_query <SQL expression>
              The query that is used to collect the objectClass mapping data
              from table ldap_oc_mappings; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for
              details.  The default is "SELECT id, name, keytbl, keycol,
              create_proc, delete_proc, expect_return FROM ldap_oc_mappings".

       at_query <SQL expression>
              The query that is used to collect the attributeType mapping data
              from table ldap_attr_mappings; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for
              details.  The default is "SELECT name, sel_expr, from_tbls,
              join_where, add_proc, delete_proc, param_order, expect_return
              FROM ldap_attr_mappings WHERE oc_map_id=?".

       id_query <SQL expression>
              The query that is used to map a DN to an entry in table
              ldap_entries; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for details.  The
              default is "SELECT id,keyval,oc_map_id,dn FROM ldap_entries
              WHERE <DN match expr>", where <DN match expr> is constructed
              based on the knowledge about how to normalize DN values (e.g.
              "dn=?" if no means to uppercase strings are available;
              typically, "<upper_func>(dn)=?" is used); see upper_func,
              upper_needs_cast, concat_pattern and strcast_func in "HELPER
              CONFIGURATION" for details.

       insentry_stmt <SQL expression>
              The statement that is used to insert a new entry in table
              ldap_entries; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for details.  The
              default is "INSERT INTO ldap_entries (dn, oc_map_id, parent,
              keyval) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)".

       delentry_stmt <SQL expression>
              The statement that is used to delete an existing entry from
              table ldap_entries; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for details.  The
              default is "DELETE FROM ldap_entries WHERE id=?".

       delobjclasses_stmt <SQL expression>
              The statement that is used to delete an existing entry's ID from
              table ldap_objclasses; see "METAINFORMATION USED" for details.
              The default is "DELETE FROM ldap_entry_objclasses WHERE

       These statements are used to modify the default behavior of the backend
       according to issues of the dialect of the RDBMS.  The first options
       essentially refer to string and DN normalization when building filters.
       LDAP normalization is more than upper- (or lower-)casing everything;
       however, as a reasonable trade-off, for case-sensitive RDBMSes the
       backend can be instructed to uppercase strings and DNs by providing the
       upper_func directive.  Some RDBMSes, to use functions on arbitrary data
       types, e.g. string constants, requires a cast, which is triggered by
       the upper_needs_cast directive.  If required, a string cast function
       can be provided as well, by using the strcast_func directive.  Finally,
       a custom string concatenation pattern may be required; it is provided
       by the concat_pattern directive.

       upper_func <SQL function name>
              Specifies the name of a function that converts a given value to
              uppercase.  This is used for case insensitive matching when the
              RDBMS is case sensitive.  It may differ from one SQL dialect to
              another (e.g. UCASE, UPPER or whatever; see samples).  By
              default, none is used, i.e. strings are not uppercased, so
              matches may be case sensitive.

       upper_needs_cast { NO | yes }
              Set this directive to yes if upper_func needs an explicit cast
              when applied to literal strings.  A cast in the form CAST (<arg>
              AS VARCHAR(<max DN length>)) is used, where <max DN length> is
              builtin in back-sql; see macro BACKSQL_MAX_DN_LEN (currently
              255; note that slapd's builtin limit, in macro
              SLAP_LDAPDN_MAXLEN, is set to 8192).  This is experimental and
              may change in future releases.

       strcast_func <SQL function name>
              Specifies the name of a function that converts a given value to
              a string for appropriate ordering.  This is used in "SELECT
              DISTINCT" statements for strongly typed RDBMSes with little
              implicit casting (like PostgreSQL), when a literal string is
              specified.  This is experimental and may change in future

       concat_pattern <pattern>
              This statement defines the pattern that is used to concatenate
              strings.  The pattern MUST contain two question marks, '?', that
              will be replaced by the two strings that must be concatenated.
              The default value is CONCAT(?,?); a form that is known to be
              highly portable (IBM db2, PostgreSQL) is ?||?, but an explicit
              cast may be required when operating on literal strings:
              CAST(?||? AS VARCHAR(<length>)).  On some RDBMSes (IBM db2,
              MSSQL) the form ?+?  is known to work as well.  Carefully check
              the documentation of your RDBMS or stay with the examples for
              supported ones.  This is experimental and may change in future

       aliasing_keyword <string>
              Define the aliasing keyword.  Some RDBMSes use the word "AS"
              (the default), others don't use any.

       aliasing_quote <string>
              Define the quoting char of the aliasing keyword.  Some RDBMSes
              don't require any (the default), others may require single or
              double quotes.

       has_ldapinfo_dn_ru { NO | yes }
              Explicitly inform the backend whether the dn_ru column (DN in
              reverse uppercased form) is present in table ldap_entries.
              Overrides automatic check (this is required, for instance, by
              PostgreSQL/unixODBC).  This is experimental and may change in
              future releases.

       fail_if_no_mapping { NO | yes }
              When set to yes it forces attribute write operations to fail if
              no appropriate mapping between LDAP attributes and SQL data is
              available.  The default behavior is to ignore those changes that
              cannot be mapped.  It has no impact on objectClass mapping, i.e.
              if the structuralObjectClass of an entry cannot be mapped to SQL
              by looking up its name in ldap_oc_mappings, an add operation
              will fail regardless of the fail_if_no_mapping switch; see
              section "METAINFORMATION USED" for details.  This is
              experimental and may change in future releases.

       allow_orphans { NO | yes }
              When set to yes orphaned entries (i.e. without the parent entry
              in the database) can be added.  This option should be used with
              care, possibly in conjunction with some special rule on the
              RDBMS side that dynamically creates the missing parent.

       baseObject [ <filename> ]
              Instructs the database to create and manage an in-memory
              baseObject entry instead of looking for one in the RDBMS.  If
              the (optional) <filename> argument is given, the entry is read
              from that file in LDIF(5) format; otherwise, an entry with
              objectClass extensibleObject is created based on the contents of
              the RDN of the baseObject.  This is particularly useful when
              ldap_entries information is stored in a view rather than in a
              table, and union is not supported for views, so that the view
              can only specify one rule to compute the entry structure for one
              objectClass.  This topic is discussed further in section
              "METAINFORMATION USED".  This is experimental and may change in
              future releases.

       create_needs_select { NO | yes }
              Instructs the database whether or not entry creation in table
              ldap_entries needs a subsequent select to collect the
              automatically assigned ID, instead of being returned by a stored

       fetch_attrs <attrlist>
       fetch_all_attrs { NO | yes }
              The first statement allows to provide a list of attributes that
              must always be fetched in addition to those requested by any
              specific operation, because they are required for the proper
              usage of the backend.  For instance, all attributes used in ACLs
              should be listed here.  The second statement is a shortcut to
              require all attributes to be always loaded.  Note that the
              dynamically generated attributes, e.g. hasSubordinates, entryDN
              and other implementation dependent attributes are NOT generated
              at this point, for consistency with the rest of slapd.  This may
              change in the future.

       check_schema { YES | no }
              Instructs the database to check schema adherence of entries
              after modifications, and structural objectClass chain when
              entries are built.  By default it is set to yes.

       sqllayer <name> [...]
              Loads the layer <name> onto a stack of helpers that are used to
              map DNs from LDAP to SQL representation and vice-versa.
              Subsequent args are passed to the layer configuration routine.
              This is highly experimental and should be used with extreme
              care.  The API of the layers is not frozen yet, so it is

       autocommit { NO | yes }
              Activates autocommit; by default, it is off.

       Almost everything mentioned later is illustrated in examples located in
       the servers/slapd/back-sql/rdbms_depend/ directory in the OpenLDAP
       source tree, and contains scripts for generating sample database for
       Oracle, MS SQL Server, mySQL and more (including PostgreSQL and IBM

       The first thing that one must arrange is what set of LDAP object
       classes can present your RDBMS information.

       The easiest way is to create an objectClass for each entity you had in
       ER-diagram when designing your relational schema.  Any relational
       schema, no matter how normalized it is, was designed after some model
       of your application's domain (for instance, accounts, services etc. in
       ISP), and is used in terms of its entities, not just tables of
       normalized schema.  It means that for every attribute of every such
       instance there is an effective SQL query that loads its values.

       Also you might want your object classes to conform to some of the
       standard schemas like inetOrgPerson etc.

       Nevertheless, when you think it out, we must define a way to translate
       LDAP operation requests to (a series of) SQL queries.  Let us deal with
       the SEARCH operation.

       Example: Let's suppose that we store information about persons working
       in our organization in two tables:

         PERSONS              PHONES
         ----------           -------------
         id integer           id integer
         first_name varchar   pers_id integer references persons(id)
         last_name varchar    phone
         middle_name varchar

       (PHONES contains telephone numbers associated with persons).  A person
       can have several numbers, then PHONES contains several records with
       corresponding pers_id, or no numbers (and no records in PHONES with
       such pers_id).  An LDAP objectclass to present such information could
       look like this:

         MUST cn
         MAY telephoneNumber $ firstName $ lastName

       To fetch all values for cn attribute given person ID, we construct the

         SELECT CONCAT(persons.first_name,' ',persons.last_name)
             AS cn FROM persons WHERE

       for telephoneNumber we can use:

         SELECT AS telephoneNumber FROM persons,phones
             WHERE AND

       If we wanted to service LDAP requests with filters like
       (telephoneNumber=123*), we would construct something like:

         SELECT ... FROM persons,phones
                 AND like '%1%2%3%'

       (note how the telephoneNumber match is expanded in multiple wildcards
       to account for interspersed ininfluential chars like spaces, dashes and
       so; this occurs by design because telephoneNumber is defined after a
       specially recognized syntax).  So, if we had information about what
       tables contain values for each attribute, how to join these tables and
       arrange these values, we could try to automatically generate such
       statements, and translate search filters to SQL WHERE clauses.

       To store such information, we add three more tables to our schema and
       fill it with data (see samples):

         ldap_oc_mappings (some columns are not listed for clarity)

       This table defines a mapping between objectclass (its name held in the
       "name" column), and a table that holds the primary key for
       corresponding entities.  For instance, in our example, the person
       entity, which we are trying to present as "person" objectclass, resides
       in two tables (persons and phones), and is identified by the
       column (that we will call the primary key for this entity).  Keytbl and
       keycol thus contain "persons" (name of the table), and "id" (name of
       the column).

         ldap_attr_mappings (some columns are not listed for clarity)
         sel_expr="CONCAT(persons.first_name,' ',persons.last_name)"

       This table defines mappings between LDAP attributes and SQL queries
       that load their values.  Note that, unlike LDAP schema, these are not
       attribute types - the attribute "cn" for "person" objectclass can have
       its values in different tables than "cn" for some other objectclass, so
       attribute mappings depend on objectclass mappings (unlike attribute
       types in LDAP schema, which are indifferent to objectclasses).  Thus,
       we have oc_map_id column with link to oc_mappings table.

       Now we cut the SQL query that loads values for a given attribute into 3
       parts.  First goes into sel_expr column - this is the expression we had
       between SELECT and FROM keywords, which defines WHAT to load.  Next is
       table list - text between FROM and WHERE keywords.  It may contain
       aliases for convenience (see examples).  The last is part of the where
       clause, which (if it exists at all) expresses the condition for joining
       the table containing values with the table containing the primary key
       (foreign key equality and such).  If values are in the same table as
       the primary key, then this column is left NULL (as for cn attribute

       Having this information in parts, we are able to not only construct
       queries that load attribute values by id of entry (for this we could
       store SQL query as a whole), but to construct queries that load id's of
       objects that correspond to a given search filter (or at least part of
       it).  See below for examples.

         dn=<dn you choose>
         parent=<parent record id>
         keyval=<value of primary key>

       This table defines mappings between DNs of entries in your LDAP tree,
       and values of primary keys for corresponding relational data.  It has
       recursive structure (parent column references id column of the same
       table), which allows you to add any tree structure(s) to your flat
       relational data.  Having id of objectclass mapping, we can determine
       table and column for primary key, and keyval stores value of it, thus
       defining the exact tuple corresponding to the LDAP entry with this DN.

       Note that such design (see exact SQL table creation query) implies one
       important constraint - the key must be an integer.  But all that I know
       about well-designed schemas makes me think that it's not very narrow ;)
       If anyone needs support for different types for keys - he may want to
       write a patch, and submit it to OpenLDAP ITS, then I'll include it.

       Also, several users complained that they don't really need very
       structured trees, and they don't want to update one more table every
       time they add or delete an instance in the relational schema.  Those
       people can use a view instead of a real table for ldap_entries,
       something like this (by Robin Elfrink):

         CREATE VIEW ldap_entries (id, dn, oc_map_id, parent, keyval)
                 SELECT 0, UPPER('o=MyCompany,c=NL'),
                     3, 0, 'baseObject' FROM unixusers WHERE userid='root'
                 SELECT (1000000000+userid),
                     1, 0, userid FROM unixusers
                 SELECT (2000000000+groupnummer),
                     2, 0, groupnummer FROM groups;

       If your RDBMS does not support unions in views, only one objectClass
       can be mapped in ldap_entries, and the baseObject cannot be created; in
       this case, see the baseObject directive for a possible workaround.

       Having meta-information loaded, the SQL backend uses these tables to
       determine a set of primary keys of candidates (depending on search
       scope and filter).  It tries to do it for each objectclass registered
       in ldap_objclasses.

       Example: for our query with filter (telephoneNumber=123*) we would get
       the following query generated (which loads candidate IDs)

         SELECT,, 'person' AS objectClass,
                ldap_entries.dn AS dn
           FROM ldap_entries,persons,phones
            AND ldap_entries.objclass=?
            AND ldap_entries.parent=?
            AND ( LIKE '%1%2%3%')

       (for ONELEVEL search) or "... AND dn=?" (for BASE search) or "... AND
       dn LIKE '%?'" (for SUBTREE)

       Then, for each candidate, we load the requested attributes using per-
       attribute queries like

         SELECT AS telephoneNumber
           FROM persons,phones
          WHERE AND

       Then, we use test_filter() from the frontend API to test the entry for
       a full LDAP search filter match (since we cannot effectively make sense
       of SYNTAX of corresponding LDAP schema attribute, we translate the
       filter into the most relaxed SQL condition to filter candidates), and
       send it to the user.

       ADD, DELETE, MODIFY and MODRDN operations are also performed on per-
       attribute meta-information (add_proc etc.).  In those fields one can
       specify an SQL statement or stored procedure call which can add, or
       delete given values of a given attribute, using the given entry keyval
       (see examples -- mostly PostgreSQL, ORACLE and MSSQL - since as of this
       writing there are no stored procs in MySQL).

       We just add more columns to ldap_oc_mappings and ldap_attr_mappings,
       holding statements to execute (like create_proc, add_proc, del_proc
       etc.), and flags governing the order of parameters passed to those
       statements.  Please see samples to find out what are the parameters
       passed, and other information on this matter - they are self-
       explanatory for those familiar with the concepts expressed above.

       First of all, let's recall that among other major differences to the
       complete LDAP data model, the above illustrated concept does not
       directly support such features as multiple objectclasses per entry, and
       referrals.  Fortunately, they are easy to adopt in this scheme.  The
       SQL backend requires that one more table is added to the schema:

       That table contains any number of objectclass names that corresponding
       entries will possess, in addition to that mentioned in mapping.  The
       SQL backend automatically adds attribute mapping for the "objectclass"
       attribute to each objectclass mapping that loads values from this
       table.  So, you may, for instance, have a mapping for inetOrgPerson,
       and use it for queries for "person" objectclass...

       Referrals used to be implemented in a loose manner by adding an extra
       table that allowed any entry to host a "ref" attribute, along with a
       "referral" extra objectClass in table ldap_entry_objclasses.  In the
       current implementation, referrals are treated like any other user-
       defined schema, since "referral" is a structural objectclass.  The
       suggested practice is to define a "referral" entry in ldap_oc_mappings,
       holding a naming attribute, e.g. "ou" or "cn", a "ref" attribute,
       containing the url; in case multiple referrals per entry are needed, a
       separate table for urls can be created, where urls are mapped to the
       respective entries.  The use of the naming attribute usually requires
       to add an "extensibleObject" value to ldap_entry_objclasses.

       As previously stated, this backend should not be considered a
       replacement of other data storage backends, but rather a gateway to
       existing RDBMS storages that need to be published in LDAP form.

       The hasSubordintes operational attribute is honored by back-sql in
       search results and in compare operations; it is partially honored also
       in filtering.  Owing to design limitations, a (brain-dead?) filter of
       the form (!(hasSubordinates=TRUE)) will give no results instead of
       returning all the leaf entries, because it actually expands into ...
       AND NOT (1=1).  If you need to find all the leaf entries, please use
       (hasSubordinates=FALSE) instead.

       A directoryString value of the form "__First___Last_" (where
       underscores mean spaces, ASCII 0x20 char) corresponds to its prettified
       counterpart "First_Last"; this is not currently honored by back-sql if
       non-prettified data is written via RDBMS; when non-prettified data is
       written through back-sql, the prettified values are actually used

       When the ldap_entry_objclasses table is empty, filters on the
       objectClass attribute erroneously result in no candidates.  A
       workaround consists in adding at least one row to that table, no matter
       if valid or not.

       The proxy cache overlay allows caching of LDAP search requests
       (queries) in a local database.  See slapo-pcache(5) for details.

       There are example SQL modules in the slapd/back-sql/rdbms_depend/
       directory in the OpenLDAP source tree.

       The sql backend honors access control semantics as indicated in
       slapd.access(5) (including the disclose access privilege when enabled
       at compile time).

              default slapd configuration file

       slapd.conf(5), slapd(8).

OpenLDAP 2.4.40                   2014/09/20                      SLAPD-SQL(5)