OPENSSL(1)                           OpenSSL                          OPENSSL(1)

       openssl - OpenSSL command line tool

       openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ]

       openssl [ list-standard-commands list-message-digest-commands list-
       cipher-commands ]

       openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]

       OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer
       (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and
       related cryptography standards required by them.

       The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various
       cryptography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell.  It
       can be used for

        o  Creation of RSA, DH and DSA key parameters
        o  Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
        o  Calculation of Message Digests
        o  Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
        o  SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
        o  Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail

       The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the
       SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and
       arguments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS).

       The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-commands,
       and list-cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names
       of all standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher commands,
       respectively, that are available in the present openssl utility.

       The pseudo-command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name
       is available.  If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and
       prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX.  In both cases, the
       output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.  Additional
       command line arguments are always ignored.  Since for each cipher there
       is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for shell
       scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program.
       (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit,
       list-...-commands, or no-XXX itself.)


       asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence.

       ca        Certificate Authority (CA) Management.

       ciphers   Cipher Suite Description Determination.

       crl       Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.

       crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.

       dgst      Message Digest Calculation.

       dh        Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       dsa       DSA Data Management.

       dsaparam  DSA Parameter Generation.

       enc       Encoding with Ciphers.

       errstr    Error Number to Error String Conversion.

       dhparam   Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.

       gendh     Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       gendsa    Generation of DSA Parameters.

       genrsa    Generation of RSA Parameters.

       passwd    Generation of hashed passwords.

       pkcs12    PKCS#12 Data Management.

       pkcs7     PKCS#7 Data Management.

       rand      Generate pseudo-random bytes.

       req       X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.

       rsa       RSA Data Management.

       rsautl    RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and

       s_client  This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a
                 transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS.
                 It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only
                 rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly
                 all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.

       s_server  This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts
                 connections from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended
                 for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary
                 interface functionality but internally uses mostly all
                 functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.  It provides both an
                 own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions
                 and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an SSL/TLS-aware

       s_time    SSL Connection Timer.

       sess_id   SSL Session Data Management.

       smime     S/MIME mail processing.

       speed     Algorithm Speed Measurement.

       verify    X.509 Certificate Verification.

       version   OpenSSL Version Information.

       x509      X.509 Certificate Data Management.


       md2       MD2 Digest

       md5       MD5 Digest

       mdc2      MDC2 Digest

       rmd160    RMD-160 Digest

       sha       SHA Digest

       sha1      SHA-1 Digest


       base64    Base64 Encoding

       bf bf-cbc bf-cfb bf-ecb bf-ofb
                 Blowfish Cipher

       cast cast-cbc
                 CAST Cipher

       cast5-cbc cast5-cfb cast5-ecb cast5-ofb
                 CAST5 Cipher

       des des-cbc des-cfb des-ecb des-ede des-ede-cbc des-ede-cfb des-ede-ofb
                 DES Cipher

       des3 desx des-ede3 des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofb
                 Triple-DES Cipher

       idea idea-cbc idea-cfb idea-ecb idea-ofb
                 IDEA Cipher

       rc2 rc2-cbc rc2-cfb rc2-ecb rc2-ofb
                 RC2 Cipher

       rc4       RC4 Cipher

       rc5 rc5-cbc rc5-cfb rc5-ecb rc5-ofb
                 RC5 Cipher

       Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and
       -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the
       password to be obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these options
       take a single argument whose format is described below. If no password
       argument is given and a password is required then the user is prompted to
       enter one: this will typically be read from the current terminal with
       echoing turned off.

                 the actual password is password. Since the password is visible
                 to utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only be
                 used where security is not important.

       env:var   obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since
                 the environment of other processes is visible on certain
                 platforms (e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option should
                 be used with caution.

                 the first line of pathname is the password. If the same
                 pathname argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments
                 then the first line will be used for the input password and the
                 next line for the output password. pathname need not refer to a
                 regular file: it could for example refer to a device or named

       fd:number read the password from the file descriptor number. This can be
                 used to send the data via a pipe for example.

       stdin     read the password from standard input.

       asn1parse(1), ca(1), config(5), crl(1), crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1),
       dhparam(1), dsa(1), dsaparam(1), enc(1), gendsa(1), genrsa(1), nseq(1),
       openssl(1), passwd(1), pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1), rand(1), req(1),
       rsa(1), rsautl(1), s_client(1), s_server(1), smime(1), spkac(1),
       verify(1), version(1), x509(1), crypto(3), ssl(3)

       The openssl(1) document appeared in OpenSSL 0.9.2.  The list-XXX-commands
       pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.3; the no-XXX pseudo-commands
       were added in OpenSSL 0.9.5a.  For notes on the availability of other
       commands, see their individual manual pages.

3rd Berkeley Distribution            0.9.6e                           OPENSSL(1)