STANDARDS(7)               Linux Programmer's Manual              STANDARDS(7)

       standards - C and UNIX Standards

       The CONFORMING TO section that appears in many manual pages identifies
       various standards to which the documented interface conforms.  The
       following list briefly describes these standards.

       V7     Version 7 (also known as Seventh Edition) UNIX, released by
              AT&T/Bell Labs in 1979.  After this point, UNIX systems diverged
              into two main dialects: BSD and System V.

       4.2BSD This is an implementation standard defined by the 4.2 release of
              the Berkeley Software Distribution, released by the University
              of California at Berkeley.  This was the first Berkeley release
              that contained a TCP/IP stack and the sockets API.  4.2BSD was
              released in 1983.

              Earlier major BSD releases included 3BSD (1980), 4BSD (1980),
              and 4.1BSD (1981).

       4.3BSD The successor to 4.2BSD, released in 1986.

       4.4BSD The successor to 4.3BSD, released in 1993.  This was the last
              major Berkeley release.

       System V
              This is an implementation standard defined by AT&T's milestone
              1983 release of its commercial System V (five) release.  The
              previous major AT&T release was System III, released in 1981.

       System V release 2 (SVr2)
              This was the next System V release, made in 1985.  The SVr2 was
              formally described in the System V Interface Definition version
              1 (SVID 1) published in 1985.

       System V release 3 (SVr3)
              This was the successor to SVr2, released in 1986.  This release
              was formally described in the System V Interface Definition
              version 2 (SVID 2).

       System V release 4 (SVr4)
              This was the successor to SVr3, released in 1989.  This version
              of System V is described in the "Programmer's Reference Manual:
              Operating System API (Intel processors)" (Prentice-Hall 1992,
              ISBN 0-13-951294-2) This release was formally described in the
              System V Interface Definition version 3 (SVID 3), and is
              considered the definitive System V release.

       SVID 4 System V Interface Definition version 4, issued in 1995.
              Available online at ⟨⟩.

       C89    This was the first C language standard, ratified by ANSI
              (American National Standards Institute) in 1989 (X3.159-1989).
              Sometimes this is known as ANSI C, but since C99 is also an ANSI
              standard, this term is ambiguous.  This standard was also
              ratified by ISO (International Standards Organization) in 1990
              (ISO/IEC 9899:1990), and is thus occasionally referred to as ISO

       C99    This revision of the C language standard was ratified by ISO in
              1999 (ISO/IEC 9899:1999).  Available online at

       C11    This revision of the C language standard was ratified by ISO in
              2011 (ISO/IEC 9899:2011).

              "Portable Operating System Interface for Computing
              Environments".  IEEE 1003.1-1990 part 1, ratified by ISO in 1990
              (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990).  The term "POSIX" was coined by Richard

              IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, describing commands and utilities,
              ratified by ISO in 1993 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993).

       POSIX.1b (formerly known as POSIX.4)
              IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993, describing real-time facilities for
              portable operating systems, ratified by ISO in 1996 (ISO/IEC

              IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995, which describes the POSIX threads

              IEEE Std 1003.1c-1999, which describes additional real-time

              IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000, which describes networking APIs
              (including sockets).

              IEEE Std 1003.1j-2000, which describes advanced real-time

              A 1996 revision of POSIX.1 which incorporated POSIX.1b and

       XPG3   Released in 1989, this was the first significant release of the
              X/Open Portability Guide, produced by the X/Open Company, a
              multivendor consortium.  This multivolume guide was based on the
              POSIX standards.

       XPG4   A revision of the X/Open Portability Guide, released in 1992.

       XPG4v2 A 1994 revision of XPG4.  This is also referred to as Spec 1170,
              where 1170 referred to the number of interfaces defined by this

       SUS (SUSv1)
              Single UNIX Specification.  This was a repackaging of XPG4v2 and
              other X/Open standards (X/Open Curses Issue 4 version 2, X/Open
              Networking Service (XNS) Issue 4).  Systems conforming to this
              standard can be branded UNIX 95.

       SUSv2  Single UNIX Specification version 2.  Sometimes also referred to
              as XPG5.  This standard appeared in 1997.  Systems conforming to
              this standard can be branded UNIX 98.  See also

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
              This was a 2001 revision and consolidation of the POSIX.1,
              POSIX.2, and SUS standards into a single document, conducted
              under the auspices of the Austin Group ⟨
              /austin/⟩.  The standard is available online at
              ⟨⟩, and the interfaces that
              it describes are also available in the Linux manual pages
              package under sections 1p and 3p (e.g., "man 3p open").

              The standard defines two levels of conformance: POSIX
              conformance, which is a baseline set of interfaces required of a
              conforming system; and XSI Conformance, which additionally
              mandates a set of interfaces (the "XSI extension") which are
              only optional for POSIX conformance.  XSI-conformant systems can
              be branded UNIX 03.  (XSI conformance constitutes the Single
              UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3).)

              The POSIX.1-2001 document is broken into four parts:

              XBD: Definitions, terms and concepts, header file

              XSH: Specifications of functions (i.e., system calls and library
              functions in actual implementations).

              XCU: Specifications of commands and utilities (i.e., the area
              formerly described by POSIX.2).

              XRAT: Informative text on the other parts of the standard.

              POSIX.1-2001 is aligned with C99, so that all of the library
              functions standardized in C99 are also standardized in

              Two Technical Corrigenda (minor fixes and improvements) of the
              original 2001 standard have occurred: TC1 in 2003 (also known as
              POSIX.1-2003), and TC2 in 2004 (also known as POSIX.1-2004).

       POSIX.1-2008, SUSv4
              Work on the next revision of POSIX.1/SUS was completed and
              ratified in 2008.

              The changes in this revision are not as large as those that
              occurred for POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3, but a number of new interfaces
              are added and various details of existing specifications are
              modified.  Many of the interfaces that were optional in
              POSIX.1-2001 become mandatory in the 2008 revision of the
              standard.  A few interfaces that are present in POSIX.1-2001 are
              marked as obsolete in POSIX.1-2008, or removed from the standard

              The revised standard is broken into the same four parts as
              POSIX.1-2001, and again there are two levels of conformance: the
              baseline POSIX Conformance, and XSI Conformance, which mandates
              an additional set of interfaces beyond those in the base

              In general, where the CONFORMING TO section of a manual page
              lists POSIX.1-2001, it can be assumed that the interface also
              conforms to POSIX.1-2008, unless otherwise noted.

              Technical Corrigendum 1 (minor fixes and improvements) of this
              standard was released in 2013 (also known as POSIX.1-2013).

              Technical Corrigendum 2 of this standard was released in 2016
              (also known as POSIX.1-2016).

              Further information can be found on the Austin Group web site,

       getconf(1), confstr(3), pathconf(3), sysconf(3), attributes(7),
       feature_test_macros(7), libc(7), posixoptions(7)

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Linux                             2017-11-26                      STANDARDS(7)