strings






strings − print the strings of printable characters in
files.

strings [−afovV] [min‐len]
        [−n min‐len] [−−bytes=min‐len]
        [−t radix] [−−radix=radix]
        [−e encoding] [−−encoding=encoding]
        [] [−−all] [−−print−file−name]
        [−T bfdname] [−−target=bfdname]
        [−−help] [−−version] file...

For each file given, GNU strings prints the printable
character sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or
the number given with the options below) and are followed by
an unprintable character.

     Depending upon how the strings program was configured
it will default to either displaying all the printable
sequences that it can find in each file, or only those
sequences that are in loadable, initialized data sections.
If the file type in unrecognizable, or if strings is reading
from stdin then it will always display all of the printable
sequences that it can find.

     For backwards compatibility any file that occurs after
a command line option of just will also be scanned in
full, regardless of the presence of any −d option.

     strings is mainly useful for determining the contents
of non‐text files.



−a

−−all

Scan the whole file, regardless of what sections it
    contains or whether those sections are loaded or
    initialized.  Normally this is the default behaviour,
    but strings can be configured so that the −d is the
    default instead.

    The option is position dependent and forces strings to
    perform full scans of any file that is mentioned after
    the on the command line, even if the −d option has
    been specified.

−d

−−data
    Only print strings from initialized, loaded data
    sections in the file.  This may reduce the amount of
    garbage in the output, but it also exposes the strings









                             ‐2‐


    program to any security flaws that may be present in the
    BFD library used to scan and load sections.  Strings can
    be configured so that this option is the default
    behaviour.  In such cases the −a option can be used to
    avoid using the BFD library and instead just print all
    of the strings found in the file.

−f

−−print−file−name
    Print the name of the file before each string.

−−help
    Print a summary of the program usage on the standard
    output and exit.

min‐len

−n min‐len

−−bytes=min‐len
    Print sequences of characters that are at least min‐len
    characters long, instead of the default 4.

−o  Like −t o.  Some other versions of strings have −o act
    like −t d instead.  Since we can not be compatible with
    both ways, we simply chose one.

−t radix

−−radix=radix
    Print the offset within the file before each string.
    The single character argument specifies the radix of the
    offset−−−o for octal, x for hexadecimal, or d for
    decimal.

−e encoding

−−encoding=encoding
    Select the character encoding of the strings that are to
    be found.  Possible values for encoding are: s =
    single−7−bit−byte characters (ASCII, ISO 8859, etc.,
    default), S = single−8−bit−byte characters, b = 16−bit
    bigendian, l = 16−bit littleendian, B = 32−bit
    bigendian, L = 32−bit littleendian.  Useful for finding
    wide character strings. (l and b apply to, for example,
    Unicode UTF−16/UCS−2 encodings).

−T bfdname

−−target=bfdname
    Specify an object code format other than your system’s
    default format.










                             ‐3‐


−v

−V

−−version
    Print the program version number on the standard output
    and exit.

@file
    Read command‐line options from file.  The options read
    are inserted in place of the original @file option.  If
    file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
    will be treated literally, and not removed.

    Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A
    whitespace character may be included in an option by
    surrounding the entire option in either single or double
    quotes.  Any character (including a backslash) may be
    included by prefixing the character to be included with
    a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
    @file options; any such options will be processed
    recursively.

ar(1), nm(1), objdump(1), ranlib(1), readelf(1) and the Info
entries for binutils.

Copyright (c) 1991−2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify
this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with
no Front‐Cover Texts, and with no Back‐Cover Texts.  A copy
of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
Documentation License".