strptime

STRPTIME(3)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                STRPTIME(3)



NAME
       strptime - convert a string representation of time to a time tm structure

SYNOPSIS
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE       /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <time.h>

       char *strptime(const char *s, const char *format, struct tm *tm);

DESCRIPTION
       The strptime() function is the converse of strftime(3); it converts the
       character string pointed to by s to values which are stored in the
       "broken-down time" structure pointed to by tm, using the format specified
       by format.

       The broken-down time structure tm is defined in <time.h> as follows:

           struct tm {
               int tm_sec;    /* Seconds (0-60) */
               int tm_min;    /* Minutes (0-59) */
               int tm_hour;   /* Hours (0-23) */
               int tm_mday;   /* Day of the month (1-31) */
               int tm_mon;    /* Month (0-11) */
               int tm_year;   /* Year - 1900 */
               int tm_wday;   /* Day of the week (0-6, Sunday = 0) */
               int tm_yday;   /* Day in the year (0-365, 1 Jan = 0) */
               int tm_isdst;  /* Daylight saving time */
           };

       For more details on the tm structure, see ctime(3).

       The format argument is a character string that consists of field
       descriptors and text characters, reminiscent of scanf(3).  Each field
       descriptor consists of a % character followed by another character that
       specifies the replacement for the field descriptor.  All other characters
       in the format string must have a matching character in the input string,
       except for whitespace, which matches zero or more whitespace characters
       in the input string.  There should be whitespace or other alphanumeric
       characters between any two field descriptors.

       The strptime() function processes the input string from left to right.
       Each of the three possible input elements (whitespace, literal, or
       format) are handled one after the other.  If the input cannot be matched
       to the format string, the function stops.  The remainder of the format
       and input strings are not processed.

       The supported input field descriptors are listed below.  In case a text
       string (such as the name of a day of the week or a month name) is to be
       matched, the comparison is case insensitive.  In case a number is to be
       matched, leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %%     The % character.

       %a or %A
              The name of the day of the week according to the current locale,
              in abbreviated form or the full name.

       %b or %B or %h
              The month name according to the current locale, in abbreviated
              form or the full name.

       %c     The date and time representation for the current locale.

       %C     The century number (0–99).

       %d or %e
              The day of month (1–31).

       %D     Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.  (This is the American style date, very
              confusing to non-Americans, especially since %d/%m/%y is widely
              used in Europe.  The ISO 8601 standard format is %Y-%m-%d.)

       %H     The hour (0–23).

       %I     The hour on a 12-hour clock (1–12).

       %j     The day number in the year (1–366).

       %m     The month number (1–12).

       %M     The minute (0–59).

       %n     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %p     The locale's equivalent of AM or PM.  (Note: there may be none.)

       %r     The 12-hour clock time (using the locale's AM or PM).  In the
              POSIX locale equivalent to %I:%M:%S %p.  If t_fmt_ampm is empty in
              the LC_TIME part of the current locale, then the behavior is
              undefined.

       %R     Equivalent to %H:%M.

       %S     The second (0–60; 60 may occur for leap seconds; earlier also 61
              was allowed).

       %t     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %T     Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

       %U     The week number with Sunday the first day of the week (0–53).  The
              first Sunday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %w     The ordinal number of the day of the week (0–6), with Sunday = 0.

       %W     The week number with Monday the first day of the week (0–53).  The
              first Monday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %x     The date, using the locale's date format.

       %X     The time, using the locale's time format.

       %y     The year within century (0–99).  When a century is not otherwise
              specified, values in the range 69–99 refer to years in the
              twentieth century (1969–1999); values in the range 00–68 refer to
              years in the twenty-first century (2000–2068).

       %Y     The year, including century (for example, 1991).

       Some field descriptors can be modified by the E or O modifier characters
       to indicate that an alternative format or specification should be used.
       If the alternative format or specification does not exist in the current
       locale, the unmodified field descriptor is used.

       The E modifier specifies that the input string may contain alternative
       locale-dependent versions of the date and time representation:

       %Ec    The locale's alternative date and time representation.

       %EC    The name of the base year (period) in the locale's alternative
              representation.

       %Ex    The locale's alternative date representation.

       %EX    The locale's alternative time representation.

       %Ey    The offset from %EC (year only) in the locale's alternative
              representation.

       %EY    The full alternative year representation.

       The O modifier specifies that the numerical input may be in an
       alternative locale-dependent format:

       %Od or %Oe
              The day of the month using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols; leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %OH    The hour (24-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %OI    The hour (12-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %Om    The month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    The minutes using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    The seconds using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OU    The week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week)
              using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    The ordinal number of the day of the week (Sunday=0),
               using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OW    The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week)
              using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    The year (offset from %C) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

RETURN VALUE
       The return value of the function is a pointer to the first character not
       processed in this function call.  In case the input string contains more
       characters than required by the format string, the return value points
       right after the last consumed input character.  In case the whole input
       string is consumed, the return value points to the null byte at the end
       of the string.  If strptime() fails to match all of the format string and
       therefore an error occurred, the function returns NULL.

ATTRIBUTES
       For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

       ┌───────────┬───────────────┬────────────────────┐
       │Interface  Attribute     Value              │
       ├───────────┼───────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │strptime() │ Thread safety │ MT-Safe env locale │
       └───────────┴───────────────┴────────────────────┘
CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SUSv2.

NOTES
       In principle, this function does not initialize tm but stores only the
       values specified.  This means that tm should be initialized before the
       call.  Details differ a bit between different UNIX systems.  The glibc
       implementation does not touch those fields which are not explicitly
       specified, except that it recomputes the tm_wday and tm_yday field if any
       of the year, month, or day elements changed.

       The 'y' (year in century) specification is taken to specify a year in the
       range 1950–2049 by glibc 2.0.  It is taken to be a year in 1969–2068
       since glibc 2.1.

   Glibc notes
       For reasons of symmetry, glibc tries to support for strptime() the same
       format characters as for strftime(3).  (In most cases, the corresponding
       fields are parsed, but no field in tm is changed.)  This leads to

       %F     Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d, the ISO 8601 date format.

       %g     The year corresponding to the ISO week number, but without the
              century (0–99).

       %G     The year corresponding to the ISO week number.  (For example,
              1991.)

       %u     The day of the week as a decimal number (1–7, where Monday = 1).

       %V     The ISO 8601:1988 week number as a decimal number (1–53).  If the
              week (starting on Monday) containing 1 January has four or more
              days in the new year, then it is considered week 1.  Otherwise, it
              is the last week of the previous year, and the next week is week
              1.

       %z     An RFC-822/ISO 8601 standard timezone specification.

       %Z     The timezone name.

       Similarly, because of GNU extensions to strftime(3), %k is accepted as a
       synonym for %H, and %l should be accepted as a synonym for %I, and %P is
       accepted as a synonym for %p.  Finally

       %s     The number of seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
              (UTC).  Leap seconds are not counted unless leap second support is
              available.

       The glibc implementation does not require whitespace between two field
       descriptors.

EXAMPLES
       The following example demonstrates the use of strptime() and strftime(3).

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <string.h>
       #include <time.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           struct tm tm;
           char buf[255];

           memset(&tm, 0, sizeof(struct tm));
           strptime("2001-11-12 18:31:01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", &tm);
           strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d %b %Y %H:%M", &tm);
           puts(buf);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       time(2), getdate(3), scanf(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.08 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



GNU                                2020-06-09                        STRPTIME(3)