STRTOL(3)                   Linux Programmer's Manual                  STRTOL(3)

       strtol - convert a string to a long integer.

       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long integer value
       according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or
       be the special value 0.

       The string must begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign.
       If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a `0x' prefix, and the
       number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10
       (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is taken as
       8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long int value in the
       obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid
       digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in either
       upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth, with
       `Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
       the original value of nptr in *endptr.  (Thus, if *nptr is not `\0' but
       **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string is valid.)

       The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
       value would underflow or overflow.  If an underflow occurs, strtol()
       returns LONG_MIN.  If an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.  In
       both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.

       ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has been

       SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899

       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)

       Ignores the current locale.

GNU                               10 June 1995                         STRTOL(3)