style

STYLE(1)                         User commands                        STYLE(1)



NAME
       style - analyse surface characteristics of a document

SYNOPSIS
       style [-L language] [-l length] [-r ari] [file...]
       style [--language language] [--print-long length] [--print-ari ari]
       [file...]
       style -h|--help
       style --version

DESCRIPTION
       Style analyses the surface characteristics of the writing style of a
       document.  It prints various readability grades, length of words,
       sentences and paragraphs.  It can further locate sentences with certain
       characteristics.  If no files are given, the document is read from
       standard input.

       Numbers are counted as words with one syllable.  A sentence is a
       sequence of words, that starts with a capitalised word and ends with a
       full stop, double colon, question mark or exclaimation mark.  A single
       letter followed by a dot is considered an abbreviation, so it does not
       end a sentence.  Various multi-letter abbreviations are recognized,
       they do not end a sentence as well.  A paragraph consists of two or
       more new line characters.

       Style understands cpp(1) #line lines for being able to give precise
       locations when printing sentences.

   Kincaid Formula
       The Kincaid Formula has been developed for Navy training manuals, that
       ranged in difficulty from 5.5 to 16.3.  It is probably best applied to
       technical documents, because it is based on adult training manuals
       rather than school book text.  Dialogs (often found in fictional texts)
       are usually a series of short sentences, which lowers the score.  On
       the other hand, scientific texts with many long scientific terms are
       rated higher, although they are not neccessarily harder to read for
       people who are familar with those terms.

       Kincaid = 11.8*syllables/wds+0.39*wds/sentences-15.59

   Automated Readability Index
       The Automated Readability Index is typically higher than Kincaid and
       Coleman-Liau, but lower than Flesch.

       ARI = 4.71*chars/wds+0.5*wds/sentences-21.43

   Coleman-Liau Formula
       The Coleman-Liau Formula usually gives a lower grade than Kincaid, ARI
       and Flesch when applied to technical documents.

       Coleman-Liau = 5.89*chars/wds-0.3*sentences/(100*wds)-15.8

   Flesh reading easy formula
       The Flesh reading easy formula has been developed by Flesh in 1948 and
       it is based on school text covering grade 3 to 12.  It is wide spread,
       especially in the USA, because of good results and simple computation.
       The index is usually between 0 (hard) and 100 (easy), standard English
       documents averages approximately 60 to 70.  Applying it to German
       documents does not deliver good results because of the different
       language structure.

       Flesch Index = 206.835-84.6*syll/wds-1.015*wds/sent

   Fog Index
       The Fog index has been developed by Robert Gunning.  Its value is a
       school grade.  The ``ideal'' Fog Index level is 7 or 8.  A level above
       12 indicates the writing sample is too hard for most people to read.
       Only use it on texts of at least hundred words to get meaningful
       results.

       Fog Index = 0.4*(wds/sent+100*((wds >= 3 syll)/wds))

   WSTF Index
       The first new Vienna text formula (1. neue Wiener Sachtextformel, WSTF)
       has been developed for German documents and its result is a school
       grade that could read the text.

       WSTF Index =  0.1935*(wds >= 3 syllables)/wds
                    +0.1672*wds/sent
                    -0.1297*(wds > 6 characters)/wds
                    -0.0327*(wds = 1 syllable)/wds
                    -0.875

   Wheeler-Smith Index
       The Wheeler-Smith Index is mapped to school grades using a table:

       Wheeler-Smith Index = wds/sent*(wds >= 3 syll)/wds/10


              Index         16       20       24       29       34       38        42
              School year        5        6        7        8        9        10

   Lix formula
       The Lix formula developed by Björnsson from Sweden is very simple and
       employs a mapping table as well:

       Lix = wds/sent+(wds >= 6 char)/wds


              Index         34       38       41       44       48       51        54        57
              School year        5        6        7        8        9        10        11

   SMOG-Grading
       The SMOG-Grading for English texts has been developed by McLaughlin in
       1969.  Its result is a school grade.

       SMOG-Grading = square root of ((wds >= 3 syll)*sent/30) + 3

       It has been adapted to German by Bamberger & Vanecek in 1984, who
       changed the constant +3 to -2.

OPTIONS
       -L language, --language language
              set the document language.

       -l length, --print-long length
              print all sentences longer than length words.

       -r ari, --print-ari ari
              print all sentences whose readability index (ARI) is greater
              than ari.

       -h, --help
              Print a short usage message.

       --version
              Print the version.

ERRORS
       On usage errors, 1 is returned.  Termination caused by lack of memory
       is signalled by exit code 2.

ENVIRONMENT
       LC_MESSAGES=de|en
              specifies the default document language.  The default language
              is en.

       LC_CTYPE=iso-8859-1
              specifies the document character set.  The default character set
              is ASCII.

AUTHOR
       This program is GNU software, copyright 1997, 1998 Michael Haardt
       (michael@cantor.informatik.rwth-aachen.de).

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program.  If not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
       Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

HISTORY
       There has been a style command on old UNIX systems, which is now part
       of the AT&T DWB package.  The original version was bound to roff by
       enforcing a call to deroff.

SEE ALSO
       deroff(1), diction(1)

       Cherry, L.L.; Vesterman, W.: Writing Tools—The STYLE and DICTION
       programs, Computer Science Technical Report 91, Bell Laboratories,
       Murray Hill, N.J. (1981), republished as part of the 4.4BSD User's
       Supplementary Documents by O'Reilly.



GNU                             August 22, 1998                       STYLE(1)