SYSFS(5)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   SYSFS(5)

       sysfs - a filesystem for exporting kernel objects

       The sysfs filesystem is a pseudo-filesystem which provides an interface
       to kernel data structures.  (More precisely, the files and directories in
       sysfs provide a view of the kobject structures defined internally within
       the kernel.)  The files under sysfs provide information about devices,
       kernel modules, filesystems, and other kernel components.

       The sysfs filesystem is commonly mounted at /sys.  Typically, it is
       mounted automatically by the system, but it can also be mounted manually
       using a command such as:

           mount -t sysfs sysfs /sys

       Many of the files in the sysfs filesystem are read-only, but some files
       are writable, allowing kernel variables to be changed.  To avoid
       redundancy, symbolic links are heavily used to connect entries across the
       filesystem tree.

   Files and directories
       The following list describes some of the files and directories under the
       /sys hierarchy.

              This subdirectory contains one symbolic link for each block device
              that has been discovered on the system.  The symbolic links point
              to corresponding directories under /sys/devices.

              This directory contains one subdirectory for each of the bus types
              in the kernel.  Inside each of these directories are two

                     This subdirectory contains symbolic links to entries in
                     /sys/devices that correspond to the devices discovered on
                     this bus.

                     This subdirectory contains one subdirectory for each device
                     driver that is loaded on this bus.

              This subdirectory contains a single layer of further
              subdirectories for each of the device classes that have been
              registered on the system (e.g., terminals, network devices, block
              devices, graphics devices, sound devices, and so on).  Inside each
              of these subdirectories are symbolic links for each of the devices
              in this class.  These symbolic links refer to entries in the
              /sys/devices directory.

              Each of the entries in this directory is a symbolic link
              representing one of the real or virtual networking devices that
              are visible in the network namespace of the process that is
              accessing the directory.  Each of these symbolic links refers to
              entries in the /sys/devices directory.

              This directory contains two subdirectories block/ and char/,
              corresponding, respectively, to the block and character devices on
              the system.  Inside each of these subdirectories are symbolic
              links with names of the form major-ID:minor-ID, where the ID
              values correspond to the major and minor ID of a specific device.
              Each symbolic link points to the sysfs directory for a device.
              The symbolic links inside /sys/dev thus provide an easy way to
              look up the sysfs interface using the device IDs returned by a
              call to stat(2) (or similar).

              The following shell session shows an example from /sys/dev:

                  $ stat -c "%t %T" /dev/null
                  1 3
                  $ readlink /sys/dev/char/1\:3
                  $ ls -Fd /sys/devices/virtual/mem/null
                  $ ls -d1 /sys/devices/virtual/mem/null/*

              This is a directory that contains a filesystem representation of
              the kernel device tree, which is a hierarchy of device structures
              within the kernel.

              This subdirectory contains interfaces for viewing and manipulating
              firmware-specific objects and attributes.

              This directory contains subdirectories for some filesystems.  A
              filesystem will have a subdirectory here only if it chose to
              explicitly create the subdirectory.

              This directory conventionally is used as a mount point for a
              tmpfs(5) filesystem containing mount points for cgroups(7)

              The directory contains configuration files for the SMACK LSM.  See
              the kernel source file Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/Smack.rst.

              [To be documented]

              This subdirectory contains various files and subdirectories that
              provide information about the running kernel.

              For information about the files in this directory, see cgroups(7).

              Mount point for the tracefs filesystem used by the kernel's ftrace
              facility.  (For information on ftrace, see the kernel source file

              This subdirectory contains various files and subdirectories that
              provide information about the kernel's memory management

              This subdirectory contains one subdirectory for each of the huge
              page sizes that the system supports.  The subdirectory name
              indicates the huge page size (e.g., hugepages-2048kB).  Within
              each of these subdirectories is a set of files that can be used to
              view and (in some cases) change settings associated with that huge
              page size.  For further information, see the kernel source file

              This subdirectory contains one subdirectory for each module that
              is loaded into the kernel.  The name of each directory is the name
              of the module.  In each of the subdirectories, there may be
              following files:

                     [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              refcnt [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              taint  [to be documented]

              uevent [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              In each of the subdirectories, there may be following

                     [To be documented]

                     [To be documented]

              notes  [To be documented]

                     This directory contains one file for each module parameter,
                     with each file containing the value of the corresponding
                     parameter.  Some of these files are writable, allowing the

                     This subdirectories contains files with information about
                     module sections.  This information is mainly used for

              [To be documented]

              [To be documented]

       The sysfs filesystem first appeared in Linux 2.6.0.

       The sysfs filesystem is Linux-specific.

       This manual page is incomplete, possibly inaccurate, and is the kind of
       thing that needs to be updated very often.

       proc(5), udev(7)

       P. Mochel. (2005).  The sysfs filesystem.  Proceedings of the 2005 Ottawa
       Linux Symposium.

       The kernel source file Documentation/filesystems/sysfs.txt and various
       other files in Documentation/ABI and Documentation/*/sysfs.txt

       This page is part of release 5.12 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2021-03-22                           SYSFS(5)