SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)               systemd-analyze              SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] exit-status [STATUS...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] capability [CAPABILITY...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] condition CONDITION...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPEC...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timestamp TIMESTAMP...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
       statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
       system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit files.
       It is also used to access special functions useful for advanced system
       manager debugging.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

   systemd-analyze time
       This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has
       been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before
       normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system
       userspace took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply measure
       the time passed up to the point where all system services have been
       spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or
       the disk is idle.

       Example 1. Show how long the boot took

           # in a container
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 296ms (userspace)
  reached after 275ms in userspace

           # on a real machine
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 2.584s (kernel) + 19.176s (initrd) + 47.847s (userspace) = 1min 9.608s
  reached after 47.820s in userspace

   systemd-analyze blame
       This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they
       took to initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up
       times. Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of
       one service might be slow simply because it waits for the initialization
       of another service to complete. Also note: systemd-analyze blame doesn't
       display results for services with Type=simple, because systemd considers
       such services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the
       initialization delays can be done. Also note that this command only shows
       the time units took for starting up, it does not show how long unit jobs
       spent in the execution queue. In particular it shows the time units spent
       in "activating" state, which is not defined for units such as device
       units that transition directly from "inactive" to "active". This command
       hence gives an impression of the performance of program code, but cannot
       accurately reflect latency introduced by waiting for hardware and similar

       Example 2. Show which units took the most time during boot

           $ systemd-analyze blame
                    32.875s pmlogger.service
                    20.905s systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
                    13.299s dev-vda1.device
                       23ms sysroot.mount
                       11ms initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
                        3ms sys-kernel-config.mount

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
       This command prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units (for each
       of the specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time
       after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
       The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note
       that the output might be misleading as the initialization of services
       might depend on socket activation and because of the parallel execution
       of units. Also, similar to the blame command, this only takes into
       account the time units spent in "activating" state, and hence does not
       cover units that never went through an "activating" state (such as device
       units that transition directly from "inactive" to "active"). Moreover it
       does not show information on jobs (and in particular not jobs that timed

       Example 3. systemd-analyze critical-chain

           $ systemd-analyze critical-chain
           └─pmie.service @35.968s +548ms
             └─pmcd.service @33.715s +2.247s
               └─ @33.712s
                 └─systemd-networkd-wait-online.service @12.804s +20.905s
                   └─systemd-networkd.service @11.109s +1.690s
                     └─systemd-udevd.service @9.201s +1.904s
                       └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service @7.306s +1.776s
                         └─kmod-static-nodes.service @6.976s +177ms

   systemd-analyze dump
       This command outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization
       of the complete server state. Its format is subject to change without
       notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       Example 4. Show the internal state of user manager

           $ systemd-analyze --user dump
           Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           -> Unit proc-timer_list.mount:
                   Description: /proc/timer_list
           -> Unit
                   Description: Main user target

   systemd-analyze plot
       This command prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have
       been started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on

       Example 5. Plot a bootchart

           $ systemd-analyze plot >bootup.svg
           $ eog bootup.svg&

   systemd-analyze dot [pattern...]
       This command generates textual dependency graph description in dot format
       for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line
       like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg >systemd.svg to generate a graphical
       dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is passed, the generated
       graph will show both ordering and requirement dependencies. Optional
       pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given at
       the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these
       patterns match either the origin or destination node.

       Example 6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg >avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' \
                 | dot -Tsvg >targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

   systemd-analyze unit-paths
       This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit files, .d
       overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded. Combine with
       --user to retrieve the list for the user manager instance, and --global
       for the global configuration of user manager instances.

       Example 8. Show all paths for generated units

           $ systemd-analyze unit-paths | grep '^/run'

       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into systemd-analyze
       itself, and does not communicate with the running manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
       directories omitted.

   systemd-analyze exit-status [STATUS...]
       This command prints a list of exit statuses along with their "class",
       i.e. the source of the definition (one of "glibc", "systemd", "LSB", or
       "BSD"), see the Process Exit Codes section in systemd.exec(5). If no
       additional arguments are specified, all known statuses are are shown.
       Otherwise, only the definitions for the specified codes are shown.

       Example 9. Show some example exit status names

           $ systemd-analyze exit-status 0 1 {63..65}
           NAME    STATUS CLASS
           SUCCESS 0      glibc
           FAILURE 1      glibc
           -       63     -
           USAGE   64     BSD
           DATAERR 65     BSD

   systemd-analyze capability [CAPABILITY...]
       This command prints a list of Linux capabilities along with their numeric
       IDs. See capabilities(7) for details. If no argument is specified the
       full list of capabilities known to the service manager and the kernel is
       shown. Capabilities defined by the kernel but not known to the service
       manager are shown as "cap_???". Optionally, if arguments are specified
       they may refer to specific cabilities by name or numeric ID, in which
       case only the indicated capabilities are shown in the table.

       Example 10. Show some example capability names

           $ systemd-analyze capability 0 1 {30..32}
           NAME              NUMBER
           cap_chown              0
           cap_dac_override       1
           cap_audit_control     30
           cap_setfcap           31
           cap_mac_override      32

   systemd-analyze condition CONDITION...
       This command will evaluate Condition*=...  and Assert*=...  assignments,
       and print their values, and the resulting value of the combined condition
       set. See systemd.unit(5) for a list of available conditions and asserts.

       Example 11. Evaluate conditions that check kernel versions

           $ systemd-analyze condition 'ConditionKernelVersion = ! <4.0' \
                   'ConditionKernelVersion = >=5.1' \
                   'ConditionACPower=|false' \
                   'ConditionArchitecture=|!arm' \
           test.service: AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release succeeded.
           Asserts succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionArchitecture=|!arm succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionACPower=|false failed.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=>=5.1 succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=!<4.0 succeeded.
           Conditions succeeded.

   systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]
       This command will list system calls contained in the specified system
       call set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified. Argument SET
       must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze calendar EXPRESSION...
       This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time events,
       and will calculate when they elapse next. This takes the same input as
       the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5), following the syntax
       described in systemd.time(7). By default, only the next time the calendar
       expression will elapse is shown; use --iterations= to show the specified
       number of next times the expression elapses. Each time the expression
       elapses forms a timestamp, see the timestamp verb below.

       Example 12. Show leap days in the near future

           $ systemd-analyze calendar --iterations=5 '*-2-29 0:0:0'
             Original form: *-2-29 0:0:0
           Normalized form: *-02-29 00:00:00
               Next elapse: Sat 2020-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 11 months 15 days left
                  Iter. #2: Thu 2024-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 4 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #3: Tue 2028-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 8 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #4: Sun 2032-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 12 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #5: Fri 2036-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 16 years 11 months left

   systemd-analyze timestamp TIMESTAMP...
       This command parses a timestamp (i.e. a single point in time) and outputs
       the normalized form and the difference between this timestamp and now.
       The timestamp should adhere to the syntax documented in systemd.time(7),
       section "PARSING TIMESTAMPS".

       Example 13. Show parsing of timestamps

           $ systemd-analyze timestamp yesterday now tomorrow
             Original form: yesterday
           Normalized form: Mon 2019-05-20 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Sun 2019-05-19 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15583032000
                  From now: 1 day 9h ago

             Original form: now
           Normalized form: Tue 2019-05-21 09:48:39 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 07:48:39 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @1558424919.659757
                  From now: 43us ago

             Original form: tomorrow
           Normalized form: Wed 2019-05-22 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15584760000
                  From now: 14h left

   systemd-analyze timespan EXPRESSION...
       This command parses a time span (i.e. a difference between two
       timestamps) and outputs the normalized form and the equivalent value in
       microseconds. The time span should adhere to the syntax documented in
       systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIME SPANS". Values without units are
       parsed as seconds.

       Example 14. Show parsing of timespans

           $ systemd-analyze timespan 1s 300s '1year 0.000001s'
           Original: 1s
                 μs: 1000000
              Human: 1s

           Original: 300s
                 μs: 300000000
              Human: 5min

           Original: 1year 0.000001s
                 μs: 31557600000001
              Human: 1y 1us

   systemd-analyze cat-config NAME|PATH...
       This command is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config files.
       It will copy the contents of a config file and any drop-ins to standard
       output, using the usual systemd set of directories and rules for
       precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path including the
       prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or
       /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such as

       Example 15. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

   systemd-analyze verify FILE...
       This command will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are
       detected. Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but also
       any other units referenced by them. The full unit search path is formed
       by combining the directories for all command line arguments, and the
       usual unit load paths. The variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and
       may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths;
       see systemd.unit(5). All units files present in the directories
       containing the command line arguments will be used in preference to the
       other paths.

       The following errors are currently detected:

       •   unknown sections and directives,

       •   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       •   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,

       •   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the
           system or not executable.

       Example 16. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 17. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

   systemd-analyze security [UNIT...]
       This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one or more
       specified service units. If at least one unit name is specified the
       security settings of the specified service units are inspected and a
       detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is specified, all currently
       loaded, long-running service units are inspected and a terse table with
       results shown. The command checks for various security-related service
       settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on
       how important a setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level
       for the whole unit, which is an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0
       indicating how exposed a service is security-wise. High exposure levels
       indicate very little applied sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate
       tight sandboxing and strongest security restrictions. Note that this only
       analyzes the per-service security features systemd itself implements.
       This means that any additional security mechanisms applied by the service
       code itself are not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way
       should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means that
       there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor
       that the service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks. High
       exposure levels do indicate however that most likely the service might
       benefit from additional settings applied to them.

       Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings
       individually can be circumvented — unless combined with others. For
       example, if a service retains the privilege to establish or undo mount
       points many of the sandboxing options can be undone by the service code
       itself. Due to that is essential that each service uses the most
       comprehensive and strict sandboxing and security settings possible. The
       tool will take into account some of these combinations and relationships
       between the settings, but not all. Also note that the security and
       sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to the operations executed
       by the service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system
       (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services that are
       not subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and
       sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not
       validated too.

       Example 18. Analyze systemd-logind.service

           $ systemd-analyze security --no-pager systemd-logind.service
             NAME                DESCRIPTION                              EXPOSURE
           ✗ PrivateNetwork=     Service has access to the host's network      0.5
           ✗ User=/DynamicUser=  Service runs as root user                     0.4
           ✗ DeviceAllow=        Service has no device ACL                     0.2
           ✓ IPAddressDeny=      Service blocks all IP address ranges
           → Overall exposure level for systemd-logind.service: 4.1 OK 🙂

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd instance.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
           which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is
           passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
           --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=, Requisite=,
           Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this shows
           dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
           selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
           options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
           matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively, nodes
           of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name
           must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
           relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
           When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
           match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
           specified with those two options will trim the list of edges matched
           by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully determine
           the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above),
           also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the latest
           unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds unless
           specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man(1) to verify the existence of man pages listed in

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators
           require root privileges. Under a normal user, running with generators
           enabled will generally result in some warnings.

           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root path

           When used with the calendar command, show the specified number of
           iterations the specified calendar expression will elapse next.
           Defaults to 1.

           When used with the calendar command, show next iterations relative to
           the specified point in time. If not specified defaults to the current

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username and
           hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may optionally
           be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, separated by ":", and then
           a container name, separated by "/", which connects directly to a
           specific container on the specified host. This will use SSH to talk
           to the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be
           enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
           connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
           neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known pager
           implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and more(1),
           until one is found. If no pager implementation is discovered no pager
           is invoked. Setting this environment variable to an empty string or
           the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when Ctrl+C
               is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself to switch back
               to the pager command prompt, unset this option.

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager
               that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the
               executable, and needs to be handled by the pager.

               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap
               initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. It
               is set by default to allow command output to remain visible in
               the terminal even after the pager exits. Nevertheless, this
               prevents some pager functionality from working, in particular
               paged output cannot be scrolled with the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
           invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

           Takes a boolean argument. When true, the "secure" mode of the pager
           is enabled; if false, disabled. If $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set at
           all, secure mode is enabled if the effective UID is not the same as
           the owner of the login session, see geteuid(2) and
           sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3). In secure mode, LESSSECURE=1 will be set
           when invoking the pager, and the pager shall disable commands that
           open or create new files or start new subprocesses. When
           $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set at all, pagers which are not known to
           implement secure mode will not be used. (Currently only less(1)
           implements secure mode.)

           Note: when commands are invoked with elevated privileges, for example
           under sudo(8) or pkexec(1), care must be taken to ensure that
           unintended interactive features are not enabled. "Secure" mode for
           the pager may be enabled automatically as describe above. Setting
           SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE=0 or not removing it from the inherited
           environment allows the user to invoke arbitrary commands. Note that
           if the $SYSTEMD_PAGER or $PAGER variables are to be honoured,
           $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE must be set too. It might be reasonable to
           completely disable the pager using --no-pager instead.

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether colorized output should
           be generated. This can be specified to override the decision that
           systemd makes based on $TERM and what the console is connected to.

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links should
           be generated in the output for terminal emulators supporting this.
           This can be specified to override the decision that systemd makes
           based on $TERM and other conditions.

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

systemd 247                                                   SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)