TEAM(1)                     General Commands Manual                    TEAM(1)

       team - parallel "pipe", allows asynchronous io

       team [-r] [-v] [-i volsize [b|k|m]] [-o volsize [b|k|m]] [blocksize [
       [b|k|m] [processes]]

       Team just copies its standard input to its standard output. It does so
       however forking a team of independent processes (default is 4),
       arranged in a ring, with reads overlapped with writes.

       Each process will wait for the end of the read phase of previous
       process, will then read blocksize bytes (or 512 byte blocks if suffixed
       with b or kilobytes if suffixed with k, or megabytes if suffixed with
       m; the default is 20k) from its standard input, activate the next
       process read phase, wait for the previous process write phase end, then
       write to its standard output, and activate the next process write

       If the input or output volume ends or an IO error is detected, team
       will ask wehtether the user wants to continue (but only if the
       concerned volume is a block or character device and the program's
       standard error channel is a tty device). Possible answers are

       c      This means that the user wishes to continue, but the file
              pointer shall be reset to the beginning of the volume, as a new
              volume has been started anew. This is the the answer to give on
              end of volume when writing to multiple floppies, etc...

       y      The user simply wishes to continue, without any change.

       n      The user wishes to stop; the program will be terminated or

       There are just three options, as follows:

       -i     The value that follows the option is the assumed volume size of
              the input, and it is expressed in the same units as the buffer

       -o     The value that follows the option is the assumed volume size of
              the output, and it is expressed in the same units as the buffer

       -v     If specified as each buffer is read or written the total number
              of kilobytes read or written that far is printed.

       -r     If specified the number of kilobytes processed and the number of
              seconds taken is not printed at the end of the run.

       Team consumes system time to synchronize and task switch among its
       processes; also, in order to avoid slowing it, it is best run on a
       quiescent system.

       This program is most useful for output to a device, especially where a
       streaming tape is involved. It may be used to advantage with disc to
       disc and disc to tape copies.

       find dir -print | cpio -oBc | team 20k 8 >/dev/rmt0
       team 20k 4 </dev/rmt0 | cpio -iBcdmu
       pax -w -b 4k * | team -o 1200k 15k 2 >/dev/rdsk/f0t

       You are advised to experiment with different combinations of block size
       and number of processes; each program used with team works best with
       certain parameters, and performance depends even more strongly on the
       output device, so experiment with parameters also for this (it seems
       that the blocking factor of the process that feeds team ought to be
       inferior to that given to it, and possibly inferior to the limit on the
       size of a pipe for your version of the system).  Team ought to be
       adaptive, and adjust dynamically both parameters, in order to reach a
       state where there is no pause between each stage of the ring. This is
       too difficult to achieve under UNIX.

       Notice also that this program will read and write blocks all of the
       same size as prescribed, except the last, even when reading from pipes;
       if a read from its input supplies less bytes than the prescribed block
       size, this program will read again until its buffer is filled to norm
       or the input finishes.

       A final note: it is usually advantageous to give to team a block size
       that is a multiple of the block size produced by the program before it
       in a pipeline. Notice that in many cases, such as the tape archival
       programs, the output will not be directly recognizable to the tape
       archiver in input, but will have to be reblocked back to the blocksize
       expected by the tape archiver either by way of dd or reapplication of
       team, that is much faster of course.

       Team will emit a number of messages comprehensible only to the author
       in case of errors. Plase note them and report them to the author.

       This is not strictly a bug in this program, but rather a limitation;
       some device drivers will have problems when you change volume when this
       program asks you whether to continue operation. They require that the
       device be closed and opened again whenever a volume is changed.
       Unfortunately this cannot be done, given the structure of team; with
       such device drivers you effectively cannot use team to write multiple

       Some device drivers, on physical end of file or volume while writing do
       not do the decent thing, and write a legible truncated block and return
       its length; some drivers, e.g. some tape drivers, handle physical eof
       on write quite badly. With these drivers you had better use the -o
       option to set a logical EOF if you want to use multiple volumes. As an
       hint, give the volume size as about five percent less than the nominal.
       Whatever value you use for output, take not of it, as you will have to
       use exactly the same value for input!


       Piercarlo Grandi, Milano.

                                     (pg)                              TEAM(1)