tecla

tecla(7)               Miscellaneous Information Manual               tecla(7)



NAME
       tecla, teclarc - The user interface provided by the Tecla library.

DESCRIPTION
       This man page describes the command-line editing features that are
       available to users of programs that read keyboard input via the Tecla
       library. Users of the tcsh shell will find the default key-bindings
       very familiar. Users of the bash shell will also find it quite
       familiar, but with a few minor differences, most notably in how forward
       and backward searches through the list of historical commands are
       performed. There are two major editing modes, one with emacs-like key-
       bindings and another with vi-like key-bindings. By default emacs mode
       is enabled, but vi mode can alternatively be selected via the user's
       configuration file. This file can also be used to change the bindings
       of individual keys to suit the user's preferences. By default, tab
       completion is provided. If the application hasn't reconfigured this to
       complete other types of symbols, then tab completion completes file-
       names.


KEY SEQUENCE NOTATION
       In the rest of this man page, and also in all Tecla configuration
       files, key-sequences are expressed as follows.


       ^A  or  C-a
           This is a control-A, entered by pressing the control key at
           the same time as the A key.

       \E    or   M-
           In key-sequences, both of these notations can be entered
           either by pressing the escape key, then the following key, or by
           pressing the Meta key at the same time as the following key. Thus
           the key sequence M-p can be typed in two ways, by pressing
           the escape key, followed by pressing p, or by pressing the
           Meta key at the same time as p.

       up
           This refers to the up-arrow key.

       down
           This refers to the down-arrow key.

       left
           This refers to the left-arrow key.

       right
           This refers to the right-arrow key.

       a
           This is just a normal A key.



THE TECLA CONFIGURATION FILE
       By default, Tecla looks for a file called .teclarc in your home
       directory (ie. ~/.teclarc).  If it finds this file, it reads it,
       interpreting each line as defining a new key binding or an editing
       configuration option. Since the emacs keybindings are installed by
       default, if you want to use the non-default vi editing mode, the most
       important item to go in this file is the following line:

         edit-mode vi

       This will re-configure the default bindings for vi-mode. The complete
       set of arguments that this command accepts are:

         vi     -  Install key-bindings like those of the vi
                   editor.
         emacs  -  Install key-bindings like those of the emacs
                   editor. This is the default.
         none   -  Use just the native line editing facilities
                   provided by the terminal driver.

       To prevent the terminal bell from being rung, such as when an
       unrecognized control-sequence is typed, place the following line in the
       configuration file:

         nobeep

       An example of a key binding line in the configuration file is the
       following.

         bind M-[2~ insert-mode

       On many keyboards, the above key sequence is generated when one presses
       the insert key, so with this keybinding, one can toggle between the
       emacs-mode insert and overwrite modes by hitting one key. One could
       also do it by typing out the above sequence of characters one by one.
       As explained above, the M- part of this sequence can be typed either by
       pressing the escape key before the following key, or by pressing the
       Meta key at the same time as the following key. Thus if you had set the
       above key binding, and the insert key on your keyboard didn't generate
       the above key sequence, you could still type it in either of the
       following 2 ways.

         1. Hit the escape key momentarily, then press '[', then '2', then
            finally '~'.

         2. Press the meta key at the same time as pressing the '[' key,
            then press '2', then '~'.

       If you set a keybinding for a key-sequence that is already bound to a
       function, the new binding overrides the old one. If in the new binding
       you omit the name of the new function to bind to the key-sequence, the
       original binding becomes undefined.

       Starting with versions of libtecla later than 1.3.3 it is now possible
       to bind keysequences that begin with a printable character. Previously
       key-sequences were required to start with a control or meta character.

       Note that the special keywords "up", "down", "left" and "right" refer
       to the arrow keys, and are thus not treated as keysequences. So, for
       example, to rebind the up and down arrow keys to use the history search
       mechanism instead of the simple history recall method, you could place
       the following in your configuration file:

         bind up history-search-backwards
         bind down history-search-backwards

       To unbind an existing binding, you can do this with the bind command by
       omitting to name any action to rebind the key sequence to.  For
       example, by not specifying an action function, the following command
       unbinds the default beginning-of-line action from the ^A key sequence:

         bind ^A

       If you create a ~/.teclarc configuration file, but it appears to have
       no effect on the program, check the documentation of the program to see
       if the author chose a different name for this file.


FILENAME AND TILDE COMPLETION
       With the default key bindings, pressing the TAB key (aka. ^I) results
       in Tecla attempting to complete the incomplete filename that precedes
       the cursor. Tecla searches backwards from the cursor, looking for the
       start of the filename, stopping when it hits either a space or the
       start of the line. If more than one file has the specified prefix, then
       Tecla completes the filename up to the point at which the ambiguous
       matches start to differ, then lists the possible matches.

       In addition to literally written filenames, Tecla can complete files
       that start with ~/ and ~user/ expressions and that contain $envvar
       expressions. In particular, if you hit TAB within an incomplete ~user,
       expression, Tecla will attempt to complete the username, listing any
       ambiguous matches.

       The completion binding is implemented using the cpl_word_completions()
       function, which is also available separately to users of this library.
       See the cpl_complete_word(3) man page for more details.


FILENAME EXPANSION
       With the default key bindings, pressing ^X* causes Tecla to expand the
       filename that precedes the cursor, replacing ~/ and ~user/ expressions
       with the corresponding home directories, and replacing $envvar
       expressions with the value of the specified environment variable, then
       if there are any wildcards, replacing the so far expanded filename with
       a space-separated list of the files which match the wild cards.

       The expansion binding is implemented using the ef_expand_file()
       function.  See the ef_expand_file(3) man page for more details.


RECALLING PREVIOUSLY TYPED LINES
       Every time that a new line is entered by the user, it is appended to a
       list of historical input lines maintained within the GetLine resource
       object. You can traverse up and down this list using the up and down
       arrow keys. Alternatively, you can do the same with the ^P, and ^N
       keys, and in vi command mode you can alternatively use the k and j
       characters. Thus pressing up-arrow once, replaces the current input
       line with the previously entered line. Pressing up-arrow again,
       replaces this with the line that was entered before it, etc.. Having
       gone back one or more lines into the history list, one can return to
       newer lines by pressing down-arrow one or more times. If you do this
       sufficient times, you will return to the original line that you were
       entering when you first hit up-arrow.

       Note that in vi mode, all of the history recall functions switch the
       library into command mode.

       In emacs mode the M-p and M-n keys work just like the ^P and ^N keys,
       except that they skip all but those historical lines which share the
       prefix that precedes the cursor. In vi command mode the upper case K
       and J characters do the same thing, except that the string that they
       search for includes the character under the cursor as well as what
       precedes it.

       Thus for example, suppose that you were in emacs mode, and you had just
       entered the following list of commands in the order shown:

         ls ~/tecla/
         cd ~/tecla
         ls -l getline.c
         emacs ~/tecla/getline.c

       If you next typed:

         ls

       and then hit M-p, then rather than returning the previously typed emacs
       line, which doesn't start with "ls", Tecla would recall the "ls -l
       getline.c" line. Pressing M-p again would recall the "ls ~/tecla/"
       line.

       Note that if the string that you are searching for, contains any of the
       special characters, *, ?, or '[', then it is interpretted as a pattern
       to be matched. Thus, cotinuing with the above example, after typing in
       the list of commands shown, if you then typed:

         *tecla*

       and hit M-p, then the "emacs ~/tecla/getline.c" line would be recalled
       first, since it contains the word tecla somewhere in the line,
       Similarly, hitting M-p again, would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line, and
       hitting it once more would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line. The pattern
       syntax is the same as that described for filename expansion, in the
       ef_expand_file(3 man page.


HISTORY FILES
       Authors of programs that use the Tecla library have the option of
       saving historical command-lines in a file before exiting, and
       subsequently reading them back in from this file when the program is
       next started. There is no standard name for this file, since it makes
       sense for each application to use its own history file, so that
       commands from different applications don't get mixed up.


INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER SETS
       Since libtecla version 1.4.0, Tecla has been 8-bit clean. This means
       that all 8-bit characters that are printable in the user's current
       locale are now displayed verbatim and included in the returned input
       line.  Assuming that the calling program correctly contains a call like
       the following,

         setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");

       then the current locale is determined by the first of the environment
       variables LC_CTYPE, LC_ALL, and LANG, that is found to contain a valid
       locale name. If none of these variables are defined, or the program
       neglects to call setlocale, then the default C locale is used, which is
       US 7-bit ASCII. On most unix-like platforms, you can get a list of
       valid locales by typing the command:

         locale -a

       at the shell prompt.


   Meta keys and locales
       Beware that in most locales other than the default C locale, meta
       characters become printable, and they are then no longer considered to
       match M-c style key bindings. This allows international characters to
       be entered with the compose key without unexpectedly triggering meta
       key bindings. You can still invoke meta bindings, since there are
       actually two ways to do this. For example the binding M-c can also be
       invoked by pressing the escape key momentarily, then pressing the c
       key, and this will work regardless of locale. Moreover, many modern
       terminal emulators, such as gnome's gnome-terminal's and KDE's konsole
       terminals, already generate escape pairs like this when you use the
       meta key, rather than a real meta character, and other emulators
       usually have a way to request this behavior, so you can continue to use
       the meta key on most systems.

       For example, although xterm terminal emulators generate real 8-bit meta
       characters by default when you use the meta key, they can be configured
       to output the equivalent escape pair by setting their EightBitInput X
       resource to False. You can either do this by placing a line like the
       following in your ~/.Xdefaults file,

         XTerm*EightBitInput: False

       or by starting an xterm with an -xrm '*EightBitInput: False' command-
       line argument. In recent versions of xterm you can toggle this feature
       on and off with the "Meta Sends Escape" option in the menu that is
       displayed when you press the left mouse button and the control key
       within an xterm window. In CDE, dtterms can be similarly coerced to
       generate escape pairs in place of meta characters, by setting the
       Dtterm*KshMode resource to True.


   Entering international characters
       If you don't have a keyboard that generates all of the international
       characters that you need, there is usually a compose key that will
       allow you to enter special characters, or a way to create one. For
       example, under X windows on unix-like systems, if your keyboard doesn't
       have a compose key, you can designate a redundant key to serve this
       purpose with the xmodmap command. For example, on many PC keyboards
       there is a microsoft-windows key, which is otherwise useless under
       Linux. On my laptop the xev program reports that pressing this key
       generates keycode 115, so to turn this key into a compose key, I do the
       following:

         xmodmap -e 'keycode 115 = Multi_key'

       I can then enter an i with a umlaut over it by typing this key,
       followed by ", followed by i.


THE AVAILABLE KEY BINDING FUNCTIONS
       The following is a list of the editing functions provided by the Tecla
       library. The names in the leftmost column of the list can be used in
       configuration files to specify which function a given key or
       combination of keys should invoke. They are also used in the next two
       sections to list the default key-bindings in emacs and vi modes.

         user-interrupt           -  Send a SIGINT signal to the
                                     parent process.
         abort                    -  Send a SIGABRT signal to the
                                     parent process.
         suspend                  -  Suspend the parent process.
         stop-output              -  Pause terminal output.
         start-output             -  Resume paused terminal output.
         literal-next             -  Arrange for the next character
                                     to be treated as a normal
                                     character. This allows control
                                     characters to be entered.
         cursor-right             -  Move the cursor one character
                                     right.
         cursor-left              -  Move the cursor one character
                                     left.
         insert-mode              -  Toggle between insert mode and
                                     overwrite mode.
         beginning-of-line        -  Move the cursor to the
                                     beginning of the line.
         end-of-line              -  Move the cursor to the end of
                                     the line.
         delete-line              -  Delete the contents of the
                                     current line.
         kill-line                -  Delete everything that follows
                                     the cursor.
         backward-kill-line       -  Delete all characters between
                                     the cursor and the start of the
                                     line.
         forward-word             -  Move to the end of the word
                                     which follows the cursor.
         forward-to-word          -  Move the cursor to the start of
                                     the word that follows the
                                     cursor.
         backward-word            -  Move to the start of the word
                                     which precedes the cursor.
         goto-column              -  Move the cursor to the
                                     1-relative column in the line
                                     specified by any preceding
                                     digit-argument sequences (see
                                     ENTERING REPEAT COUNTS below).
         find-parenthesis         -  If the cursor is currently
                                     over a parenthesis character,
                                     move it to the matching
                                     parenthesis character. If not
                                     over a parenthesis character
                                     move right to the next close
                                     parenthesis.
         forward-delete-char      -  Delete the character under the
                                     cursor.
         backward-delete-char     -  Delete the character which
                                     precedes the cursor.
         list-or-eof              -  This is intended for binding
                                     to ^D. When invoked when the
                                     cursor is within the line it
                                     displays all possible
                                     completions then redisplays
                                     the line unchanged. When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it
                                     signals end-of-input (EOF) to
                                     the caller of gl_get_line().
         del-char-or-list-or-eof  -  This is intended for binding
                                     to ^D. When invoked when the
                                     cursor is within the line it
                                     invokes forward-delete-char.
                                     When invoked at the end of the
                                     line it displays all possible
                                     completions then redisplays
                                     the line unchanged. When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it
                                     signals end-of-input (EOF) to
                                     the caller of gl_get_line().
         forward-delete-word      -  Delete the word which follows
                                     the cursor.
         backward-delete-word     -  Delete the word which precedes
                                     the cursor.
         upcase-word              -  Convert all of the characters
                                     of the word which follows the
                                     cursor, to upper case.
         downcase-word            -  Convert all of the characters
                                     of the word which follows the
                                     cursor, to lower case.
         capitalize-word          -  Capitalize the word which
                                     follows the cursor.
         change-case              -  If the next character is upper
                                     case, toggle it to lower case
                                     and vice versa.
         redisplay                -  Redisplay the line.
         clear-screen             -  Clear the terminal, then
                                     redisplay the current line.
         transpose-chars          -  Swap the character under the
                                     cursor with the character just
                                     before the cursor.
         set-mark                 -  Set a mark at the position of
                                     the cursor.
         exchange-point-and-mark  -  Move the cursor to the last
                                     mark that was set, and move
                                     the mark to where the cursor
                                     used to be.
         kill-region              -  Delete the characters that lie
                                     between the last mark that was
                                     set, and the cursor.
         copy-region-as-kill      -  Copy the text between the mark
                                     and the cursor to the cut
                                     buffer, without deleting the
                                     original text.
         yank                     -  Insert the text that was last
                                     deleted, just before the
                                     current position of the cursor.
         append-yank              -  Paste the current contents of
                                     the cut buffer, after the
                                     cursor.
         up-history               -  Recall the next oldest line
                                     that was entered. Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in
                                     command mode.
         down-history             -  Recall the next most recent
                                     line that was entered. If no
                                     history recall session is
                                     currently active, the next
                                     line from a previous recall
                                     session is recalled. Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in
                                     command mode.
         history-search-backward  -  Recall the next oldest line
                                     who's prefix matches the string
                                     which currently precedes the
                                     cursor (in vi command-mode the
                                     character under the cursor is
                                     also included in the search
                                     string).  Note that in vi mode
                                     you are left in command mode.
         history-search-forward   -  Recall the next newest line
                                     who's prefix matches the string
                                     which currently precedes the
                                     cursor (in vi command-mode the
                                     character under the cursor is
                                     also included in the search
                                     string).  Note that in vi mode
                                     you are left in command mode.
         history-re-search-backward -Recall the next oldest line
                                     who's prefix matches that
                                     established by the last
                                     invocation of either
                                     history-search-forward or
                                     history-search-backward.
         history-re-search-forward - Recall the next newest line
                                     who's prefix matches that
                                     established by the last
                                     invocation of either
                                     history-search-forward or
                                     history-search-backward.
         complete-word            -  Attempt to complete the
                                     incomplete word which
                                     precedes the cursor. Unless
                                     the host program has customized
                                     word completion, filename
                                     completion is attempted. In vi
                                     commmand mode the character
                                     under the cursor is also
                                     included in the word being
                                     completed, and you are left in
                                     vi insert mode.
         expand-filename          -  Within the command line, expand
                                     wild cards, tilde expressions
                                     and dollar expressions in the
                                     filename which immediately
                                     precedes the cursor. In vi
                                     commmand mode the character
                                     under the cursor is also
                                     included in the filename being
                                     expanded, and you are left in
                                     vi insert mode.
         list-glob                -  List any filenames which match
                                     the wild-card, tilde and dollar
                                     expressions in the filename
                                     which immediately precedes the
                                     cursor, then redraw the input
                                     line unchanged.
         list-history             -  Display the contents of the
                                     history list for the current
                                     history group. If a repeat
                                     count of > 1 is specified,
                                     only that many of the most
                                     recent lines are displayed.
                                     See the "ENTERING REPEAT
                                     COUNTS" section.
         read-from-file           -  Temporarily switch to reading
                                     input from the file who's
                                     name precedes the cursor.
         read-init-files          -  Re-read teclarc configuration
                                     files.
         beginning-of-history     -  Move to the oldest line in the
                                     history list. Note that in vi
                                     mode you are left in command
                                     mode.
         end-of-history           -  Move to the newest line in the
                                     history list (ie. the current
                                     line). Note that in vi mode
                                     this leaves you in command
                                     mode.
         digit-argument           -  Enter a repeat count for the
                                     next key-binding function.
                                     For details, see the ENTERING
                                     REPEAT COUNTS section.
         newline                  -  Terminate and return the
                                     current contents of the
                                     line, after appending a
                                     newline character. The newline
                                     character is normally '\n',
                                     but will be the first
                                     character of the key-sequence
                                     that invoked the newline
                                     action, if this happens to be
                                     a printable character. If the
                                     action was invoked by the
                                     '\n' newline character or the
                                     '\r' carriage return
                                     character, the line is
                                     appended to the history
                                     buffer.
         repeat-history           -  Return the line that is being
                                     edited, then arrange for the
                                     next most recent entry in the
                                     history buffer to be recalled
                                     when Tecla is next called.
                                     Repeatedly invoking this
                                     action causes successive
                                     historical input lines to be
                                     re-executed. Note that this
                                     action is equivalent to the
                                     'Operate' action in ksh.
         ring-bell                -  Ring the terminal bell, unless
                                     the bell has been silenced via
                                     the nobeep configuration
                                     option (see the THE TECLA
                                     CONFIGURATION FILE section).
         forward-copy-char        -  Copy the next character into
                                     the cut buffer (NB. use repeat
                                     counts to copy more than one).
         backward-copy-char       -  Copy the previous character
                                     into the cut buffer.
         forward-copy-word        -  Copy the next word into the cut
                                     buffer.
         backward-copy-word       -  Copy the previous word into the
                                     cut buffer.
         forward-find-char        -  Move the cursor to the next
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that you type.
         backward-find-char       -  Move the cursor to the last
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that you type.
         forward-to-char          -  Move the cursor to the
                                     character just before the next
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that the user types.
         backward-to-char         -  Move the cursor to the
                                     character just after the last
                                     occurrence before the cursor
                                     of the next character that the
                                     user types.
         repeat-find-char         -  Repeat the last
                                     backward-find-char,
                                     forward-find-char,
                                     backward-to-char or
                                     forward-to-char.
         invert-refind-char       -  Repeat the last
                                     backward-find-char,
                                     forward-find-char,
                                     backward-to-char, or
                                     forward-to-char in the
                                     opposite direction.
         delete-to-column         -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to the column that
                                     is specified by the repeat
                                     count.
         delete-to-parenthesis    -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis.
         forward-delete-find      -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed.
         backward-delete-find     -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed.
         forward-delete-to        -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed.
         backward-delete-to       -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed.
         delete-refind            -  Repeat the last *-delete-find
                                     or *-delete-to action.
         delete-invert-refind     -  Repeat the last *-delete-find
                                     or *-delete-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         copy-to-column           -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to the column that
                                     is specified by the repeat
                                     count, into the cut buffer.
         copy-to-parenthesis      -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis, into
                                     the cut buffer.
         forward-copy-find        -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed, into the
                                     cut buffer.
         backward-copy-find       -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed, into the
                                     cut buffer.
         forward-copy-to          -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, into the cut
                                     buffer.
         backward-copy-to         -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, into the cut
                                     buffer.
         copy-refind              -  Repeat the last *-copy-find
                                     or *-copy-to action.
         copy-invert-refind       -  Repeat the last *-copy-find
                                     or *-copy-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         vi-mode                  -  Switch to vi mode from emacs
                                     mode.
         emacs-mode               -  Switch to emacs mode from vi
                                     mode.
         vi-insert                -  From vi command mode, switch to
                                     insert mode.
         vi-overwrite             -  From vi command mode, switch to
                                     overwrite mode.
         vi-insert-at-bol         -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor to the start of the line
                                     and switch to insert mode.
         vi-append-at-eol         -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor to the end of the line
                                     and switch to append mode.
         vi-append                -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor one position right, and
                                     switch to insert mode.
         vi-replace-char          -  From vi command mode, replace
                                     the character under the cursor
                                     with the the next character
                                     entered.
         vi-forward-change-char   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the next character then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-char  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the preceding character then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-word   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the next word then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-word  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the preceding word then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-change-rest-of-line   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     from the cursor to the end of
                                     the line, then enter insert
                                     mode.
         vi-change-line           -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the current line, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-change-to-bol         -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     all characters between the
                                     cursor and the beginning of
                                     the line, then enter insert
                                     mode.
         vi-change-to-column      -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the cursor
                                     up to the column that is
                                     specified by the repeat count,
                                     then enter insert mode.
         vi-change-to-parenthesis -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis, then
                                     enter vi insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-find   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed, then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-find  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed, then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-to     -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-to    -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-change-refind         -  Repeat the last
                                     vi-*-change-find or
                                     vi-*-change-to action.
         vi-change-invert-refind  -  Repeat the last
                                     vi-*-change-find or
                                     vi-*-change-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         vi-undo                  -  In vi mode, undo the last
                                     editing operation.
         vi-repeat-change         -  In vi command mode, repeat the
                                     last command that modified the
                                     line.


DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS IN EMACS MODE
       The following default key bindings, which can be overriden by the Tecla
       configuration file, are designed to mimic most of the bindings of the
       unix tcsh shell, when it is in emacs editing mode.

       This is the default editing mode of the Tecla library.

       Under UNIX the terminal driver sets a number of special keys for
       certain functions. The tecla library attempts to use the same
       keybindings to maintain consistency. The key sequences shown for the
       following 6 bindings are thus just examples of what they will probably
       be set to. If you have used the stty command to change these keys, then
       the default bindings should match.

         ^C     ->   user-interrupt
         ^\     ->   abort
         ^Z     ->   suspend
         ^Q     ->   start-output
         ^S     ->   stop-output
         ^V     ->   literal-next

       The cursor keys are refered to by name, as follows. This is necessary
       because different types of terminals generate different key sequences
       when their cursor keys are pressed.

         right  ->   cursor-right
         left   ->   cursor-left
         up     ->   up-history
         down   ->   down-history

       The remaining bindings don't depend on the terminal setttings.

         ^F     ->   cursor-right
         ^B     ->   cursor-left
         M-i    ->   insert-mode
         ^A     ->   beginning-of-line
         ^E     ->   end-of-line
         ^U     ->   delete-line
         ^K     ->   kill-line
         M-f    ->   forward-word
         M-b    ->   backward-word
         ^D     ->   del-char-or-list-or-eof
         ^H     ->   backward-delete-char
         ^?     ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-^H   ->   backward-delete-word
         M-^?   ->   backward-delete-word
         M-u    ->   upcase-word
         M-l    ->   downcase-word
         M-c    ->   capitalize-word
         ^R     ->   redisplay
         ^L     ->   clear-screen
         ^T     ->   transpose-chars
         ^@     ->   set-mark
         ^X^X   ->   exchange-point-and-mark
         ^W     ->   kill-region
         M-w    ->   copy-region-as-kill
         ^Y     ->   yank
         ^P     ->   up-history
         ^N     ->   down-history
         M-p    ->   history-search-backward
         M-n    ->   history-search-forward
         ^I     ->   complete-word
         ^X*    ->   expand-filename
         ^X^F   ->   read-from-file
         ^X^R   ->   read-init-files
         ^Xg    ->   list-glob
         ^Xh    ->   list-history
         M-<    ->   beginning-of-history
         M->    ->   end-of-history
         \n     ->   newline
         \r     ->   newline
         M-o    ->   repeat-history
         M-^V   ->   vi-mode

         M-0, M-1, ... M-9  ->  digit-argument  (see below)

       Note that ^I is what the TAB key generates, and that ^@ can be
       generated not only by pressing the control key and the @ key
       simultaneously, but also by pressing the control key and the space bar
       at the same time.


DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS IN VI MODE
       The following default key bindings are designed to mimic the vi style
       of editing as closely as possible. This means that very few editing
       functions are provided in the initial character input mode, editing
       functions instead being provided by the vi command mode. Vi command
       mode is entered whenever the escape character is pressed, or whenever a
       key-sequence that starts with a meta character is entered. In addition
       to mimicing vi, libtecla provides bindings for tab completion, wild-
       card expansion of file names, and historical line recall.

       To learn how to tell the Tecla library to use vi mode instead of the
       default emacs editing mode, see the earlier section entitled THE TECLA
       CONFIGURATION FILE.

       Under UNIX the terminal driver sets a number of special keys for
       certain functions. The Tecla library attempts to use the same
       keybindings to maintain consistency, binding them both in input mode
       and in command mode. The key sequences shown for the following 6
       bindings are thus just examples of what they will probably be set to.
       If you have used the stty command to change these keys, then the
       default bindings should match.

         ^C     ->   user-interrupt
         ^\     ->   abort
         ^Z     ->   suspend
         ^Q     ->   start-output
         ^S     ->   stop-output
         ^V     ->   literal-next
         M-^C   ->   user-interrupt
         M-^\   ->   abort
         M-^Z   ->   suspend
         M-^Q   ->   start-output
         M-^S   ->   stop-output

       Note that above, most of the bindings are defined twice, once as a raw
       control code like ^C and then a second time as a meta character like
       M-^C. The former is the binding for vi input mode, whereas the latter
       is the binding for vi command mode. Once in command mode all key-
       sequences that the user types that they don't explicitly start with an
       escape or a meta key, have their first key secretly converted to a meta
       character before the key sequence is looked up in the key binding
       table. Thus, once in command mode, when you type the letter i, for
       example, the Tecla library actually looks up the binding for M-i.

       The cursor keys are refered to by name, as follows. This is necessary
       because different types of terminals generate different key sequences
       when their cursor keys are pressed.

         right  ->   cursor-right
         left   ->   cursor-left
         up     ->   up-history
         down   ->   down-history

       The cursor keys normally generate a keysequence that start with an
       escape character, so beware that using the arrow keys will put you into
       command mode (if you aren't already in command mode).

       The following are the terminal-independent key bindings for vi input
       mode.

         ^D     ->   list-or-eof
         ^G     ->   list-glob
         ^H     ->   backward-delete-char
         ^I     ->   complete-word
         \r     ->   newline
         \n     ->   newline
         ^L     ->   clear-screen
         ^N     ->   down-history
         ^P     ->   up-history
         ^R     ->   redisplay
         ^U     ->   backward-kill-line
         ^W     ->   backward-delete-word
         ^X*    ->   expand-filename
         ^X^F   ->   read-from-file
         ^X^R   ->   read-init-files
         ^?     ->   backward-delete-char

       The following are the key bindings that are defined in vi command mode,
       this being specified by them all starting with a meta character. As
       mentioned above, once in command mode the initial meta character is
       optional. For example, you might enter command mode by typing Esc, and
       then press h twice to move the cursor two positions to the left. Both h
       characters get quietly converted to M-h before being compared to the
       key-binding table, the first one because Escape followed by a character
       is always converted to the equivalent meta character, and the second
       because command mode was already active.

         M-\     ->   cursor-right     (Meta-space)
         M-$     ->   end-of-line
         M-*     ->   expand-filename
         M-+     ->   down-history
         M--     ->   up-history
         M-<     ->   beginning-of-history
         M->     ->   end-of-history
         M-^     ->   beginning-of-line
         M-;     ->   repeat-find-char
         M-,     ->   invert-refind-char
         M-|     ->   goto-column
         M-~     ->   change-case
         M-.     ->   vi-repeat-change
         M-%     ->   find-parenthesis
         M-a     ->   vi-append
         M-A     ->   vi-append-at-eol
         M-b     ->   backward-word
         M-B     ->   backward-word
         M-C     ->   vi-change-rest-of-line
         M-cb    ->   vi-backward-change-word
         M-cB    ->   vi-backward-change-word
         M-cc    ->   vi-change-line
         M-ce    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cE    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cw    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cW    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cF    ->   vi-backward-change-find
         M-cf    ->   vi-forward-change-find
         M-cT    ->   vi-backward-change-to
         M-ct    ->   vi-forward-change-to
         M-c;    ->   vi-change-refind
         M-c,    ->   vi-change-invert-refind
         M-ch    ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-c^H   ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-c^?   ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-cl    ->   vi-forward-change-char
         M-c\    ->   vi-forward-change-char  (Meta-c-space)
         M-c^    ->   vi-change-to-bol
         M-c0    ->   vi-change-to-bol
         M-c$    ->   vi-change-rest-of-line
         M-c|    ->   vi-change-to-column
         M-c%    ->   vi-change-to-parenthesis
         M-dh    ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d^H   ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d^?   ->   backward-delete-char
         M-dl    ->   forward-delete-char
         M-d     ->   forward-delete-char    (Meta-d-space)
         M-dd    ->   delete-line
         M-db    ->   backward-delete-word
         M-dB    ->   backward-delete-word
         M-de    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dE    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dw    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dW    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dF    ->   backward-delete-find
         M-df    ->   forward-delete-find
         M-dT    ->   backward-delete-to
         M-dt    ->   forward-delete-to
         M-d;    ->   delete-refind
         M-d,    ->   delete-invert-refind
         M-d^    ->   backward-kill-line
         M-d0    ->   backward-kill-line
         M-d$    ->   kill-line
         M-D     ->   kill-line
         M-d|    ->   delete-to-column
         M-d%    ->   delete-to-parenthesis
         M-e     ->   forward-word
         M-E     ->   forward-word
         M-f     ->   forward-find-char
         M-F     ->   backward-find-char
         M--     ->   up-history
         M-h     ->   cursor-left
         M-H     ->   beginning-of-history
         M-i     ->   vi-insert
         M-I     ->   vi-insert-at-bol
         M-j     ->   down-history
         M-J     ->   history-search-forward
         M-k     ->   up-history
         M-K     ->   history-search-backward
         M-l     ->   cursor-right
         M-L     ->   end-of-history
         M-n     ->   history-re-search-forward
         M-N     ->   history-re-search-backward
         M-p     ->   append-yank
         M-P     ->   yank
         M-r     ->   vi-replace-char
         M-R     ->   vi-overwrite
         M-s     ->   vi-forward-change-char
         M-S     ->   vi-change-line
         M-t     ->   forward-to-char
         M-T     ->   backward-to-char
         M-u     ->   vi-undo
         M-w     ->   forward-to-word
         M-W     ->   forward-to-word
         M-x     ->   forward-delete-char
         M-X     ->   backward-delete-char
         M-yh    ->   backward-copy-char
         M-y^H   ->   backward-copy-char
         M-y^?   ->   backward-copy-char
         M-yl    ->   forward-copy-char
         M-y\    ->   forward-copy-char  (Meta-y-space)
         M-ye    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yE    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yw    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yW    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yb    ->   backward-copy-word
         M-yB    ->   backward-copy-word
         M-yf    ->   forward-copy-find
         M-yF    ->   backward-copy-find
         M-yt    ->   forward-copy-to
         M-yT    ->   backward-copy-to
         M-y;    ->   copy-refind
         M-y,    ->   copy-invert-refind
         M-y^    ->   copy-to-bol
         M-y0    ->   copy-to-bol
         M-y$    ->   copy-rest-of-line
         M-yy    ->   copy-line
         M-Y     ->   copy-line
         M-y|    ->   copy-to-column
         M-y%    ->   copy-to-parenthesis
         M-^E    ->   emacs-mode
         M-^H    ->   cursor-left
         M-^?    ->   cursor-left
         M-^L    ->   clear-screen
         M-^N    ->   down-history
         M-^P    ->   up-history
         M-^R    ->   redisplay
         M-^D    ->   list-or-eof
         M-^I    ->   complete-word
         M-\r    ->   newline
         M-\n    ->   newline
         M-^X^R  ->   read-init-files
         M-^Xh   ->   list-history

         M-0, M-1, ... M-9  ->  digit-argument  (see below)

       Note that ^I is what the TAB key generates.


ENTERING REPEAT COUNTS
       Many of the key binding functions described previously, take an
       optional count, typed in before the target keysequence.  This is
       interpreted as a repeat count by most bindings. A notable exception is
       the goto-column binding, which interprets the count as a column number.

       By default you can specify this count argument by pressing the meta key
       while typing in the numeric count. This relies on the digit-argument
       action being bound to Meta-0, Meta-1 etc.  Once any one of these
       bindings has been activated, you can optionally take your finger off
       the meta key to type in the rest of the number, since every numeric
       digit thereafter is treated as part of the number, unless it is
       preceded by the literal-next binding. As soon as a non-digit, or
       literal digit key is pressed the repeat count is terminated and either
       causes the just typed character to be added to the line that many
       times, or causes the next key-binding function to be given that
       argument.

       For example, in emacs mode, typing:

         M-12a

       causes the letter 'a' to be added to the line 12 times, whereas

         M-4M-c

       Capitalizes the next 4 words.

       In vi command mode the Meta modifier is automatically added to all
       characters typed in, so to enter a count in vi command-mode, just
       involves typing in the number, just as it does in the vi editor itself.
       So for example, in vi command mode, typing:

         4w2x

       moves the cursor four words to the right, then deletes two characters.

       You can also bind digit-argument to other key sequences. If these end
       in a numeric digit, that digit gets appended to the current repeat
       count. If it doesn't end in a numeric digit, a new repeat count is
       started with a value of zero, and can be completed by typing in the
       number, after letting go of the key which triggered the digit-argument
       action.


FILES
       libtecla.a      -    The Tecla library
       libtecla.h      -    The Tecla header file.
       ~/.teclarc      -    The personal Tecla customization file.


SEE ALSO
       libtecla(3), gl_get_line(3), gl_io_mode(3), ef_expand_file(3),
       cpl_complete_word(3), pca_lookup_file(3)


AUTHOR
       Martin Shepherd  (mcs@astro.caltech.edu)



                                                                      tecla(7)