terminfo

terminfo(5)                      File Formats                      terminfo(5)



NAME
       terminfo - terminal capability data base

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/share/terminfo/*/*

DESCRIPTION
       Terminfo is a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and libraries such as curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.  This describes
       ncurses version 6.1 (patch 20180127).

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       ·   Each field ends with a comma “,” (embedded commas may be escaped
           with a backslash or written as “\054”).

       ·   White space between fields is ignored.

       ·   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       ·   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from parsed
           entries.

           The infocmp -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting
           formatted terminal description can be read by tic.

       ·   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by “|” characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the
           terminal (its primary name), the last name given should be a long
           name fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and all
           others are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal
           name.

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it allows that to be both an alias and a verbose name (but will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       ·   Lines beginning with a “#” in the first column are treated as
           comments.

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments so they occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware
       making up the terminal should have a root name, thus “hp2621”.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
       suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The
       following suffixes should be used where possible:

            Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
            -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising the terminal's
       features.

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       ·   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       ·   Numeric capabilities have a “#” following the name, then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       ·   String capabilities have a “=” following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are ignored, blanks embedded
           within a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a
           line.

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the terminal
       entry, by following its name with “@” rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the base) with certain
       exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability
       use can be given with the name of the base terminal:

       ·   The capabilities given before use override those in the base type
           named by use.

       ·   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is processed first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       ·   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use
       reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example,
       the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the using terminal
       entry.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and is
       used by a person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or very similar
       names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of the
       specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.


       These are the boolean capabilities:


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
               Booleans              name       Code
       auto_left_margin              bw         bw        cub1 wraps from
                                                          column 0 to last
                                                          column
       auto_right_margin             am         am        terminal has
                                                          automatic margins
       back_color_erase              bce        ut        screen erased with
                                                          background color
       can_change                    ccc        cc        terminal can re-
                                                          define existing
                                                          colors
       ceol_standout_glitch          xhp        xs        standout not erased
                                                          by overwriting (hp)

       col_addr_glitch               xhpa       YA        only positive motion
                                                          for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res               cpix       YF        changing character
                                                          pitch changes
                                                          resolution
       cr_cancels_micro_mode         crxm       YB        using cr turns off
                                                          micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso          xt         xt        tabs destructive,
                                                          magic so char
                                                          (t1061)
       eat_newline_glitch            xenl       xn        newline ignored
                                                          after 80 cols
                                                          (concept)
       erase_overstrike              eo         eo        can erase
                                                          overstrikes with a
                                                          blank
       generic_type                  gn         gn        generic line type
       hard_copy                     hc         hc        hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                   chts       HC        cursor is hard to
                                                          see
       has_meta_key                  km         km        Has a meta key
                                                          (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel               daisy      YC        printer needs
                                                          operator to change
                                                          character set
       has_status_line               hs         hs        has extra status
                                                          line
       hue_lightness_saturation      hls        hl        terminal uses only
                                                          HLS color notation
                                                          (Tektronix)
       insert_null_glitch            in         in        insert mode
                                                          distinguishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res               lpix       YG        changing line pitch
                                                          changes resolution
       memory_above                  da         da        display may be
                                                          retained above the
                                                          screen
       memory_below                  db         db        display may be
                                                          retained below the
                                                          screen
       move_insert_mode              mir        mi        safe to move while
                                                          in insert mode
       move_standout_mode            msgr       ms        safe to move while
                                                          in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                nxon       nx        padding will not
                                                          work, xon/xoff
                                                          required
       no_esc_ctlc                   xsb        xb        beehive (f1=escape,
                                                          f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                   npc        NP        pad character does
                                                          not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region        ndscr      ND        scrolling region is
                                                          non-destructive
       non_rev_rmcup                 nrrmc      NR        smcup does not
                                                          reverse rmcup
       over_strike                   os         os        terminal can
                                                          overstrike
       prtr_silent                   mc5i       5i        printer will not
                                                          echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch               xvpa       YD        only positive motion
                                                          for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin        sam        YE        printing in last
                                                          column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok            eslok      es        escape can be used
                                                          on the status line

       tilde_glitch                  hz         hz        cannot print ~'s
                                                          (Hazeltine)
       transparent_underline         ul         ul        underline character
                                                          overstrikes
       xon_xoff                      xon        xo        terminal uses
                                                          xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
                Numeric              name       Code
       columns                       cols       co        number of columns in
                                                          a line
       init_tabs                     it         it        tabs initially every
                                                          # spaces
       label_height                  lh         lh        rows in each label
       label_width                   lw         lw        columns in each
                                                          label
       lines                         lines      li        number of lines on
                                                          screen or page
       lines_of_memory               lm         lm        lines of memory if >
                                                          line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch           xmc        sg        number of blank
                                                          characters left by
                                                          smso or rmso
       max_attributes                ma         ma        maximum combined
                                                          attributes terminal
                                                          can handle
       max_colors                    colors     Co        maximum number of
                                                          colors on screen
       max_pairs                     pairs      pa        maximum number of
                                                          color-pairs on the
                                                          screen
       maximum_windows               wnum       MW        maximum number of
                                                          definable windows
       no_color_video                ncv        NC        video attributes
                                                          that cannot be used
                                                          with colors
       num_labels                    nlab       Nl        number of labels on
                                                          screen
       padding_baud_rate             pb         pb        lowest baud rate
                                                          where padding needed
       virtual_terminal              vt         vt        virtual terminal
                                                          number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line             wsl        ws        number of columns in
                                                          status line

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
                Numeric              name       Code
       bit_image_entwining           bitwin     Yo        number of passes for
                                                          each bit-image row
       bit_image_type                bitype     Yp        type of bit-image
                                                          device
       buffer_capacity               bufsz      Ya        numbers of bytes
                                                          buffered before
                                                          printing
       buttons                       btns       BT        number of buttons on
                                                          mouse


       dot_horz_spacing              spinh      Yc        spacing of dots
                                                          horizontally in dots
                                                          per inch
       dot_vert_spacing              spinv      Yb        spacing of pins
                                                          vertically in pins
                                                          per inch
       max_micro_address             maddr      Yd        maximum value in
                                                          micro_..._address
       max_micro_jump                mjump      Ye        maximum value in
                                                          parm_..._micro
       micro_col_size                mcs        Yf        character step size
                                                          when in micro mode
       micro_line_size               mls        Yg        line step size when
                                                          in micro mode
       number_of_pins                npins      Yh        numbers of pins in
                                                          print-head
       output_res_char               orc        Yi        horizontal
                                                          resolution in units
                                                          per line
       output_res_horz_inch          orhi       Yk        horizontal
                                                          resolution in units
                                                          per inch
       output_res_line               orl        Yj        vertical resolution
                                                          in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch          orvi       Yl        vertical resolution
                                                          in units per inch
       print_rate                    cps        Ym        print rate in
                                                          characters per
                                                          second
       wide_char_size                widcs      Yn        character step size
                                                          when in double wide
                                                          mode

       These are the string capabilities:


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
                String               name       Code
       acs_chars                     acsc       ac        graphics charset
                                                          pairs, based on
                                                          vt100
       back_tab                      cbt        bt        back tab (P)
       bell                          bel        bl        audible signal
                                                          (bell) (P)
       carriage_return               cr         cr        carriage return (P*)
                                                          (P*)
       change_char_pitch             cpi        ZA        Change number of
                                                          characters per inch
                                                          to #1
       change_line_pitch             lpi        ZB        Change number of
                                                          lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz               chr        ZC        Change horizontal
                                                          resolution to #1
       change_res_vert               cvr        ZD        Change vertical
                                                          resolution to #1
       change_scroll_region          csr        cs        change region to
                                                          line #1 to line #2
                                                          (P)
       char_padding                  rmp        rP        like ip but when in
                                                          insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                tbc        ct        clear all tab stops
                                                          (P)
       clear_margins                 mgc        MC        clear right and left
                                                          soft margins


       clear_screen                  clear      cl        clear screen and
                                                          home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                       el1        cb        Clear to beginning
                                                          of line
       clr_eol                       el         ce        clear to end of line
                                                          (P)
       clr_eos                       ed         cd        clear to end of
                                                          screen (P*)
       column_address                hpa        ch        horizontal position
                                                          #1, absolute (P)
       command_character             cmdch      CC        terminal settable
                                                          cmd character in
                                                          prototype !?
       create_window                 cwin       CW        define a window #1
                                                          from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                cup        cm        move to row #1
                                                          columns #2
       cursor_down                   cud1       do        down one line
       cursor_home                   home       ho        home cursor (if no
                                                          cup)
       cursor_invisible              civis      vi        make cursor
                                                          invisible
       cursor_left                   cub1       le        move left one space
       cursor_mem_address            mrcup      CM        memory relative
                                                          cursor addressing,
                                                          move to row #1
                                                          columns #2
       cursor_normal                 cnorm      ve        make cursor appear
                                                          normal (undo
                                                          civis/cvvis)
       cursor_right                  cuf1       nd        non-destructive
                                                          space (move right
                                                          one space)
       cursor_to_ll                  ll         ll        last line, first
                                                          column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                     cuu1       up        up one line
       cursor_visible                cvvis      vs        make cursor very
                                                          visible
       define_char                   defc       ZE        Define a character
                                                          #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                          descender #3
       delete_character              dch1       dc        delete character
                                                          (P*)
       delete_line                   dl1        dl        delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                    dial       DI        dial number #1
       dis_status_line               dsl        ds        disable status line
       display_clock                 dclk       DK        display clock
       down_half_line                hd         hd        half a line down
       ena_acs                       enacs      eA        enable alternate
                                                          char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode        smacs      as        start alternate
                                                          character set (P)
       enter_am_mode                 smam       SA        turn on automatic
                                                          margins
       enter_blink_mode              blink      mb        turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode               bold       md        turn on bold (extra
                                                          bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                 smcup      ti        string to start
                                                          programs using cup
       enter_delete_mode             smdc       dm        enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                dim        mh        turn on half-bright
                                                          mode
       enter_doublewide_mode         swidm      ZF        Enter double-wide
                                                          mode


       enter_draft_quality           sdrfq      ZG        Enter draft-quality
                                                          mode
       enter_insert_mode             smir       im        enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode            sitm       ZH        Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode           slm        ZI        Start leftward
                                                          carriage motion
       enter_micro_mode              smicm      ZJ        Start micro-motion
                                                          mode
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq       ZK        Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality          snrmq      ZL        Enter normal-quality
                                                          mode
       enter_protected_mode          prot       mp        turn on protected
                                                          mode
       enter_reverse_mode            rev        mr        turn on reverse
                                                          video mode
       enter_secure_mode             invis      mk        turn on blank mode
                                                          (characters
                                                          invisible)
       enter_shadow_mode             sshm       ZM        Enter shadow-print
                                                          mode
       enter_standout_mode           smso       so        begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode          ssubm      ZN        Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode        ssupm      ZO        Enter superscript
                                                          mode
       enter_underline_mode          smul       us        begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode             sum        ZP        Start upward
                                                          carriage motion
       enter_xon_mode                smxon      SX        turn on xon/xoff
                                                          handshaking
       erase_chars                   ech        ec        erase #1 characters
                                                          (P)
       exit_alt_charset_mode         rmacs      ae        end alternate
                                                          character set (P)
       exit_am_mode                  rmam       RA        turn off automatic
                                                          margins
       exit_attribute_mode           sgr0       me        turn off all
                                                          attributes
       exit_ca_mode                  rmcup      te        strings to end
                                                          programs using cup
       exit_delete_mode              rmdc       ed        end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode          rwidm      ZQ        End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode              rmir       ei        exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode             ritm       ZR        End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode            rlm        ZS        End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode               rmicm      ZT        End micro-motion
                                                          mode
       exit_shadow_mode              rshm       ZU        End shadow-print
                                                          mode
       exit_standout_mode            rmso       se        exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode           rsubm      ZV        End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode         rsupm      ZW        End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode           rmul       ue        exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode              rum        ZX        End reverse
                                                          character motion
       exit_xon_mode                 rmxon      RX        turn off xon/xoff
                                                          handshaking
       fixed_pause                   pause      PA        pause for 2-3
                                                          seconds
       flash_hook                    hook       fh        flash switch hook
       flash_screen                  flash      vb        visible bell (may
                                                          not move cursor)
       form_feed                     ff         ff        hardcopy terminal
                                                          page eject (P*)
       from_status_line              fsl        fs        return from status
                                                          line

       goto_window                   wingo      WG        go to window #1
       hangup                        hup        HU        hang-up phone
       init_1string                  is1        i1        initialization
                                                          string
       init_2string                  is2        is        initialization
                                                          string
       init_3string                  is3        i3        initialization
                                                          string
       init_file                     if         if        name of
                                                          initialization file
       init_prog                     iprog      iP        path name of program
                                                          for initialization
       initialize_color              initc      Ic        initialize color #1
                                                          to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair               initp      Ip        Initialize color
                                                          pair #1 to
                                                          fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                                          bg=(#5,#6,#7)
       insert_character              ich1       ic        insert character (P)
       insert_line                   il1        al        insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                ip         ip        insert padding after
                                                          inserted character
       key_a1                        ka1        K1        upper left of keypad
       key_a3                        ka3        K3        upper right of
                                                          keypad
       key_b2                        kb2        K2        center of keypad
       key_backspace                 kbs        kb        backspace key
       key_beg                       kbeg       @1        begin key
       key_btab                      kcbt       kB        back-tab key
       key_c1                        kc1        K4        lower left of keypad
       key_c3                        kc3        K5        lower right of
                                                          keypad
       key_cancel                    kcan       @2        cancel key
       key_catab                     ktbc       ka        clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                     kclr       kC        clear-screen or
                                                          erase key
       key_close                     kclo       @3        close key
       key_command                   kcmd       @4        command key
       key_copy                      kcpy       @5        copy key
       key_create                    kcrt       @6        create key
       key_ctab                      kctab      kt        clear-tab key
       key_dc                        kdch1      kD        delete-character key
       key_dl                        kdl1       kL        delete-line key
       key_down                      kcud1      kd        down-arrow key
       key_eic                       krmir      kM        sent by rmir or smir
                                                          in insert mode
       key_end                       kend       @7        end key
       key_enter                     kent       @8        enter/send key
       key_eol                       kel        kE        clear-to-end-of-line
                                                          key
       key_eos                       ked        kS        clear-to-end-of-
                                                          screen key
       key_exit                      kext       @9        exit key
       key_f0                        kf0        k0        F0 function key
       key_f1                        kf1        k1        F1 function key
       key_f10                       kf10       k;        F10 function key
       key_f11                       kf11       F1        F11 function key
       key_f12                       kf12       F2        F12 function key
       key_f13                       kf13       F3        F13 function key
       key_f14                       kf14       F4        F14 function key
       key_f15                       kf15       F5        F15 function key
       key_f16                       kf16       F6        F16 function key
       key_f17                       kf17       F7        F17 function key
       key_f18                       kf18       F8        F18 function key
       key_f19                       kf19       F9        F19 function key

       key_f2                        kf2        k2        F2 function key
       key_f20                       kf20       FA        F20 function key
       key_f21                       kf21       FB        F21 function key
       key_f22                       kf22       FC        F22 function key
       key_f23                       kf23       FD        F23 function key
       key_f24                       kf24       FE        F24 function key
       key_f25                       kf25       FF        F25 function key
       key_f26                       kf26       FG        F26 function key
       key_f27                       kf27       FH        F27 function key
       key_f28                       kf28       FI        F28 function key
       key_f29                       kf29       FJ        F29 function key
       key_f3                        kf3        k3        F3 function key
       key_f30                       kf30       FK        F30 function key
       key_f31                       kf31       FL        F31 function key
       key_f32                       kf32       FM        F32 function key
       key_f33                       kf33       FN        F33 function key
       key_f34                       kf34       FO        F34 function key
       key_f35                       kf35       FP        F35 function key
       key_f36                       kf36       FQ        F36 function key
       key_f37                       kf37       FR        F37 function key
       key_f38                       kf38       FS        F38 function key
       key_f39                       kf39       FT        F39 function key
       key_f4                        kf4        k4        F4 function key
       key_f40                       kf40       FU        F40 function key
       key_f41                       kf41       FV        F41 function key
       key_f42                       kf42       FW        F42 function key
       key_f43                       kf43       FX        F43 function key
       key_f44                       kf44       FY        F44 function key
       key_f45                       kf45       FZ        F45 function key
       key_f46                       kf46       Fa        F46 function key
       key_f47                       kf47       Fb        F47 function key
       key_f48                       kf48       Fc        F48 function key
       key_f49                       kf49       Fd        F49 function key
       key_f5                        kf5        k5        F5 function key
       key_f50                       kf50       Fe        F50 function key
       key_f51                       kf51       Ff        F51 function key
       key_f52                       kf52       Fg        F52 function key
       key_f53                       kf53       Fh        F53 function key
       key_f54                       kf54       Fi        F54 function key
       key_f55                       kf55       Fj        F55 function key
       key_f56                       kf56       Fk        F56 function key
       key_f57                       kf57       Fl        F57 function key
       key_f58                       kf58       Fm        F58 function key
       key_f59                       kf59       Fn        F59 function key
       key_f6                        kf6        k6        F6 function key
       key_f60                       kf60       Fo        F60 function key
       key_f61                       kf61       Fp        F61 function key
       key_f62                       kf62       Fq        F62 function key
       key_f63                       kf63       Fr        F63 function key
       key_f7                        kf7        k7        F7 function key
       key_f8                        kf8        k8        F8 function key
       key_f9                        kf9        k9        F9 function key
       key_find                      kfnd       @0        find key
       key_help                      khlp       %1        help key
       key_home                      khome      kh        home key
       key_ic                        kich1      kI        insert-character key
       key_il                        kil1       kA        insert-line key
       key_left                      kcub1      kl        left-arrow key
       key_ll                        kll        kH        lower-left key (home
                                                          down)
       key_mark                      kmrk       %2        mark key
       key_message                   kmsg       %3        message key
       key_move                      kmov       %4        move key
       key_next                      knxt       %5        next key
       key_npage                     knp        kN        next-page key

       key_open                      kopn       %6        open key
       key_options                   kopt       %7        options key
       key_ppage                     kpp        kP        previous-page key
       key_previous                  kprv       %8        previous key
       key_print                     kprt       %9        print key
       key_redo                      krdo       %0        redo key
       key_reference                 kref       &1        reference key
       key_refresh                   krfr       &2        refresh key
       key_replace                   krpl       &3        replace key
       key_restart                   krst       &4        restart key
       key_resume                    kres       &5        resume key
       key_right                     kcuf1      kr        right-arrow key
       key_save                      ksav       &6        save key
       key_sbeg                      kBEG       &9        shifted begin key
       key_scancel                   kCAN       &0        shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                  kCMD       *1        shifted command key
       key_scopy                     kCPY       *2        shifted copy key
       key_screate                   kCRT       *3        shifted create key
       key_sdc                       kDC        *4        shifted delete-
                                                          character key
       key_sdl                       kDL        *5        shifted delete-line
                                                          key
       key_select                    kslt       *6        select key
       key_send                      kEND       *7        shifted end key
       key_seol                      kEOL       *8        shifted clear-to-
                                                          end-of-line key
       key_sexit                     kEXT       *9        shifted exit key
       key_sf                        kind       kF        scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                     kFND       *0        shifted find key
       key_shelp                     kHLP       #1        shifted help key
       key_shome                     kHOM       #2        shifted home key
       key_sic                       kIC        #3        shifted insert-
                                                          character key
       key_sleft                     kLFT       #4        shifted left-arrow
                                                          key
       key_smessage                  kMSG       %a        shifted message key
       key_smove                     kMOV       %b        shifted move key
       key_snext                     kNXT       %c        shifted next key
       key_soptions                  kOPT       %d        shifted options key
       key_sprevious                 kPRV       %e        shifted previous key
       key_sprint                    kPRT       %f        shifted print key
       key_sr                        kri        kR        scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                     kRDO       %g        shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                  kRPL       %h        shifted replace key
       key_sright                    kRIT       %i        shifted right-arrow
                                                          key
       key_srsume                    kRES       %j        shifted resume key
       key_ssave                     kSAV       !1        shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                  kSPD       !2        shifted suspend key
       key_stab                      khts       kT        set-tab key
       key_sundo                     kUND       !3        shifted undo key
       key_suspend                   kspd       &7        suspend key
       key_undo                      kund       &8        undo key
       key_up                        kcuu1      ku        up-arrow key
       keypad_local                  rmkx       ke        leave
                                                          'keyboard_transmit'
                                                          mode
       keypad_xmit                   smkx       ks        enter
                                                          'keyboard_transmit'
                                                          mode
       lab_f0                        lf0        l0        label on function
                                                          key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                        lf1        l1        label on function
                                                          key f1 if not f1


       lab_f10                       lf10       la        label on function
                                                          key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                        lf2        l2        label on function
                                                          key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                        lf3        l3        label on function
                                                          key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                        lf4        l4        label on function
                                                          key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                        lf5        l5        label on function
                                                          key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                        lf6        l6        label on function
                                                          key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                        lf7        l7        label on function
                                                          key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                        lf8        l8        label on function
                                                          key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                        lf9        l9        label on function
                                                          key f9 if not f9
       label_format                  fln        Lf        label format
       label_off                     rmln       LF        turn off soft labels
       label_on                      smln       LO        turn on soft labels
       meta_off                      rmm        mo        turn off meta mode
       meta_on                       smm        mm        turn on meta mode
                                                          (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address          mhpa       ZY        Like column_address
                                                          in micro mode
       micro_down                    mcud1      ZZ        Like cursor_down in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_left                    mcub1      Za        Like cursor_left in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_right                   mcuf1      Zb        Like cursor_right in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_row_address             mvpa       Zc        Like row_address #1
                                                          in micro mode
       micro_up                      mcuu1      Zd        Like cursor_up in
                                                          micro mode
       newline                       nel        nw        newline (behave like
                                                          cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                 porder     Ze        Match software bits
                                                          to print-head pins
       orig_colors                   oc         oc        Set all color pairs
                                                          to the original ones
       orig_pair                     op         op        Set default pair to
                                                          its original value
       pad_char                      pad        pc        padding char
                                                          (instead of null)
       parm_dch                      dch        DC        delete #1 characters
                                                          (P*)
       parm_delete_line              dl         DL        delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor              cud        DO        down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro               mcud       Zf        Like
                                                          parm_down_cursor in
                                                          micro mode
       parm_ich                      ich        IC        insert #1 characters
                                                          (P*)
       parm_index                    indn       SF        scroll forward #1
                                                          lines (P)
       parm_insert_line              il         AL        insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor              cub        LE        move #1 characters
                                                          to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro               mcub       Zg        Like
                                                          parm_left_cursor in
                                                          micro mode
       parm_right_cursor             cuf        RI        move #1 characters
                                                          to the right (P*)

       parm_right_micro              mcuf       Zh        Like
                                                          parm_right_cursor in
                                                          micro mode
       parm_rindex                   rin        SR        scroll back #1 lines
                                                          (P)
       parm_up_cursor                cuu        UP        up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                 mcuu       Zi        Like parm_up_cursor
                                                          in micro mode
       pkey_key                      pfkey      pk        program function key
                                                          #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                    pfloc      pl        program function key
                                                          #1 to execute string
                                                          #2
       pkey_xmit                     pfx        px        program function key
                                                          #1 to transmit
                                                          string #2
       plab_norm                     pln        pn        program label #1 to
                                                          show string #2
       print_screen                  mc0        ps        print contents of
                                                          screen
       prtr_non                      mc5p       pO        turn on printer for
                                                          #1 bytes
       prtr_off                      mc4        pf        turn off printer
       prtr_on                       mc5        po        turn on printer
       pulse                         pulse      PU        select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                    qdial      QD        dial number #1
                                                          without checking
       remove_clock                  rmclk      RC        remove clock
       repeat_char                   rep        rp        repeat char #1 #2
                                                          times (P*)
       req_for_input                 rfi        RF        send next input char
                                                          (for ptys)
       reset_1string                 rs1        r1        reset string
       reset_2string                 rs2        r2        reset string
       reset_3string                 rs3        r3        reset string
       reset_file                    rf         rf        name of reset file
       restore_cursor                rc         rc        restore cursor to
                                                          position of last
                                                          save_cursor
       row_address                   vpa        cv        vertical position #1
                                                          absolute (P)
       save_cursor                   sc         sc        save current cursor
                                                          position (P)
       scroll_forward                ind        sf        scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                ri         sr        scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set               scs        Zj        Select character
                                                          set, #1
       set_attributes                sgr        sa        define video
                                                          attributes #1-#9
                                                          (PG9)
       set_background                setb       Sb        Set background color
                                                          #1
       set_bottom_margin             smgb       Zk        Set bottom margin at
                                                          current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm        smgbp      Zl        Set bottom margin at
                                                          line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                          is not given) #2
                                                          lines from bottom
       set_clock                     sclk       SC        set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                          mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                scp        sp        Set current color
                                                          pair to #1
       set_foreground                setf       Sf        Set foreground color
                                                          #1


       set_left_margin               smgl       ML        set left soft margin
                                                          at current
                                                          column.        See
                                                          smgl. (ML is not in
                                                          BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm          smglp      Zm        Set left (right)
                                                          margin at column #1
       set_right_margin              smgr       MR        set right soft
                                                          margin at current
                                                          column
       set_right_margin_parm         smgrp      Zn        Set right margin at
                                                          column #1
       set_tab                       hts        st        set a tab in every
                                                          row, current columns
       set_top_margin                smgt       Zo        Set top margin at
                                                          current line
       set_top_margin_parm           smgtp      Zp        Set top (bottom)
                                                          margin at row #1
       set_window                    wind       wi        current window is
                                                          lines #1-#2 cols
                                                          #3-#4
       start_bit_image               sbim       Zq        Start printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       start_char_set_def            scsd       Zr        Start character set
                                                          definition #1, with
                                                          #2 characters in the
                                                          set
       stop_bit_image                rbim       Zs        Stop printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       stop_char_set_def             rcsd       Zt        End definition of
                                                          character set #1
       subscript_characters          subcs      Zu        List of
                                                          subscriptable
                                                          characters
       superscript_characters        supcs      Zv        List of
                                                          superscriptable
                                                          characters
       tab                           ht         ta        tab to next 8-space
                                                          hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                docr       Zw        Printing any of
                                                          these characters
                                                          causes CR
       to_status_line                tsl        ts        move to status line,
                                                          column #1
       tone                          tone       TO        select touch tone
                                                          dialing
       underline_char                uc         uc        underline char and
                                                          move past it
       up_half_line                  hu         hu        half a line up
       user0                         u0         u0        User string #0
       user1                         u1         u1        User string #1
       user2                         u2         u2        User string #2
       user3                         u3         u3        User string #3
       user4                         u4         u4        User string #4
       user5                         u5         u5        User string #5
       user6                         u6         u6        User string #6
       user7                         u7         u7        User string #7
       user8                         u8         u8        User string #8
       user9                         u9         u9        User string #9
       wait_tone                     wait       WA        wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                xoffc      XF        XOFF character
       xon_character                 xonc       XN        XON character
       zero_motion                   zerom      Zx        No motion for
                                                          subsequent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.


               Variable              Cap-         TCap         Description
                String               name         Code
       alt_scancode_esc              scesa        S8        Alternate escape
                                                            for scancode
                                                            emulation
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr         Yv        Move to beginning
                                                            of same row
       bit_image_newline             binel        Zz        Move to next row
                                                            of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat              birep        Xy        Repeat bit image
                                                            cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                csnm         Zy        Produce #1'th item
                                                            from list of
                                                            character set
                                                            names
       code_set_init                 csin         ci        Init sequence for
                                                            multiple codesets
       color_names                   colornm      Yw        Give name for
                                                            color #1
       define_bit_image_region       defbi        Yx        Define rectangular
                                                            bit image region
       device_type                   devt         dv        Indicate
                                                            language/codeset
                                                            support
       display_pc_char               dispc        S1        Display PC
                                                            character #1
       end_bit_image_region          endbi        Yy        End a bit-image
                                                            region
       enter_pc_charset_mode         smpch        S2        Enter PC character
                                                            display mode
       enter_scancode_mode           smsc         S4        Enter PC scancode
                                                            mode
       exit_pc_charset_mode          rmpch        S3        Exit PC character
                                                            display mode
       exit_scancode_mode            rmsc         S5        Exit PC scancode
                                                            mode
       get_mouse                     getm         Gm        Curses should get
                                                            button events,
                                                            parameter #1 not
                                                            documented.
       key_mouse                     kmous        Km        Mouse event has
                                                            occurred
       mouse_info                    minfo        Mi        Mouse status
                                                            information
       pc_term_options               pctrm        S6        PC terminal
                                                            options
       pkey_plab                     pfxl         xl        Program function
                                                            key #1 to type
                                                            string #2 and show
                                                            string #3
       req_mouse_pos                 reqmp        RQ        Request mouse
                                                            position
       scancode_escape               scesc        S7        Escape for
                                                            scancode emulation
       set0_des_seq                  s0ds         s0        Shift to codeset 0
                                                            (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                  s1ds         s1        Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                  s2ds         s2        Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                  s3ds         s3        Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background              setab        AB        Set background
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape

       set_a_foreground              setaf        AF        Set foreground
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape
       set_color_band                setcolor     Yz        Change to ribbon
                                                            color #1
       set_lr_margin                 smglr        ML        Set both left and
                                                            right margins to
                                                            #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                            not in BSD
                                                            termcap).
       set_page_length               slines       YZ        Set page length to
                                                            #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                 smgtb        MT        Sets both top and
                                                            bottom margins to
                                                            #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They were
        used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
        and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for them are
        invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!


                Variable              Cap-       TCap         Description
                 String               name       Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode      ehhlm      Xh       Enter horizontal
                                                          highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode            elhlm      Xl       Enter left highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_low_hl_mode             elohlm     Xo       Enter low highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_right_hl_mode           erhlm      Xr       Enter right
                                                          highlight mode
        enter_top_hl_mode             ethlm      Xt       Enter top highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode        evhlm      Xv       Enter vertical
                                                          highlight mode
        set_a_attributes              sgr1       sA       Define second set of
                                                          video attributes
                                                          #1-#6
        set_pglen_inch                slength    YI       Set page length to
                                                          #1 hundredth of an
                                                          inch (some
                                                          implementations use
                                                          sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly never)
       produced.  Occasionally there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined
       capabilities.

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined
       capabilities.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for
       this purpose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-
       defined.  That is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does
       not recognize, it infers its type (boolean, number or string) from the
       syntax and makes an extended table entry for that capability.  The
       use_extended_names(3X) function makes this information conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data
       leaving most of the behavior to applications:

       ·   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with “k” are
           treated as function keys.

       ·   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by tic can be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       ·   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the
       capabilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule, user-
       defined capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be
       limited to booleans and numbers to avoid running past the 1023 byte
       limit assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In
       particular, providing extended sets of function keys (past the 60
       numbered keys and the handful of special named keys) is best done using
       the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is
       representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically
       looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               acsc=+\020\,\021-\030.^Y0\333`\004a\261f\370g\361h\260
                    j\331k\277l\332m\300n\305o~p\304q\304r\304s_t\303
                    u\264v\301w\302x\263y\363z\362{\343|\330}\234~\376,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;
                          %?%p2%t;4%;
                          %?%p3%t;7%;
                          %?%p4%t;5%;
                          %?%p6%t;1%;
                          %?%p7%t;8%;
                          %?%p9%t;11%;m,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with “#”.  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       ·   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
           particular feature,

       ·   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       ·   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character “#” and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value “80” for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language
       conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character code, an “=”, and then a
       string ending at the next following “,”.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       ·   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       ·   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       ·   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s

           produce

             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,

           respectively.

       X/Open Curses does not say what “appropriate x” might be.  In practice,
       that is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case “^?” is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character value is
       AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through
       31.

       Other escapes include

       ·   \^ for ^,

       ·   \\ for \,

       ·   \, for comma,

       ·   \: for :,

       ·   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
           the compiled terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4 systems, which document this.  Compiled terminfo files use
           null-terminated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other
           implementations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       ·   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes “*” or “/” or both.

       ·   A “*” indicates that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       ·   A “/” suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library searches for terminal descriptions in several
       places.  It uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in list of places to search which can be overridden by
       environment variables.  Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       ·   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as
           the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
           are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       ·   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the directory
           $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       ·   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
           will interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
           a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the system
           location /usr/share/terminfo.

       ·   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           ·   a list of directories (no default value), and

           ·   the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo (the
               compiled-in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware that
       a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit a large file at 9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       “u” key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of
       lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the
       right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then
       this is given by the clear string capability.  If the terminal
       overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is struck
       over) then it should have the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to
       produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes
       to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass
       over, for example, you would not normally use “cuf1= ” because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which is defined
       from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given,
       the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first
       column of the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).
       It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current
       line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and “glass-tty”
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the
       terminal are described by a parameterized string capability, with
       printf-like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the
       cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and
       column to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and
       refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen
       memory.)  If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that
       can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is a
       special case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from
       the stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are often
       necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs “%”

       %[[:]flags][width[.precision]][doxXs]
            as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a “:” to allow the
            next character to be a “-” flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an
            operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

       %p[1-9]
            push i'th parameter

       %P[a-z]
            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[a-z]/
            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

       %P[A-Z]
            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[A-Z]
            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

       %{nn}
            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it
            from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string into lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g
       variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row and column are
       printed as two digits.  Thus its cup capability is
       “cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY”.

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary,
       “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.  Terminals which use “%c” need to be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it is not always safe to
       transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus “cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c”.  After sending
       “\E=”, this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left
       corner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP
       terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are
       parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right) these
       can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter
       indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the
       terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative
       cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the
       terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for
       the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the
       one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the
       screen after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to
       outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not
       available.)

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)
       commands may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does this synthesis automatically, so you need not compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with the memory-lock feature found on some
       terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has
       insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling
       window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test
       for this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the
       screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top
       of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled
       off the bottom of the region by the ri re-appears, then scrolling is
       non-destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn,
       and rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation
       cautions you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses
       implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases after
       scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then db
       should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the
       characters on the current line and shift characters off the end of the
       line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin
       Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the
       screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on
       the screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped
       blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type “abc    def”
       using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the “abc” and the
       “def”.  Then position the cursor before the “abc” and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the line to
       shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks and untyped positions.  If the
       “abc” shifts over to the “def” which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the
       second type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which
       stands for “insert null”.

       While these are two logically separate attributes (one line versus
       multi-line insert mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement is now rare;
       most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new
       curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an “insert mode” and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way their insert mode
       works.

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose one
       display form as standout mode, representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode leaves one or even two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate character set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on
       or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding
       separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

              tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

              none                 none             \E[0m
              p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
              p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
              p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
              p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
              p5                   dim              not available
              p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
              p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
              p8                   protect          not used
              p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220
       terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr
       because it protects characters on the screen from the host's erasures.
       The altcharset mode also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is
       output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either standout or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

            sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

            \E[0                 always              \E[0
            ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
            ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
            ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
            ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
            ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
            m                    always              m
            ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

           sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p4%t;5%;
               %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all
       terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many
       terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr
       string.  The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also
       assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the “magic cookie” glitch (xmc) deposit special
       “cookies” when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode
       when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor
       or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.
       Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow,
       and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be
       given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       ·   kll (home down),

       ·   kbs (backspace),

       ·   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       ·   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       ·   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       ·   kdch1 (delete character),

       ·   kdl1 (delete line),

       ·   krmir (exit insert mode),

       ·   kel (clear to end of line),

       ·   ked (clear to end of screen),

       ·   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       ·   kil1 (insert line),

       ·   knp (next page),

       ·   kpp (previous page),

       ·   kind (scroll forward/down),

       ·   kri (scroll backward/up),

       ·   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,
       kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.  The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the string to be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is
       normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
       tab stop can be given as ht (usually control I).  A “back-tab” command
       which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
       convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
       not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
       the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs which
       are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
       numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs
       are set to.  This is normally used by the tset command to determine
       whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set
       the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that they are
       properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run to
       initialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long
       initialization strings.  These strings are expected to set the terminal
       into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput
       program, each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the
       following order:

              run the program
                     iprog

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file
                     if

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the reset program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For
       example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would
       normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen
       and is not normally needed since the terminal is usually already in 80
       column mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization
       capability string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding
       characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices
       effectively that do not have a speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about
       relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra “status line” which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor
       positions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values
       of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to
       accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing
       characters supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T
       4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified by the
       acsc capability.

       Glyph                        ACS            Ascii      acsc      acsc
       Name                         Name           Default    Char      Value
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       arrow pointing right         ACS_RARROW     >          +         0x2b
       arrow pointing left          ACS_LARROW     <          ,         0x2c
       arrow pointing up            ACS_UARROW     ^          -         0x2d
       arrow pointing down          ACS_DARROW     v          .         0x2e
       solid square block           ACS_BLOCK      #          0         0x30
       diamond                      ACS_DIAMOND    +          `         0x60
       checker board (stipple)      ACS_CKBOARD    :          a         0x61
       degree symbol                ACS_DEGREE     \          f         0x66
       plus/minus                   ACS_PLMINUS    #          g         0x67

       board of squares             ACS_BOARD      #          h         0x68
       lantern symbol               ACS_LANTERN    #          i         0x69
       lower right corner           ACS_LRCORNER   +          j         0x6a
       upper right corner           ACS_URCORNER   +          k         0x6b
       upper left corner            ACS_ULCORNER   +          l         0x6c
       lower left corner            ACS_LLCORNER   +          m         0x6d
       large plus or crossover      ACS_PLUS       +          n         0x6e
       scan line 1                  ACS_S1         ~          o         0x6f
       scan line 3                  ACS_S3         -          p         0x70
       horizontal line              ACS_HLINE      -          q         0x71
       scan line 7                  ACS_S7         -          r         0x72
       scan line 9                  ACS_S9         _          s         0x73
       tee pointing right           ACS_LTEE       +          t         0x74
       tee pointing left            ACS_RTEE       +          u         0x75
       tee pointing up              ACS_BTEE       +          v         0x76
       tee pointing down            ACS_TTEE       +          w         0x77
       vertical line                ACS_VLINE      |          x         0x78
       less-than-or-equal-to        ACS_LEQUAL     <          y         0x79
       greater-than-or-equal-to     ACS_GEQUAL     >          z         0x7a
       greek pi                     ACS_PI         *          {         0x7b
       not-equal                    ACS_NEQUAL     !          |         0x7c
       UK pound sign                ACS_STERLING   f          }         0x7d
       bullet                       ACS_BULLET     o          ~         0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       ·   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern is
           uppercase “I” although Unix implementations use the lowercase “i”
           mapping.

       ·   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate character
           set feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the
           table).

       ·   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some of the characters within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board of squares
           replaces the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not
           (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color pairs and color values discussed in this section (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either “Tektronix-like” or “HP-like”:

       ·   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       ·   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color pair up
           separately (foreground and background are not independently
           settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different
           colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the
       current background color rather than the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the
       inability of some devices to set foreground and background colors
       independently), there are separate capabilities for setting these
       features:

       ·   To change the current foreground or background color on a
           Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI foreground) and setab
           (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set
           background).  These take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4
           documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that
           "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as setaf and setab,
           respectively.

       ·   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb,
           respectively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions use the
           setaf and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric
       argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined
       as follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal
       locations in color space.

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                    red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities;
       otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       ·   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to
           indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which describe the color.  These three parameters default to being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean
           capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       ·   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair
           number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first
           background and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be
           (Red, Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on
           hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can
       register these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask
       of attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The
       correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

   Miscellaneous
       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily
       useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a
       hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as
       ff (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical
       characters) this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.
       The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is
       the number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is
       the same as “xxxxxxxxxx”.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are
       known.)

       If the terminal has a “meta key” which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with
       km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it
       will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this “meta mode” on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the
       parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed
       255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer
       while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow “~” characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now “dest_tabs_magic_smso”; in older versions, it was
       teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a “magic cookie”, that to
       erase standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert
       line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called “beehive_glitch”; it is now “no_esc_ctl_c”.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.
       Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly limited
       (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now
       suppose:

       ·   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       ·   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       ·   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       ·   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry, or
           does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly
       vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type
       automatically.  The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap
       library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages
       when it reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap library
       truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but
       will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since tgetent only does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap
       entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries
       between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged
       from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension
       capabilities to the string table that (in the binary format) collide
       with System V and XSI Curses extensions.

EXTENSIONS
       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like
       xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input
       stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different
       extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       ·   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       ·   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (set_pglen).

       ·   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       ·   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       ·   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       ·   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

FILES
       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions

SEE ALSO
       tic(1M), infocmp(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X), printf(3), term(5).
       term_variables(3X).  user_caps(5).

AUTHORS
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                   terminfo(5)