TIME_NAMESPACES(7)         Linux Programmer's Manual        TIME_NAMESPACES(7)

       time_namespaces - overview of Linux time namespaces

       Time namespaces virtualize the values of two system clocks:

         CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW), a nonsettable clock that represents monotonic
         time  since—as described  by  POSIX—"some  unspecified  point in the

       • CLOCK_BOOTTIME (and likewise CLOCK_BOOTTIME_ALARM), a nonsettable
         clock that is identical to CLOCK_MONOTONIC, except that it also
         includes any time that the system is suspended.

       Thus, the processes in a time namespace share per-namespace values for
       these clocks.  This affects various APIs that measure against these
       clocks, including: clock_gettime(2), clock_nanosleep(2), nanosleep(2),
       timer_settime(2), timerfd_settime(2), and /proc/uptime.

       Currently, the only way to create a time namespace is by calling
       unshare(2) with the CLONE_NEWTIME flag.  This call creates a new time
       namespace but does not place the calling process in the new namespace.
       Instead, the calling process's subsequently created children are placed
       in the new namespace.  This allows clock offsets (see below) for the
       new namespace to be set before the first process is placed in the
       namespace.  The /proc/[pid]/ns/time_for_children symbolic link shows
       the time namespace in which the children of a process will be created.
       (A process can use a file descriptor opened on this symbolic link in a
       call to setns(2) in order to move into the namespace.)

       Associated with each time namespace are offsets, expressed with respect
       to the initial time namespace, that define the values of the monotonic
       and boot-time clocks in that namespace.  These offsets are exposed via
       the file /proc/PID/timens_offsets.  Within this file, the offsets are
       expressed as lines consisting of three space-delimited fields:

           <clock-id> <offset-secs> <offset-nanosecs>

       The clock-id is a string that identifies the clock whose offsets are
       being shown.  This field is either monotonic, for CLOCK_MONOTONIC, or
       boottime, for CLOCK_BOOTTIME.  The remaining fields express the offset
       (seconds plus nanoseconds) for the clock in this time namespace.  These
       offsets are expressed relative to the clock values in the initial time
       namespace.  The offset-secs value can be negative, subject to
       restrictions noted below; offset-nanosecs is an unsigned value.

       In the initial time namespace, the contents of the timens_offsets file
       are as follows:

           $ cat /proc/self/timens_offsets
           monotonic           0         0
           boottime            0         0

       In a new time namespace that has had no member processes, the clock
       offsets can be modified by writing newline-terminated records of the
       same form to the timens_offsets file.  The file can be written to
       multiple times, but after the first process has been created in or has
       entered the namespace, write(2)s on this file fail with the error
       EACCES.  In order to write to the timens_offsets file, a process must
       have the CAP_SYS_TIME capability in the user namespace that owns the
       time namespace.

       Writes to the timens_offsets file can fail with the following errors:

       EINVAL An offset-nanosecs value is greater than 999,999,999.

       EINVAL A clock-id value is not valid.

       EPERM  The caller does not have the the CAP_SYS_TIME capability.

       ERANGE An offset-secs value is out of range.  In particular;

              • offset-secs can't be set to a value which would make the
                current time on the corresponding clock inside the namespace a
                negative value; and

              • offset-secs can't be set to a value such that the time on the
                corresponding clock inside the namespace would exceed half of
                the value of the kernel constant KTIME_SEC_MAX (this limits
                the clock value to a maximum of approximately 146 years).

       In a new time namespace created by unshare(2), the contents of the
       timens_offsets file are inherited from the time namespace of the
       creating process.

       Use of time namespaces requires a kernel that is configured with the
       CONFIG_TIME_NS option.

       Note that time namespaces do not virtualize the CLOCK_REALTIME clock.
       Virtualization of this clock was avoided for reasons of complexity and
       overhead within the kernel.

       For compatibility with the initial implementation, when writing a
       clock-id to the /proc/[pid]/timens_offsets file, the numerical values
       of the IDs can be written instead of the symbolic names show above;
       i.e., 1 instead of monotonic, and 7 instead of boottime.  For
       redability, the use of the symbolic names over the numbers is

       The motivation for adding time namespaces was to allow the monotonic
       and boot-time clocks to maintain consistent values during container
       migration and checkpoint/restore.

       The following shell session demonstrates the operation of time
       namespaces.  We begin by displaying the inode number of the time
       namespace of a shell in the initial time namespace:

           $ readlink /proc/$$/ns/time

       Continuing in the initial time namespace, we display the system uptime
       using uptime(1) and use the clock_times example program shown in
       clock_getres(2) to display the values of various clocks:

           $ uptime --pretty
           up 21 hours, 17 minutes
           $ ./clock_times
           CLOCK_REALTIME : 1585989401.971 (18356 days +  8h 36m 41s)
           CLOCK_TAI      : 1585989438.972 (18356 days +  8h 37m 18s)
           CLOCK_MONOTONIC:      56338.247 (15h 38m 58s)
           CLOCK_BOOTTIME :      76633.544 (21h 17m 13s)

       We then use unshare(1) to create a time namespace and execute a bash(1)
       shell.  From the new shell, we use the built-in echo command to write
       records to the timens_offsets file adjusting the offset for the
       CLOCK_MONOTONIC clock forward 2 days and the offset for the
       CLOCK_BOOTTIME clock forward 7 days:

           $ PS1="ns2# " sudo unshare -T -- bash --norc
           ns2# echo "monotonic $((2*24*60*60)) 0" > /proc/$$/timens_offsets
           ns2# echo "boottime  $((7*24*60*60)) 0" > /proc/$$/timens_offsets

       Above, we started the bash(1) shell with the --norc options so that no
       start-up scripts were executed.  This ensures that no child processes
       are created from the shell before we have a chance to update the
       timens_offsets file.

       We then use cat(1) to display the contents of the timens_offsets file.
       The execution of cat(1) creates the first process in the new time
       namespace, after which further attempts to update the timens_offsets
       file produce an error.

           ns2# cat /proc/$$/timens_offsets
           monotonic      172800         0
           boottime       604800         0
           ns2# echo "boottime $((9*24*60*60)) 0" > /proc/$$/timens_offsets
           bash: echo: write error: Permission denied

       Continuing in the new namespace, we execute uptime(1) and the
       clock_times example program:

           ns2# uptime --pretty
           up 1 week, 21 hours, 18 minutes
           ns2# ./clock_times
           CLOCK_REALTIME : 1585989457.056 (18356 days +  8h 37m 37s)
           CLOCK_TAI      : 1585989494.057 (18356 days +  8h 38m 14s)
           CLOCK_MONOTONIC:     229193.332 (2 days + 15h 39m 53s)
           CLOCK_BOOTTIME :     681488.629 (7 days + 21h 18m  8s)

       From the above output, we can see that the monotonic and boot-time
       clocks have different values in the new time namespace.

       Examining the /proc/[pid]/ns/time and /proc/[pid]/ns/time_for_children
       symbolic links, we see that the shell is a member of the initial time
       namespace, but its children are created in the new namespace.

           ns2# readlink /proc/$$/ns/time
           ns2# readlink /proc/$$/ns/time_for_children
           ns2# readlink /proc/self/ns/time   # Creates a child process

       Returning to the shell in the initial time namespace, we see that the
       monotonic and boot-time clocks are unaffected by the timens_offsets
       changes that were made in the other time namespace:

           $ uptime --pretty
           up 21 hours, 19 minutes
           $ ./clock_times
           CLOCK_REALTIME : 1585989401.971 (18356 days +  8h 38m 51s)
           CLOCK_TAI      : 1585989438.972 (18356 days +  8h 39m 28s)
           CLOCK_MONOTONIC:      56338.247 (15h 41m  8s)
           CLOCK_BOOTTIME :      76633.544 (21h 19m 23s)

       nsenter(1), unshare(1), clock_settime(2), setns(2), unshare(2),
       namespaces(7), time(7)

       This page is part of release 5.07 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                             2020-06-09                TIME_NAMESPACES(7)