TMUX(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   TMUX(1)

     tmux — terminal multiplexer

     tmux [-2CluvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name]
          [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]

     tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be
     created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen.  tmux may be
     detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later

     When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and
     displays it on screen.  A status line at the bottom of the screen shows
     information on the current session and is used to enter interactive

     A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the management
     of tmux.  Each session has one or more windows linked to it.  A window
     occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular panes, each of
     which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(4) manual page documents the
     technical details of pseudo terminals).  Any number of tmux instances may
     connect to the same session, and any number of windows may be present in
     the same session.  Once all sessions are killed, tmux exits.

     Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection (such
     as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the ‘C-b d’
     key strokes).  tmux may be reattached using:

           $ tmux attach

     In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions are
     managed by a single server.  The server and each client are separate
     processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp.

     The options are as follows:

     -2            Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours.

     -C            Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section).  Given
                   twice (-CC) disables echo.

     -c shell-command
                   Execute shell-command using the default shell.  If necessary,
                   the tmux server will be started to retrieve the default-shell
                   option.  This option is for compatibility with sh(1) when
                   tmux is used as a login shell.

     -f file       Specify an alternative configuration file.  By default, tmux
                   loads the system configuration file from /etc/tmux.conf, if
                   present, then looks for a user configuration file at

                   The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which are
                   executed in sequence when the server is first started.  tmux
                   loads configuration files once when the server process has
                   started.  The source-file command may be used to load a file

                   tmux shows any error messages from commands in configuration
                   files in the first session created, and continues to process
                   the rest of the configuration file.

     -L socket-name
                   tmux stores the server socket in a directory under
                   TMUX_TMPDIR or /tmp if it is unset.  The default socket is
                   named default.  This option allows a different socket name to
                   be specified, allowing several independent tmux servers to be
                   run.  Unlike -S a full path is not necessary: the sockets are
                   all created in the same directory.

                   If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal may
                   be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it (note that
                   this will fail if any parent directories are missing).

     -l            Behave as a login shell.  This flag currently has no effect
                   and is for compatibility with other shells when using tmux as
                   a login shell.

     -S socket-path
                   Specify a full alternative path to the server socket.  If -S
                   is specified, the default socket directory is not used and
                   any -L flag is ignored.

     -u            Write UTF-8 output to the terminal even if the first
                   environment variable of LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG that is set
                   does not contain "UTF-8" or "UTF8".

     -v            Request verbose logging.  Log messages will be saved into
                   tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log files in the
                   current directory, where PID is the PID of the server or
                   client process.  If -v is specified twice, an additional
                   tmux-out-PID.log file is generated with a copy of everything
                   tmux writes to the terminal.

                   The SIGUSR2 signal may be sent to the tmux server process to
                   toggle logging between on (as if -v was given) and off.

     -V            Report the tmux version.

     command [flags]
                   This specifies one of a set of commands used to control tmux,
                   as described in the following sections.  If no commands are
                   specified, the new-session command is assumed.

     tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination
     of a prefix key, ‘C-b’ (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command key.

     The default command key bindings are:

           C-b         Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application.
           C-o         Rotate the panes in the current window forwards.
           C-z         Suspend the tmux client.
           !           Break the current pane out of the window.
           "           Split the current pane into two, top and bottom.
           #           List all paste buffers.
           $           Rename the current session.
           %           Split the current pane into two, left and right.
           &           Kill the current window.
           '           Prompt for a window index to select.
           (           Switch the attached client to the previous session.
           )           Switch the attached client to the next session.
           ,           Rename the current window.
           -           Delete the most recently copied buffer of text.
           .           Prompt for an index to move the current window.
           0 to 9      Select windows 0 to 9.
           :           Enter the tmux command prompt.
           ;           Move to the previously active pane.
           =           Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a list.
           ?           List all key bindings.
           D           Choose a client to detach.
           L           Switch the attached client back to the last session.
           [           Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history.
           ]           Paste the most recently copied buffer of text.
           c           Create a new window.
           d           Detach the current client.
           f           Prompt to search for text in open windows.
           i           Display some information about the current window.
           l           Move to the previously selected window.
           m           Mark the current pane (see select-pane -m).
           M           Clear the marked pane.
           n           Change to the next window.
           o           Select the next pane in the current window.
           p           Change to the previous window.
           q           Briefly display pane indexes.
           r           Force redraw of the attached client.
           s           Select a new session for the attached client
           t           Show the time.
           w           Choose the current window interactively.
           x           Kill the current pane.
           z           Toggle zoom state of the current pane.
           {           Swap the current pane with the previous pane.
           }           Swap the current pane with the next pane.
           ~           Show previous messages from tmux, if any.
           Page Up     Enter copy mode and scroll one page up.
           Up, Down
           Left, Right
                       Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to the
                       right of the current pane.
           M-1 to M-5  Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts: even-
                       horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal, main-
                       vertical, or tiled.
           Space       Arrange the current window in the next preset layout.
           M-n         Move to the next window with a bell or activity marker.
           M-o         Rotate the panes in the current window backwards.
           M-p         Move to the previous window with a bell or activity
           C-Up, C-Down
           C-Left, C-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of one cell.
           M-Up, M-Down
           M-Left, M-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of five cells.

     Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.

     tmux supports a large number of commands which can be used to control its
     behaviour.  Each command is named and can accept zero or more flags and
     arguments.  They may be bound to a key with the bind-key command or run
     from the shell prompt, a shell script, a configuration file or the command
     prompt.  For example, the same set-option command run from the shell
     prompt, from ~/.tmux.conf and bound to a key may look like:

           $ tmux set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

           set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

           bind-key C set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

     Here, the command name is ‘set-option’, ‘-g’ is a flag and ‘status-style’
     and ‘bg=cyan’ are arguments.

     tmux distinguishes between command parsing and execution.  In order to
     execute a command, tmux needs it to be split up into its name and
     arguments.  This is command parsing.  If a command is run from the shell,
     the shell parses it; from inside tmux or from a configuration file, tmux
     does.  Examples of when tmux parses commands are:

           -   in a configuration file;

           -   typed at the command prompt (see command-prompt);

           -   given to bind-key;

           -   passed as arguments to if-shell or confirm-before.

     To execute commands, each client has a ‘command queue’.  A global command
     queue not attached to any client is used on startup for configuration files
     like ~/.tmux.conf.  Parsed commands added to the queue are executed in
     order.  Some commands, like if-shell and confirm-before, parse their
     argument to create a new command which is inserted immediately after
     themselves.  This means that arguments can be parsed twice or more - once
     when the parent command (such as if-shell) is parsed and again when it
     parses and executes its command.  Commands like if-shell, run-shell and
     display-panes stop execution of subsequent commands on the queue until
     something happens - if-shell and run-shell until a shell command finishes
     and display-panes until a key is pressed.  For example, the following

           new-session; new-window
           if-shell "true" "split-window"

     Will execute new-session, new-window, if-shell, the shell command true(1),
     split-window and kill-session in that order.

     The COMMANDS section lists the tmux commands and their arguments.

     This section describes the syntax of commands parsed by tmux, for example
     in a configuration file or at the command prompt.  Note that when commands
     are entered into the shell, they are parsed by the shell - see for example
     ksh(1) or csh(1).

     Each command is terminated by a newline or a semicolon (;).  Commands
     separated by semicolons together form a ‘command sequence’ - if a command
     in the sequence encounters an error, no subsequent commands are executed.

     Comments are marked by the unquoted # character - any remaining text after
     a comment is ignored until the end of the line.

     If the last character of a line is \, the line is joined with the following
     line (the \ and the newline are completely removed).  This is called line
     continuation and applies both inside and outside quoted strings and in
     comments, but not inside braces.

     Command arguments may be specified as strings surrounded by single (')
     quotes, double quotes (") or braces ({}).  This is required when the
     argument contains any special character.  Single and double quoted strings
     cannot span multiple lines except with line continuation.  Braces can span
     multiple lines.

     Outside of quotes and inside double quotes, these replacements are

           -   Environment variables preceded by $ are replaced with their value
               from the global environment (see the GLOBAL AND SESSION
               ENVIRONMENT section).

           -   A leading ~ or ~user is expanded to the home directory of the
               current or specified user.

           -   \uXXXX or \uXXXXXXXX is replaced by the Unicode codepoint
               corresponding to the given four or eight digit hexadecimal

           -   When preceded (escaped) by a \, the following characters are
               replaced: \e by the escape character; \r by a carriage return; \n
               by a newline; and \t by a tab.

           -   \ooo is replaced by a character of the octal value ooo.  Three
               octal digits are required, for example \001.  The largest valid
               character is \377.

           -   Any other characters preceded by \ are replaced by themselves
               (that is, the \ is removed) and are not treated as having any
               special meaning - so for example \; will not mark a command
               sequence and \$ will not expand an environment variable.

     Braces are similar to single quotes in that the text inside is taken
     literally without any replacements but this also includes line
     continuation.  Braces can span multiple lines in which case a literal
     newline is included in the string.  They are designed to avoid the need for
     additional escaping when passing a group of tmux or shell commands as an
     argument (for example to if-shell or pipe-pane).  These two examples
     produce an identical command - note that no escaping is needed when using

           if-shell true {
               display -p 'brace-dollar-foo: }$foo'

           if-shell true "\n    display -p 'brace-dollar-foo: }\$foo'\n"

     Braces may be enclosed inside braces, for example:

           bind x if-shell "true" {
               if-shell "true" {
                   display "true!"

     Environment variables may be set by using the syntax ‘name=value’, for
     example ‘HOME=/home/user’.  Variables set during parsing are added to the
     global environment.

     Commands may be parsed conditionally by surrounding them with ‘%if’,
     ‘%elif’, ‘%else’ and ‘%endif’.  The argument to ‘%if’ and ‘%elif’ is
     expanded as a format (see FORMATS) and if it evaluates to false (zero or
     empty), subsequent text is ignored until the closing ‘%elif’, ‘%else’ or
     ‘%endif’.  For example:

           %if "#{==:#{host},myhost}"
           set -g status-style bg=red
           %elif "#{==:#{host},myotherhost}"
           set -g status-style bg=green
           set -g status-style bg=blue

     Will change the status line to red if running on ‘myhost’, green if running
     on ‘myotherhost’, or blue if running on another host.  Conditionals may be
     given on one line, for example:

           %if #{==:#{host},myhost} set -g status-style bg=red %endif

     This section describes the commands supported by tmux.  Most commands
     accept the optional -t (and sometimes -s) argument with one of
     target-client, target-session, target-window, or target-pane.  These
     specify the client, session, window or pane which a command should affect.

     target-client should be the name of the client, typically the pty(4) file
     to which the client is connected, for example either of /dev/ttyp1 or ttyp1
     for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1.  If no client is specified, tmux
     attempts to work out the client currently in use; if that fails, an error
     is reported.  Clients may be listed with the list-clients command.

     target-session is tried as, in order:

           1.   A session ID prefixed with a $.

           2.   An exact name of a session (as listed by the list-sessions

           3.   The start of a session name, for example ‘mysess’ would match a
                session named ‘mysession’.

           4.   An fnmatch(3) pattern which is matched against the session name.

     If the session name is prefixed with an ‘=’, only an exact match is
     accepted (so ‘=mysess’ will only match exactly ‘mysess’, not ‘mysession’).

     If a single session is found, it is used as the target session; multiple
     matches produce an error.  If a session is omitted, the current session is
     used if available; if no current session is available, the most recently
     used is chosen.

     target-window (or src-window or dst-window) specifies a window in the form
     session:window.  session follows the same rules as for target-session, and
     window is looked for in order as:

           1.   A special token, listed below.

           2.   A window index, for example ‘mysession:1’ is window 1 in session

           3.   A window ID, such as @1.

           4.   An exact window name, such as ‘mysession:mywindow’.

           5.   The start of a window name, such as ‘mysession:mywin’.

           6.   As an fnmatch(3) pattern matched against the window name.

     Like sessions, a ‘=’ prefix will do an exact match only.  An empty window
     name specifies the next unused index if appropriate (for example the
     new-window and link-window commands) otherwise the current window in
     session is chosen.

     The following special tokens are available to indicate particular windows.
     Each has a single-character alternative form.

     Token              Meaning
     {start}       ^    The lowest-numbered window
     {end}         $    The highest-numbered window
     {last}        !    The last (previously current) window
     {next}        +    The next window by number
     {previous}    -    The previous window by number

     target-pane (or src-pane or dst-pane) may be a pane ID or takes a similar
     form to target-window but with the optional addition of a period followed
     by a pane index or pane ID, for example: ‘mysession:mywindow.1’.  If the
     pane index is omitted, the currently active pane in the specified window is
     used.  The following special tokens are available for the pane index:

     Token                  Meaning
     {last}            !    The last (previously active) pane
     {next}            +    The next pane by number
     {previous}        -    The previous pane by number
     {top}                  The top pane
     {bottom}               The bottom pane
     {left}                 The leftmost pane
     {right}                The rightmost pane
     {top-left}             The top-left pane
     {top-right}            The top-right pane
     {bottom-left}          The bottom-left pane
     {bottom-right}         The bottom-right pane
     {up-of}                The pane above the active pane
     {down-of}              The pane below the active pane
     {left-of}              The pane to the left of the active pane
     {right-of}             The pane to the right of the active pane

     The tokens ‘+’ and ‘-’ may be followed by an offset, for example:

           select-window -t:+2

     In addition, target-session, target-window or target-pane may consist
     entirely of the token ‘{mouse}’ (alternative form ‘=’) to specify the
     session, window or pane where the most recent mouse event occurred (see the
     MOUSE SUPPORT section) or ‘{marked}’ (alternative form ‘~’) to specify the
     marked pane (see select-pane -m).

     Sessions, window and panes are each numbered with a unique ID; session IDs
     are prefixed with a ‘$’, windows with a ‘@’, and panes with a ‘%’.  These
     are unique and are unchanged for the life of the session, window or pane in
     the tmux server.  The pane ID is passed to the child process of the pane in
     the TMUX_PANE environment variable.  IDs may be displayed using the
     ‘session_id’, ‘window_id’, or ‘pane_id’ formats (see the FORMATS section)
     and the display-message, list-sessions, list-windows or list-panes

     shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands.  This may be a single argument
     passed to the shell, for example:

           new-window 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Will run:

           /bin/sh -c 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Additionally, the new-window, new-session, split-window, respawn-window and
     respawn-pane commands allow shell-command to be given as multiple arguments
     and executed directly (without ‘sh -c’).  This can avoid issues with shell
     quoting.  For example:

           $ tmux new-window vi /etc/passwd

     Will run vi(1) directly without invoking the shell.

     command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, either passed with the
     command and arguments separately, for example:

           bind-key F1 set-option status off

     Or passed as a single string argument in .tmux.conf, for example:

           bind-key F1 { set-option status off }

     Example tmux commands include:

           refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2

           rename-session -tfirst newname

           set-option -wt:0 monitor-activity on

           new-window ; split-window -d

           bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \
                   display-message "source-file done"

     Or from sh(1):

           $ tmux kill-window -t :1

           $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d

           $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach

     The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes.  Clients are
     attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are created
     with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session command.
     Each session has one or more windows linked into it.  Windows may be linked
     to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more panes, each of which
     contains a pseudo terminal.  Commands for creating, linking and otherwise
     manipulating windows are covered in the WINDOWS AND PANES section.

     The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions:

     attach-session [-dErx] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: attach)
             If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current
             terminal and attach it to target-session.  If used from inside,
             switch the current client.  If -d is specified, any other clients
             attached to the session are detached.  If -x is given, send SIGHUP
             to the parent process of the client as well as detaching the
             client, typically causing it to exit.  -r signifies the client is
             read-only (only keys bound to the detach-client or switch-client
             commands have any effect)

             If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start it;
             this will fail unless sessions are created in the configuration

             The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly adjusted:
             if tmux needs to select the most recently used session, it will
             prefer the most recently used unattached session.

             -c will set the session working directory (used for new windows) to

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be applied.

     detach-client [-aP] [-E shell-command] [-s target-session] [-t
                   (alias: detach)
             Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client specified
             with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session specified
             by -s.  The -a option kills all but the client given with -t.  If
             -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of the client,
             typically causing it to exit.  With -E, run shell-command to
             replace the client.

     has-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: has)
             Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does not
             exist.  If it does exist, exit with 0.

             Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions.

     kill-session [-aC] [-t target-session]
             Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and no
             other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it.  If -a is
             given, all sessions but the specified one is killed.  The -C flag
             clears alerts (bell, activity, or silence) in all windows linked to
             the session.

     list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsc)
             List all clients attached to the server.  For the meaning of the -F
             flag, see the FORMATS section.  If target-session is specified,
             list only clients connected to that session.

     list-commands [-F format] [command]
                   (alias: lscm)
             List the syntax of command or - if omitted - of all commands
             supported by tmux.

     list-sessions [-F format]
                   (alias: ls)
             List all sessions managed by the server.  For the meaning of the -F
             flag, see the FORMATS section.

     lock-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: lockc)
             Lock target-client, see the lock-server command.

     lock-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: locks)
             Lock all clients attached to target-session.

     new-session [-AdDEPX] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s
             session-name] [-t group-name] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: new)
             Create a new session with name session-name.

             The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d is
             given.  window-name and shell-command are the name of and shell
             command to execute in the initial window.  With -d, the initial
             size comes from the global default-size option; -x and -y can be
             used to specify a different size.  ‘-’ uses the size of the current
             client if any.  If -x or -y is given, the default-size option is
             set for the session.

             If run from a terminal, any termios(4) special characters are saved
             and used for new windows in the new session.

             The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if
             session-name already exists; in this case, -D behaves like -d to
             attach-session, and -X behaves like -x to attach-session.

             If -t is given, it specifies a session group.  Sessions in the same
             group share the same set of windows - new windows are linked to all
             sessions in the group and any windows closed removed from all
             sessions.  The current and previous window and any session options
             remain independent and any session in a group may be killed without
             affecting the others.  The group-name argument may be:

             1.      the name of an existing group, in which case the new
                     session is added to that group;

             2.      the name of an existing session - the new session is added
                     to the same group as that session, creating a new group if

             3.      the name for a new group containing only the new session.

             -n and shell-command are invalid if -t is used.

             The -P option prints information about the new session after it has
             been created.  By default, it uses the format ‘#{session_name}:’
             but a different format may be specified with -F.

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be applied.

     refresh-client [-cDlLRSU] [-C XxY] [-F flags] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: refresh)
             Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single client if
             one is given with -t.  If -S is specified, only update the client's
             status line.

             The -U, -D, -L -R, and -c flags allow the visible portion of a
             window which is larger than the client to be changed.  -U moves the
             visible part up by adjustment rows and -D down, -L left by
             adjustment columns and -R right.  -c returns to tracking the cursor
             automatically.  If adjustment is omitted, 1 is used.  Note that the
             visible position is a property of the client not of the window,
             changing the current window in the attached session will reset it.

             -C sets the width and height of a control client and -F sets a
             comma-separated list of flags.  Currently the only flag available
             is ‘no-output’ to disable receiving pane output.

             -l requests the clipboard from the client using the xterm(1) escape
             sequence and stores it in a new paste buffer.

             -L, -R, -U and -D move the visible portion of the window left,
             right, up or down by adjustment, if the window is larger than the
             client.  -c resets so that the position follows the cursor.  See
             the window-size option.

     rename-session [-t target-session] new-name
                   (alias: rename)
             Rename the session to new-name.

     show-messages [-JT] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: showmsgs)
             Show client messages or server information.  Any messages displayed
             on the status line are saved in a per-client message log, up to a
             maximum of the limit set by the message-limit server option.  With
             -t, display the log for target-client.  -J and -T show debugging
             information about jobs and terminals.

     source-file [-nqv] path ...
                   (alias: source)
             Execute commands from one or more files specified by path (which
             may be glob(7) patterns).  If -q is given, no error will be
             returned if path does not exist.  With -n, the file is parsed but
             no commands are executed.  -v shows the parsed commands and line
             numbers if possible.

                   (alias: start)
             Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating any

             Note that as by default the tmux server will exit with no sessions,
             this is only useful if a session is created in ~/.tmux.conf,
             exit-empty is turned off, or another command is run as part of the
             same command sequence.  For example:

                   $ tmux start \; show -g

     suspend-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: suspendc)
             Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop).

     switch-client [-ElnprZ] [-c target-client] [-t target-session] [-T
                   (alias: switchc)
             Switch the current session for client target-client to
             target-session.  As a special case, -t may refer to a pane (a
             target that contains ‘:’, ‘.’ or ‘%’), to change session, window
             and pane.  In that case, -Z keeps the window zoomed if it was
             zoomed.  If -l, -n or -p is used, the client is moved to the last,
             next or previous session respectively.  -r toggles whether a client
             is read-only (see the attach-session command).

             If -E is used, update-environment option will not be applied.

             -T sets the client's key table; the next key from the client will
             be interpreted from key-table.  This may be used to configure
             multiple prefix keys, or to bind commands to sequences of keys.
             For example, to make typing ‘abc’ run the list-keys command:

                   bind-key -Ttable2 c list-keys
                   bind-key -Ttable1 b switch-client -Ttable2
                   bind-key -Troot   a switch-client -Ttable1

     Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each
     pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal.  A
     window may be split into panes using the split-window command.  Windows may
     be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically.  Panes may be
     resized with the resize-pane command (bound to ‘C-Up’, ‘C-Down’ ‘C-Left’
     and ‘C-Right’ by default), the current pane may be changed with the
     select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane commands may be
     used to swap panes without changing their position.  Panes are numbered
     beginning from zero in the order they are created.

     By default, a tmux pane permits direct access to the terminal contained in
     the pane.  A pane may also be put into one of several modes:

           -   Copy mode, which permits a section of a window or its history to
               be copied to a paste buffer for later insertion into another
               window.  This mode is entered with the copy-mode command, bound
               to ‘[’ by default.

           -   View mode, which is like copy mode but is entered when a command
               that produces output, such as list-keys, is executed from a key

           -   Choose mode, which allows an item to be chosen from a list.  This
               may be a client, a session or window or pane, or a buffer.  This
               mode is entered with the choose-buffer, choose-client and
               choose-tree commands.

     In copy mode an indicator is displayed in the top-right corner of the pane
     with the current position and the number of lines in the history.

     Commands are sent to copy mode using the -X flag to the send-keys command.
     When a key is pressed, copy mode automatically uses one of two key tables,
     depending on the mode-keys option: copy-mode for emacs, or copy-mode-vi for
     vi.  Key tables may be viewed with the list-keys command.

     The following commands are supported in copy mode:

           Command                                      vi              emacs
           append-selection-and-cancel                  A
           back-to-indentation                          ^               M-m
           begin-selection                              Space           C-Space
           bottom-line                                  L
           cancel                                       q               Escape
           clear-selection                              Escape          C-g
           copy-end-of-line [<prefix>]                  D               C-k
           copy-line [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-no-clear <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-and-cancel <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-selection [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-no-clear [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-and-cancel [<prefix>]         Enter           M-w
           cursor-down                                  j               Down
           cursor-left                                  h               Left
           cursor-right                                 l               Right
           cursor-up                                    k               Up
           end-of-line                                  $               C-e
           goto-line <line>                             :               g
           halfpage-down                                C-d             M-Down
           halfpage-up                                  C-u             M-Up
           history-bottom                               G               M->
           history-top                                  g               M-<
           jump-again                                   ;               ;
           jump-backward <to>                           F               F
           jump-forward <to>                            f               f
           jump-reverse                                 ,               ,
           jump-to-backward <to>                        T
           jump-to-forward <to>                         t
           middle-line                                  M               M-r
           next-matching-bracket                        %               M-C-f
           next-paragraph                               }               M-}
           next-space                                   W
           next-space-end                               E
           next-word                                    w
           next-word-end                                e               M-f
           other-end                                    o
           page-down                                    C-f             PageDown
           page-up                                      C-b             PageUp
           previous-matching-bracket                                    M-C-b
           previous-paragraph                           {               M-{
           previous-space                               B
           previous-word                                b               M-b
           rectangle-toggle                             v               R
           scroll-down                                  C-e             C-Down
           scroll-up                                    C-y             C-Up
           search-again                                 n               n
           search-backward <for>                        ?
           search-backward-incremental <for>                            C-r
           search-backward-text <for>
           search-forward <for>                         /
           search-forward-incremental <for>                             C-s
           search-forward-text <for>
           search-reverse                               N               N
           select-line                                  V
           start-of-line                                0               C-a
           top-line                                     H               M-R

     The search commands come in several varieties: ‘search-forward’ and
     ‘search-backward’ search for a regular expression; the ‘-text’ variants
     search for a plain text string rather than a regular expression;
     ‘-incremental’ perform an incremental search and expect to be used with the
     -i flag to the command-prompt command.  ‘search-again’ repeats the last
     search and ‘search-reverse’ does the same but reverses the direction
     (forward becomes backward and backward becomes forward).

     Copy commands may take an optional buffer prefix argument which is used to
     generate the buffer name (the default is ‘buffer’ so buffers are named
     ‘buffer0’, ‘buffer1’ and so on).  Pipe commands take a command argument
     which is the command to which the copied text is piped.  The ‘-and-cancel’
     variants of some commands exit copy mode after they have completed (for
     copy commands) or when the cursor reaches the bottom (for scrolling
     commands).  ‘-no-clear’ variants do not clear the selection.

     The next and previous word keys use space and the ‘-’, ‘_’ and ‘@’
     characters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by
     setting the word-separators session option.  Next word moves to the start
     of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and previous
     word to the start of the previous word.  The three next and previous space
     keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word separator.

     The jump commands enable quick movement within a line.  For instance,
     typing ‘f’ followed by ‘/’ will move the cursor to the next ‘/’ character
     on the current line.  A ‘;’ will then jump to the next occurrence.

     Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count.  With vi
     key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with emacs, the
     Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry.

     The synopsis for the copy-mode command is:

     copy-mode [-eHMqu] [-t target-pane]
             Enter copy mode.  The -u option scrolls one page up.  -M begins a
             mouse drag (only valid if bound to a mouse key binding, see MOUSE
             SUPPORT).  -H hides the position indicator in the top right.  -q
             cancels copy mode and any other modes.

             -e specifies that scrolling to the bottom of the history (to the
             visible screen) should exit copy mode.  While in copy mode,
             pressing a key other than those used for scrolling will disable
             this behaviour.  This is intended to allow fast scrolling through a
             pane's history, for example with:

                   bind PageUp copy-mode -eu

     A number of preset arrangements of panes are available, these are called
     layouts.  These may be selected with the select-layout command or cycled
     with next-layout (bound to ‘Space’ by default); once a layout is chosen,
     panes within it may be moved and resized as normal.

     The following layouts are supported:

             Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the window.

             Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom.

             A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the
             remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover space
             at the bottom.  Use the main-pane-height window option to specify
             the height of the top pane.

             Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the left
             and the others spread from top to bottom along the right.  See the
             main-pane-width window option.

     tiled   Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in both
             rows and columns.

     In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used layout -
     the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a form
     suitable for use with select-layout.  For example:

           $ tmux list-windows
           0: ksh [159x48]
               layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}
           $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}

     tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current window
     size.  Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more panes
     than that from which the layout was originally defined.

     Commands related to windows and panes are as follows:

     break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: breakp)
             Break src-pane off from its containing window to make it the only
             pane in dst-window.  If -d is given, the new window does not become
             the current window.  The -P option prints information about the new
             window after it has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     capture-pane [-aepPqCJN] [-b buffer-name] [-E end-line] [-S start-line] [-t
                   (alias: capturep)
             Capture the contents of a pane.  If -p is given, the output goes to
             stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a new buffer
             if omitted.  If -a is given, the alternate screen is used, and the
             history is not accessible.  If no alternate screen exists, an error
             will be returned unless -q is given.  If -e is given, the output
             includes escape sequences for text and background attributes.  -C
             also escapes non-printable characters as octal \xxx.  -N preserves
             trailing spaces at each line's end and -J preserves trailing spaces
             and joins any wrapped lines.  -P captures only any output that the
             pane has received that is the beginning of an as-yet incomplete
             escape sequence.

             -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is the
             first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are lines in
             the history.  ‘-’ to -S is the start of the history and to -E the
             end of the visible pane.  The default is to capture only the
             visible contents of the pane.

     choose-client [-NrZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into client mode, allowing a client to be selected
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following keys
             may be used in client mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected client
                   Up     Select previous client
                   Down   Select next client
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if client is tagged
                   T      Tag no clients
                   C-t    Tag all clients
                   d      Detach selected client
                   D      Detach tagged clients
                   x      Detach and HUP selected client
                   X      Detach and HUP tagged clients
                   z      Suspend selected client
                   Z      Suspend tagged clients
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a client is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the client name in
             template and the result executed as a command.  If template is not
             given, "detach-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘name’, ‘size’,
             ‘creation’, or ‘activity’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f
             specifies an initial filter: the filter is a format - if it
             evaluates to zero, the item in the list is not shown, otherwise it
             is shown.  If a filter would lead to an empty list, it is ignored.
             -F specifies the format for each item in the list.  -N starts
             without the preview.  This command works only if at least one
             client is attached.

     choose-tree [-GNrswZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into tree mode, where a session, window or pane may be
             chosen interactively from a list.  -s starts with sessions
             collapsed and -w with windows collapsed.  -Z zooms the pane.  The
             following keys may be used in tree mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected item
                   Up     Select previous item
                   Down   Select next item
                   x      Kill selected item
                   X      Kill tagged items
                   <      Scroll list of previews left
                   >      Scroll list of previews right
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if item is tagged
                   T      Tag no items
                   C-t    Tag all items
                   :      Run a command for each tagged item
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a session, window or pane is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the
             target in template and the result executed as a command.  If
             template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘index’, ‘name’, or
             ‘time’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f specifies an initial
             filter: the filter is a format - if it evaluates to zero, the item
             in the list is not shown, otherwise it is shown.  If a filter would
             lead to an empty list, it is ignored.  -F specifies the format for
             each item in the tree.  -N starts without the preview.  -G includes
             all sessions in any session groups in the tree rather than only the
             first.  This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     display-panes [-b] [-d duration] [-t target-client] [template]
                   (alias: displayp)
             Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by target-client.
             See the display-panes-colour and display-panes-active-colour
             session options.  The indicator is closed when a key is pressed or
             duration milliseconds have passed.  If -d is not given,
             display-panes-time is used.  A duration of zero means the indicator
             stays until a key is pressed.  While the indicator is on screen, a
             pane may be chosen with the ‘0’ to ‘9’ keys, which will cause
             template to be executed as a command with ‘%%’ substituted by the
             pane ID.  The default template is "select-pane -t '%%'".  With -b,
             other commands are not blocked from running until the indicator is

     find-window [-rCNTZ] [-t target-pane] match-string
                   (alias: findw)
             Search for a fnmatch(3) pattern or, with -r, regular expression
             match-string in window names, titles, and visible content (but not
             history).  The flags control matching behavior: -C matches only
             visible window contents, -N matches only the window name and -T
             matches only the window title.  The default is -CNT.  -Z zooms the

             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     join-pane [-bdfhv] [-l size] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: joinp)
             Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creating a
             new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space.  This can be
             used to reverse break-pane.  The -b option causes src-pane to be
             joined to left of or above dst-pane.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane -m),
             the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: killp)
             Destroy the given pane.  If no panes remain in the containing
             window, it is also destroyed.  The -a option kills all but the pane
             given with -t.

     kill-window [-a] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: killw)
             Kill the current window or the window at target-window, removing it
             from any sessions to which it is linked.  The -a option kills all
             but the window given with -t.

     last-pane [-deZ] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: lastp)
             Select the last (previously selected) pane.  -Z keeps the window
             zoomed if it was zoomed.  -e enables or -d disables input to the

     last-window [-t target-session]
                   (alias: last)
             Select the last (previously selected) window.  If no target-session
             is specified, select the last window of the current session.

     link-window [-adk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: linkw)
             Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window.  If
             dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the src-window
             is linked there.  With -a, the window is moved to the next index up
             (following windows are moved if necessary).  If -k is given and
             dst-window exists, it is killed, otherwise an error is generated.
             If -d is given, the newly linked window is not selected.

     list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target]
                   (alias: lsp)
             If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server are
             listed.  If -s is given, target is a session (or the current
             session).  If neither is given, target is a window (or the current
             window).  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsw)
             If -a is given, list all windows on the server.  Otherwise, list
             windows in the current session or in target-session.  For the
             meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: movep)
             Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the same

     move-window [-ardk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: movew)
             This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window is
             moved to dst-window.  With -r, all windows in the session are
             renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index option.

     new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-F format] [-n
             window-name] [-t target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: neww)
             Create a new window.  With -a, the new window is inserted at the
             next index up from the specified target-window, moving windows up
             if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window location.

             If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the
             current window.  target-window represents the window to be created;
             if the target already exists an error is shown, unless the -k flag
             is used, in which case it is destroyed.  shell-command is the
             command to execute.  If shell-command is not specified, the value
             of the default-command option is used.  -c specifies the working
             directory in which the new window is created.

             When the shell command completes, the window closes.  See the
             remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour.

             -e takes the form ‘VARIABLE=value’ and sets an environment variable
             for the newly created window; it may be specified multiple times.

             The TERM environment variable must be set to ‘screen’ or ‘tmux’ for
             all programs running inside tmux.  New windows will automatically
             have ‘TERM=screen’ added to their environment, but care must be
             taken not to reset this in shell start-up files or by the -e

             The -P option prints information about the new window after it has
             been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     next-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: nextl)
             Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to fit.

     next-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: next)
             Move to the next window in the session.  If -a is used, move to the
             next window with an alert.

     pipe-pane [-IOo] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: pipep)
             Pipe output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell command
             or vice versa.  A pane may only be connected to one command at a
             time, any existing pipe is closed before shell-command is executed.
             The shell-command string may contain the special character
             sequences supported by the status-left option.  If no shell-command
             is given, the current pipe (if any) is closed.

             -I and -O specify which of the shell-command output streams are
             connected to the pane: with -I stdout is connected (so anything
             shell-command prints is written to the pane as if it were typed);
             with -O stdin is connected (so any output in the pane is piped to
             shell-command).  Both may be used together and if neither are
             specified, -O is used.

             The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists,
             allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example:

                   bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P'

     previous-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: prevl)
             Move to the previous layout in the session.

     previous-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: prev)
             Move to the previous window in the session.  With -a, move to the
             previous window with an alert.

     rename-window [-t target-window] new-name
                   (alias: renamew)
             Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if
             specified, to new-name.

     resize-pane [-DLMRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height] [adjustment]
                   (alias: resizep)
             Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U, -D,
             -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The adjustment is
             given in lines or columns (the default is 1); -x and -y may be a
             given as a number of lines or columns or followed by ‘%’ for a
             percentage of the window size (for example ‘-x 10%’).  With -Z, the
             active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying the whole of the
             window) and unzoomed (its normal position in the layout).

             -M begins mouse resizing (only valid if bound to a mouse key
             binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

     resize-window [-aADLRU] [-t target-window] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: resizew)
             Resize a window, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U, -D,
             -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The adjustment is
             given in lines or cells (the default is 1).  -A sets the size of
             the largest session containing the window; -a the size of the
             smallest.  This command will automatically set window-size to
             manual in the window options.

     respawn-pane [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: respawnp)
             Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given, the
             command used when the pane was created is executed.  The pane must
             be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any existing
             command is killed.  -c specifies a new working directory for the
             pane.  The -e option has the same meaning as for the new-window

     respawn-window [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t
             target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnw)
             Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given, the
             command used when the window was created is executed.  The window
             must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any
             existing command is killed.  -c specifies a new working directory
             for the window.  The -e option has the same meaning as for the
             new-window command.

     rotate-window [-DUZ] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: rotatew)
             Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either upward
             (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically higher).  -Z
             keeps the window zoomed if it was zoomed.

     select-layout [-Enop] [-t target-pane] [layout-name]
                   (alias: selectl)
             Choose a specific layout for a window.  If layout-name is not
             given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied.  -n and
             -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout commands.
             -o applies the last set layout if possible (undoes the most recent
             layout change).  -E spreads the current pane and any panes next to
             it out evenly.

     select-pane [-DdeLlMmRUZ] [-T title] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: selectp)
             Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window.  If
             one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is used, respectively the pane below, to
             the left, to the right, or above the target pane is used.  -Z keeps
             the window zoomed if it was zoomed.  -l is the same as using the
             last-pane command.  -e enables or -d disables input to the pane.
             -T sets the pane title.

             -m and -M are used to set and clear the marked pane.  There is one
             marked pane at a time, setting a new marked pane clears the last.
             The marked pane is the default target for -s to join-pane,
             swap-pane and swap-window.

     select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: selectw)
             Select the window at target-window.  -l, -n and -p are equivalent
             to the last-window, next-window and previous-window commands.  If
             -T is given and the selected window is already the current window,
             the command behaves like last-window.

     split-window [-bdfhIvP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-l size] [-t
             target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format]
                   (alias: splitw)
             Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizontal
             split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v is
             assumed.  The -l option specifies the size of the new pane in lines
             (for vertical split) or in columns (for horizontal split); size may
             be followed by ‘%’ to specify a percentage of the available space.
             The -b option causes the new pane to be created to the left of or
             above target-pane.  The -f option creates a new pane spanning the
             full window height (with -h) or full window width (with -v),
             instead of splitting the active pane.

             An empty shell-command ('') will create a pane with no command
             running in it.  Output can be sent to such a pane with the
             display-message command.  The -I flag (if shell-command is not
             specified or empty) will create an empty pane and forward any
             output from stdin to it.  For example:

                   $ make 2>&1|tmux splitw -dI &

             All other options have the same meaning as for the new-window

     swap-pane [-dDUZ] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: swapp)
             Swap two panes.  If -U is used and no source pane is specified with
             -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it
             numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numerically).
             -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane and -Z keeps the
             window zoomed if it was zoomed.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane -m),
             the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: swapw)
             This is similar to link-window, except the source and destination
             windows are swapped.  It is an error if no window exists at
             src-window.  If -d is given, the new window does not become the
             current window.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane -m),
             the window containing the marked pane is used rather than the
             current window.

     unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: unlinkw)
             Unlink target-window.  Unless -k is given, a window may be unlinked
             only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows may not be
             linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the window is linked
             to only one session, it is unlinked and destroyed.

     tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a prefix
     key.  When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example ‘A’ to
     ‘Z’).  Ctrl keys may be prefixed with ‘C-’ or ‘^’, and Alt (meta) with
     ‘M-’.  In addition, the following special key names are accepted: Up, Down,
     Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter, Escape, F1 to F12,
     Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn, PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space, and Tab.
     Note that to bind the ‘"’ or ‘'’ keys, quotation marks are necessary, for

           bind-key '"' split-window
           bind-key "'" new-window

     A command bound to the Any key will execute for all keys which do not have
     a more specific binding.

     Commands related to key bindings are as follows:

     bind-key [-nr] [-N note] [-T key-table] key command [arguments]
                   (alias: bind)
             Bind key key to command.  Keys are bound in a key table.  By
             default (without -T), the key is bound in the prefix key table.
             This table is used for keys pressed after the prefix key (for
             example, by default ‘c’ is bound to new-window in the prefix table,
             so ‘C-b c’ creates a new window).  The root table is used for keys
             pressed without the prefix key: binding ‘c’ to new-window in the
             root table (not recommended) means a plain ‘c’ will create a new
             window.  -n is an alias for -T root.  Keys may also be bound in
             custom key tables and the switch-client -T command used to switch
             to them from a key binding.  The -r flag indicates this key may
             repeat, see the repeat-time option.  -N attaches a note to the key
             (shown with list-keys -N).

             To view the default bindings and possible commands, see the
             list-keys command.

     list-keys [-1aN] [-P prefix-string -T key-table] [key]
                   (alias: lsk)
             List key bindings.  There are two forms: the default lists keys as
             bind-key commands; -N lists only keys with attached notes and shows
             only the key and note for each key.

             With the default form, all key tables are listed by default.  -T
             lists only keys in key-table.

             With the -N form, only keys in the root and prefix key tables are
             listed by default; -T also lists only keys in key-table.  -P
             specifies a prefix to print before each key and -1 lists only the
             first matching key.  -a lists the command for keys that do have a
             note rather than skipping them.

     send-keys [-FHlMRX] [-N repeat-count] [-t target-pane] key ...
                   (alias: send)
             Send a key or keys to a window.  Each argument key is the name of
             the key (such as ‘C-a’ or ‘NPage’) to send; if the string is not
             recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters.  All
             arguments are sent sequentially from first to last.

             The -l flag disables key name lookup and processes the keys as
             literal UTF-8 characters.  The -H flag expects each key to be a
             hexadecimal number for an ASCII character.

             The -R flag causes the terminal state to be reset.

             -M passes through a mouse event (only valid if bound to a mouse key
             binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

             -X is used to send a command into copy mode - see the WINDOWS AND
             PANES section.  -N specifies a repeat count and -F expands formats
             in arguments where appropriate.

     send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane]
             Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a
             window as if it was pressed.

     unbind-key [-an] [-T key-table] key
                   (alias: unbind)
             Unbind the command bound to key.  -n and -T are the same as for
             bind-key.  If -a is present, all key bindings are removed.

     The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the value
     of various options.  There are four types of option: server options,
     session options window options and pane options.

     The tmux server has a set of global server options which do not apply to
     any particular window or session or pane.  These are altered with the
     set-option -s command, or displayed with the show-options -s command.

     In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options, and
     there is a separate set of global session options.  Sessions which do not
     have a particular option configured inherit the value from the global
     session options.  Session options are set or unset with the set-option
     command and may be listed with the show-options command.  The available
     server and session options are listed under the set-option command.

     Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window and a set of
     pane options to each pane.  Pane options inherit from window options.  This
     means any pane option may be set as a window option to apply the option to
     all panes in the window without the option set, for example these commands
     will set the background colour to red for all panes except pane 0:

           set -w window-style bg=red
           set -pt:.0 window-style bg=blue

     There is also a set of global window options from which any unset window or
     pane options are inherited.  Window and pane options are altered with
     set-option -w and -p commands and displayed with show-option -w and -p.

     tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a ‘@’.  User
     options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with ‘@’, and be
     set to any string.  For example:

           $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"
           $ tmux showw -v @foo

     Commands which set options are as follows:

     set-option [-aFgopqsuw] [-t target-pane] option value
                   (alias: set)
             Set a pane option with -p, a window option with -w, a server option
             with -s, otherwise a session option.  If the option is not a user
             option, -w or -s may be unnecessary - tmux will infer the type from
             the option name, assuming -w for pane options.  If -g is given, the
             global session or window option is set.

             -F expands formats in the option value.  The -u flag unsets an
             option, so a session inherits the option from the global options
             (or with -g, restores a global option to the default).

             The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set and the
             -q flag suppresses errors about unknown or ambiguous options.

             With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value is
             appended to the existing setting.  For example:

                   set -g status-left "foo"
                   set -ag status-left "bar"

             Will result in ‘foobar’.  And:

                   set -g status-style "bg=red"
                   set -ag status-style "fg=blue"

             Will result in a red background and blue foreground.  Without -a,
             the result would be the default background and a blue foreground.

     show-options [-AgHpqsvw] [-t target-pane] [option]
                   (alias: show)
             Show the pane options (or a single option if option is provided)
             with -p, the window options with -w, the server options with -s,
             otherwise the session options.  If the option is not a user option,
             -w or -s may be unnecessary - tmux will infer the type from the
             option name, assuming -w for pane options.  Global session or
             window options are listed if -g is used.  -v shows only the option
             value, not the name.  If -q is set, no error will be returned if
             option is unset.  -H includes hooks (omitted by default).  -A
             includes options inherited from a parent set of options, such
             options are marked with an asterisk.  value depends on the option
             and may be a number, a string, or a flag (on, off, or omitted to

     Available server options are:

     backspace key
             Set the key sent by tmux for backspace.

     buffer-limit number
             Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to the top of
             the stack, old ones are removed from the bottom if necessary to
             maintain this maximum length.

     command-alias[] name=value
             This is an array of custom aliases for commands.  If an unknown
             command matches name, it is replaced with value.  For example,

                   set -s command-alias[100] zoom='resize-pane -Z'


                   zoom -t:.1

             Is equivalent to:

                   resize-pane -Z -t:.1

             Note that aliases are expanded when a command is parsed rather than
             when it is executed, so binding an alias with bind-key will bind
             the expanded form.

     default-terminal terminal
             Set the default terminal for new windows created in this session -
             the default value of the TERM environment variable.  For tmux to
             work correctly, this must be set to ‘screen’, ‘tmux’ or a
             derivative of them.

     escape-time time
             Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after an escape
             is input to determine if it is part of a function or meta key
             sequences.  The default is 500 milliseconds.

     exit-empty [on | off]
             If enabled (the default), the server will exit when there are no
             active sessions.

     exit-unattached [on | off]
             If enabled, the server will exit when there are no attached

     focus-events [on | off]
             When enabled, focus events are requested from the terminal if
             supported and passed through to applications running in tmux.
             Attached clients should be detached and attached again after
             changing this option.

     history-file path
             If not empty, a file to which tmux will write command prompt
             history on exit and load it from on start.

     message-limit number
             Set the number of error or information messages to save in the
             message log for each client.  The default is 100.

     set-clipboard [on | external | off]
             Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the xterm(1)
             escape sequence, if there is an Ms entry in the terminfo(5)
             description (see the TERMINFO EXTENSIONS section).

             If set to on, tmux will both accept the escape sequence to create a
             buffer and attempt to set the terminal clipboard.  If set to
             external, tmux will attempt to set the terminal clipboard but
             ignore attempts by applications to set tmux buffers.  If off, tmux
             will neither accept the clipboard escape sequence nor attempt to
             set the clipboard.

             Note that this feature needs to be enabled in xterm(1) by setting
             the resource:

                   disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop

             Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive menu when

     terminal-overrides[] string
             Allow terminal descriptions read using terminfo(5) to be
             overridden.  Each entry is a colon-separated string made up of a
             terminal type pattern (matched using fnmatch(3)) and a set of
             name=value entries.

             For example, to set the ‘clear’ terminfo(5) entry to ‘\e[H\e[2J’
             for all terminal types matching ‘rxvt*’:


             The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3) before

     user-keys[] key
             Set list of user-defined key escape sequences.  Each item is
             associated with a key named ‘User0’, ‘User1’, and so on.

             For example:

                   set -s user-keys[0] "\e[5;30012~"
                   bind User0 resize-pane -L 3

     Available session options are:

     activity-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on window activity when monitor-activity is on.  any
             means activity in any window linked to a session causes a bell or
             message (depending on visual-activity) in the current window of
             that session, none means all activity is ignored (equivalent to
             monitor-activity being off), current means only activity in windows
             other than the current window are ignored and other means activity
             in the current window is ignored but not those in other windows.

     assume-paste-time milliseconds
             If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds, they are
             assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and tmux key bindings
             are not processed.  The default is one millisecond and zero

     base-index index
             Set the base index from which an unused index should be searched
             when a new window is created.  The default is zero.

     bell-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on a bell in a window when monitor-bell is on.  The
             values are the same as those for activity-action.

     default-command shell-command
             Set the command used for new windows (if not specified when the
             window is created) to shell-command, which may be any sh(1)
             command.  The default is an empty string, which instructs tmux to
             create a login shell using the value of the default-shell option.

     default-shell path
             Specify the default shell.  This is used as the login shell for new
             windows when the default-command option is set to empty, and must
             be the full path of the executable.  When started tmux tries to set
             a default value from the first suitable of the SHELL environment
             variable, the shell returned by getpwuid(3), or /bin/sh.  This
             option should be configured when tmux is used as a login shell.

     default-size XxY
             Set the default size of new windows when the window-size option is
             set to manual or when a session is created with new-session -d.
             The value is the width and height separated by an ‘x’ character.
             The default is 80x24.

     destroy-unattached [on | off]
             If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any clients, it
             is destroyed.

     detach-on-destroy [on | off]
             If on (the default), the client is detached when the session it is
             attached to is destroyed.  If off, the client is switched to the
             most recently active of the remaining sessions.

     display-panes-active-colour colour
             Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the
             indicator for the active pane.

     display-panes-colour colour
             Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the
             indicators for inactive panes.

     display-panes-time time
             Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators shown by the
             display-panes command appear.

     display-time time
             Set the amount of time for which status line messages and other on-
             screen indicators are displayed.  If set to 0, messages and
             indicators are displayed until a key is pressed.  time is in

     history-limit lines
             Set the maximum number of lines held in window history.  This
             setting applies only to new windows - existing window histories are
             not resized and retain the limit at the point they were created.

     key-table key-table
             Set the default key table to key-table instead of root.

     lock-after-time number
             Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after number
             seconds of inactivity.  The default is not to lock (set to 0).

     lock-command shell-command
             Command to run when locking each client.  The default is to run
             lock(1) with -np.

     message-command-style style
             Set status line message command style.  For how to specify style,
             see the STYLES section.

     message-style style
             Set status line message style.  For how to specify style, see the
             STYLES section.

     mouse [on | off]
             If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows mouse events to be bound
             as key bindings.  See the MOUSE SUPPORT section for details.

     prefix key
             Set the key accepted as a prefix key.  In addition to the standard
             keys described under KEY BINDINGS, prefix can be set to the special
             key ‘None’ to set no prefix.

     prefix2 key
             Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.  Like prefix, prefix2
             can be set to ‘None’.

     renumber-windows [on | off]
             If on, when a window is closed in a session, automatically renumber
             the other windows in numerical order.  This respects the base-index
             option if it has been set.  If off, do not renumber the windows.

     repeat-time time
             Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing the prefix-
             key again in the specified time milliseconds (the default is 500).
             Whether a key repeats may be set when it is bound using the -r flag
             to bind-key.  Repeat is enabled for the default keys bound to the
             resize-pane command.

     set-titles [on | off]
             Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl and fsl
             terminfo(5) entries if they exist.  tmux automatically sets these
             to the \e]0;...\007 sequence if the terminal appears to be
             xterm(1).  This option is off by default.

     set-titles-string string
             String used to set the client terminal title if set-titles is on.
             Formats are expanded, see the FORMATS section.

     silence-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on window silence when monitor-silence is on.  The
             values are the same as those for activity-action.

     status [off | on | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5]
             Show or hide the status line or specify its size.  Using on gives a
             status line one row in height; 2, 3, 4 or 5 more rows.

     status-format[] format
             Specify the format to be used for each line of the status line.
             The default builds the top status line from the various individual
             status options below.

     status-interval interval
             Update the status line every interval seconds.  By default, updates
             will occur every 15 seconds.  A setting of zero disables redrawing
             at interval.

     status-justify [left | centre | right]
             Set the position of the window list component of the status line:
             left, centre or right justified.

     status-keys [vi | emacs]
             Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line, for example
             at the command prompt.  The default is emacs, unless the VISUAL or
             EDITOR environment variables are set and contain the string ‘vi’.

     status-left string
             Display string (by default the session name) to the left of the
             status line.  string will be passed through strftime(3).  Also see
             the FORMATS and STYLES sections.

             For details on how the names and titles can be set see the NAMES
             AND TITLES section.

             Examples are:

                   #(sysctl vm.loadavg)
                   #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S]

             The default is ‘[#S] ’.

     status-left-length length
             Set the maximum length of the left component of the status line.
             The default is 10.

     status-left-style style
             Set the style of the left part of the status line.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     status-position [top | bottom]
             Set the position of the status line.

     status-right string
             Display string to the right of the status line.  By default, the
             current pane title in double quotes, the date and the time are
             shown.  As with status-left, string will be passed to strftime(3)
             and character pairs are replaced.

     status-right-length length
             Set the maximum length of the right component of the status line.
             The default is 40.

     status-right-style style
             Set the style of the right part of the status line.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     status-style style
             Set status line style.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES

     update-environment[] variable
             Set list of environment variables to be copied into the session
             environment when a new session is created or an existing session is
             attached.  Any variables that do not exist in the source
             environment are set to be removed from the session environment (as
             if -r was given to the set-environment command).

     visual-activity [on | off | both]
             If on, display a message instead of sending a bell when activity
             occurs in a window for which the monitor-activity window option is
             enabled.  If set to both, a bell and a message are produced.

     visual-bell [on | off | both]
             If on, a message is shown on a bell in a window for which the
             monitor-bell window option is enabled instead of it being passed
             through to the terminal (which normally makes a sound).  If set to
             both, a bell and a message are produced.  Also see the bell-action

     visual-silence [on | off | both]
             If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the interval
             has expired on a given window instead of sending a bell.  If set to
             both, a bell and a message are produced.

     word-separators string
             Sets the session's conception of what characters are considered
             word separators, for the purposes of the next and previous word
             commands in copy mode.  The default is ‘ -_@’.

     Available window options are:

     aggressive-resize [on | off]
             Aggressively resize the chosen window.  This means that tmux will
             resize the window to the size of the smallest or largest session
             (see the window-size option) for which it is the current window,
             rather than the session to which it is attached.  The window may
             resize when the current window is changed on another session; this
             option is good for full-screen programs which support SIGWINCH and
             poor for interactive programs such as shells.

     automatic-rename [on | off]
             Control automatic window renaming.  When this setting is enabled,
             tmux will rename the window automatically using the format
             specified by automatic-rename-format.  This flag is automatically
             disabled for an individual window when a name is specified at
             creation with new-window or new-session, or later with
             rename-window, or with a terminal escape sequence.  It may be
             switched off globally with:

                   set-option -wg automatic-rename off

     automatic-rename-format format
             The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename option is

     clock-mode-colour colour
             Set clock colour.

     clock-mode-style [12 | 24]
             Set clock hour format.

     main-pane-height height
     main-pane-width width
             Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in the
             main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts.

     mode-keys [vi | emacs]
             Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy mode.  The default is
             emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains ‘vi’.

     mode-style style
             Set window modes style.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES

     monitor-activity [on | off]
             Monitor for activity in the window.  Windows with activity are
             highlighted in the status line.

     monitor-bell [on | off]
             Monitor for a bell in the window.  Windows with a bell are
             highlighted in the status line.

     monitor-silence [interval]
             Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within interval
             seconds.  Windows that have been silent for the interval are
             highlighted in the status line.  An interval of zero disables the

     other-pane-height height
             Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in the
             main-horizontal layout.  If this option is set to 0 (the default),
             it will have no effect.  If both the main-pane-height and
             other-pane-height options are set, the main pane will grow taller
             to make the other panes the specified height, but will never shrink
             to do so.

     other-pane-width width
             Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other panes in the
             main-vertical layout.

     pane-active-border-style style
             Set the pane border style for the currently active pane.  For how
             to specify style, see the STYLES section.  Attributes are ignored.

     pane-base-index index
             Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane numbers.

     pane-border-format format
             Set the text shown in pane border status lines.

     pane-border-status [off | top | bottom]
             Turn pane border status lines off or set their position.

     pane-border-style style
             Set the pane border style for panes aside from the active pane.
             For how to specify style, see the STYLES section.  Attributes are

     synchronize-panes [on | off]
             Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the same window
             (only for panes that are not in any special mode).

     window-status-activity-style style
             Set status line style for windows with an activity alert.  For how
             to specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-bell-style style
             Set status line style for windows with a bell alert.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-current-format string
             Like window-status-format, but is the format used when the window
             is the current window.

     window-status-current-style style
             Set status line style for the currently active window.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-format string
             Set the format in which the window is displayed in the status line
             window list.  See the FORMATS and STYLES sections.

     window-status-last-style style
             Set status line style for the last active window.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-separator string
             Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status line.  The
             default is a single space character.

     window-status-style style
             Set status line style for a single window.  For how to specify
             style, see the STYLES section.

     window-size largest | smallest | manual | latest
             Configure how tmux determines the window size.  If set to largest,
             the size of the largest attached session is used; if smallest, the
             size of the smallest.  If manual, the size of a new window is set
             from the default-size option and windows are resized automatically.
             With latest, tmux uses the size of the client that had the most
             recent activity.  See also the resize-window command and the
             aggressive-resize option.

     wrap-search [on | off]
             If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end of the
             pane contents.  The default is on.

     xterm-keys [on | off]
             If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1) -style function
             key sequences; these have a number included to indicate modifiers
             such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl.

     Available pane options are:

     allow-rename [on | off]
             Allow programs in the pane to change the window name using a
             terminal escape sequence (\ek...\e\\).

     alternate-screen [on | off]
             This option configures whether programs running inside the pane may
             use the terminal alternate screen feature, which allows the smcup
             and rmcup terminfo(5) capabilities.  The alternate screen feature
             preserves the contents of the window when an interactive
             application starts and restores it on exit, so that any output
             visible before the application starts reappears unchanged after it

     remain-on-exit [on | off]
             A pane with this flag set is not destroyed when the program running
             in it exits.  The pane may be reactivated with the respawn-pane

     window-active-style style
             Set the pane style when it is the active pane.  For how to specify
             style, see the STYLES section.

     window-style style
             Set the pane style.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES

     tmux allows commands to run on various triggers, called hooks.  Most tmux
     commands have an after hook and there are a number of hooks not associated
     with commands.

     Hooks are stored as array options, members of the array are executed in
     order when the hook is triggered.  Hooks may be configured with the
     set-hook or set-option commands and displayed with show-hooks or
     show-options -H.  The following two commands are equivalent:

            set-hook -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'
            set-option -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'

     Setting a hook without specifying an array index clears the hook and sets
     the first member of the array.

     A command's after hook is run after it completes, except when the command
     is run as part of a hook itself.  They are named with an ‘after-’ prefix.
     For example, the following command adds a hook to select the even-vertical
     layout after every split-window:

           set-hook -g after-split-window "selectl even-vertical"

     All the notifications listed in the CONTROL MODE section are hooks (without
     any arguments), except %exit.  The following additional hooks are

     alert-activity          Run when a window has activity.  See

     alert-bell              Run when a window has received a bell.  See

     alert-silence           Run when a window has been silent.  See

     client-attached         Run when a client is attached.

     client-detached         Run when a client is detached

     client-resized          Run when a client is resized.

     client-session-changed  Run when a client's attached session is changed.

     pane-died               Run when the program running in a pane exits, but
                             remain-on-exit is on so the pane has not closed.

     pane-exited             Run when the program running in a pane exits.

     pane-focus-in           Run when the focus enters a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-focus-out          Run when the focus exits a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-set-clipboard      Run when the terminal clipboard is set using the
                             xterm(1) escape sequence.

     session-created         Run when a new session created.

     session-closed          Run when a session closed.

     session-renamed         Run when a session is renamed.

     window-linked           Run when a window is linked into a session.

     window-renamed          Run when a window is renamed.

     window-unlinked         Run when a window is unlinked from a session.

     Hooks are managed with these commands:

     set-hook [-agRu] [-t target-session] hook-name command
             Without -R, sets (or with -u unsets) hook hook-name to command.  If
             -g is given, hook-name is added to the global list of hooks,
             otherwise it is added to the session hooks (for target-session with
             -t).  -a appends to a hook.  Like options, session hooks inherit
             from the global ones.

             With -R, run hook-name immediately.

     show-hooks [-g] [-t target-session]
             Shows the global list of hooks with -g, otherwise the session

     If the mouse option is on (the default is off), tmux allows mouse events to
     be bound as keys.  The name of each key is made up of a mouse event (such
     as ‘MouseUp1’) and a location suffix, one of the following:

           Pane             the contents of a pane
           Border           a pane border
           Status           the status line window list
           StatusLeft       the left part of the status line
           StatusRight      the right part of the status line
           StatusDefault    any other part of the status line

     The following mouse events are available:

           WheelUp       WheelDown
           MouseDown1    MouseUp1      MouseDrag1   MouseDragEnd1
           MouseDown2    MouseUp2      MouseDrag2   MouseDragEnd2
           MouseDown3    MouseUp3      MouseDrag3   MouseDragEnd3
           DoubleClick1  DoubleClick2  DoubleClick3
           TripleClick1  TripleClick2  TripleClick3

     Each should be suffixed with a location, for example ‘MouseDown1Status’.

     The special token ‘{mouse}’ or ‘=’ may be used as target-window or
     target-pane in commands bound to mouse key bindings.  It resolves to the
     window or pane over which the mouse event took place (for example, the
     window in the status line over which button 1 was released for a
     ‘MouseUp1Status’ binding, or the pane over which the wheel was scrolled for
     a ‘WheelDownPane’ binding).

     The send-keys -M flag may be used to forward a mouse event to a pane.

     The default key bindings allow the mouse to be used to select and resize
     panes, to copy text and to change window using the status line.  These take
     effect if the mouse option is turned on.

     Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument.  This is a
     string which controls the output format of the command.  Format variables
     are enclosed in ‘#{’ and ‘}’, for example ‘#{session_name}’.  The possible
     variables are listed in the table below, or the name of a tmux option may
     be used for an option's value.  Some variables have a shorter alias such as
     ‘#S’; ‘##’ is replaced by a single ‘#’, ‘#,’ by a ‘,’ and ‘#}’ by a ‘}’.

     Conditionals are available by prefixing with ‘?’ and separating two
     alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not
     zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used.  For
     example ‘#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}’ will include the
     string ‘attached’ if the session is attached and the string ‘not attached’
     if it is unattached, or ‘#{?automatic-rename,yes,no}’ will include ‘yes’ if
     automatic-rename is enabled, or ‘no’ if not.  Conditionals can be nested
     arbitrarily.  Inside a conditional, ‘,’ and ‘}’ must be escaped as ‘#,’ and
     ‘#}’, unless they are part of a ‘#{...}’ replacement.  For example:

           #{?pane_in_mode,#[fg=white#,bg=red],#[fg=red#,bg=white]}#W .

     String comparisons may be expressed by prefixing two comma-separated
     alternatives by ‘==’, ‘!=’, ‘<’, ‘>’, ‘<=’ or ‘>=’ and a colon.  For
     example ‘#{==:#{host},myhost}’ will be replaced by ‘1’ if running on
     ‘myhost’, otherwise by ‘0’.  ‘||’ and ‘&&’ evaluate to true if either or
     both of two comma-separated alternatives are true, for example

     An ‘m’ specifies an fnmatch(3) or regular expression comparison.  The first
     argument is the pattern and the second the string to compare.  An optional
     third argument specifies flags: ‘r’ means the pattern is a regular
     expression instead of the default fnmatch(3) pattern, and ‘i’ means to
     ignore case.  For example: ‘#{m:*foo*,#{host}}’ or ‘#{m/ri:^A,MYVAR}’.  A
     ‘C’ performs a search for an fnmatch(3) pattern or regular expression in
     the pane content and evaluates to zero if not found, or a line number if
     found.  Like ‘m’, an ‘r’ flag means search for a regular expression and ‘i’
     ignores case.  For example: ‘#{C/r:^Start}’

     A limit may be placed on the length of the resultant string by prefixing it
     by an ‘=’, a number and a colon.  Positive numbers count from the start of
     the string and negative from the end, so ‘#{=5:pane_title}’ will include at
     most the first five characters of the pane title, or ‘#{=-5:pane_title}’
     the last five characters.  A suffix or prefix may be given as a second
     argument - if provided then it is appended or prepended to the string if
     the length has been trimmed, for example ‘#{=/5/...:pane_title}’ will
     append ‘...’ if the pane title is more than five characters.  Similarly,
     ‘p’ pads the string to a given width, for example ‘#{p10:pane_title}’ will
     result in a width of at least 10 characters.  A positive width pads on the
     left, a negative on the right.

     Prefixing a time variable with ‘t:’ will convert it to a string, so if
     ‘#{window_activity}’ gives ‘1445765102’, ‘#{t:window_activity}’ gives ‘Sun
     Oct 25 09:25:02 2015’.  The ‘b:’ and ‘d:’ prefixes are basename(3) and
     dirname(3) of the variable respectively.  ‘q:’ will escape sh(1) special
     characters.  ‘E:’ will expand the format twice, for example
     ‘#{E:status-left}’ is the result of expanding the content of the
     status-left option rather than the option itself.  ‘T:’ is like ‘E:’ but
     also expands strftime(3) specifiers.  ‘S:’, ‘W:’ or ‘P:’ will loop over
     each session, window or pane and insert the format once for each.  For
     windows and panes, two comma-separated formats may be given: the second is
     used for the current window or active pane.  For example, to get a list of
     windows formatted like the status line:

           #{W:#{E:window-status-format} ,#{E:window-status-current-format} }

     A prefix of the form ‘s/foo/bar/:’ will substitute ‘foo’ with ‘bar’
     throughout.  The first argument may be an extended regular expression and a
     final argument may be ‘i’ to ignore case, for example ‘s/a(.)/\1x/i:’ would
     change ‘abABab’ into ‘bxBxbx’.

     In addition, the last line of a shell command's output may be inserted
     using ‘#()’.  For example, ‘#(uptime)’ will insert the system's uptime.
     When constructing formats, tmux does not wait for ‘#()’ commands to finish;
     instead, the previous result from running the same command is used, or a
     placeholder if the command has not been run before.  If the command hasn't
     exited, the most recent line of output will be used, but the status line
     will not be updated more than once a second.  Commands are executed with
     the tmux global environment set (see the GLOBAL AND SESSION ENVIRONMENT

     An ‘l’ specifies that a string should be interpreted literally and not
     expanded.  For example ‘#{l:#{?pane_in_mode,yes,no}}’ will be replaced by

     The following variables are available, where appropriate:

     Variable name          Alias    Replaced with
     alternate_on                    1 if pane is in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_x               Saved cursor X in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_y               Saved cursor Y in alternate screen
     buffer_created                  Time buffer created
     buffer_name                     Name of buffer
     buffer_sample                   Sample of start of buffer
     buffer_size                     Size of the specified buffer in bytes
     client_activity                 Time client last had activity
     client_cell_height              Height of each client cell in pixels
     client_cell_width               Width of each client cell in pixels
     client_control_mode             1 if client is in control mode
     client_created                  Time client created
     client_discarded                Bytes discarded when client behind
     client_height                   Height of client
     client_key_table                Current key table
     client_last_session             Name of the client's last session
     client_name                     Name of client
     client_pid                      PID of client process
     client_prefix                   1 if prefix key has been pressed
     client_readonly                 1 if client is readonly
     client_session                  Name of the client's session
     client_termname                 Terminal name of client
     client_tty                      Pseudo terminal of client
     client_utf8                     1 if client supports UTF-8
     client_width                    Width of client
     client_written                  Bytes written to client
     command                         Name of command in use, if any
     command_list_alias              Command alias if listing commands
     command_list_name               Command name if listing commands
     command_list_usage              Command usage if listing commands
     copy_cursor_line                Line the cursor is on in copy mode
     copy_cursor_word                Word under cursor in copy mode
     copy_cursor_x                   Cursor X position in copy mode
     copy_cursor_y                   Cursor Y position in copy mode
     cursor_character                Character at cursor in pane
     cursor_flag                     Pane cursor flag
     cursor_x                        Cursor X position in pane
     cursor_y                        Cursor Y position in pane
     history_bytes                   Number of bytes in window history
     history_limit                   Maximum window history lines
     history_size                    Size of history in lines
     hook                            Name of running hook, if any
     hook_pane                       ID of pane where hook was run, if any
     hook_session                    ID of session where hook was run, if any
     hook_session_name               Name of session where hook was run, if any
     hook_window                     ID of window where hook was run, if any
     hook_window_name                Name of window where hook was run, if any
     host                   #H       Hostname of local host
     host_short             #h       Hostname of local host (no domain name)
     insert_flag                     Pane insert flag
     keypad_cursor_flag              Pane keypad cursor flag
     keypad_flag                     Pane keypad flag
     line                            Line number in the list
     mouse_all_flag                  Pane mouse all flag
     mouse_any_flag                  Pane mouse any flag
     mouse_button_flag               Pane mouse button flag
     mouse_line                      Line under mouse, if any
     mouse_sgr_flag                  Pane mouse SGR flag
     mouse_standard_flag             Pane mouse standard flag
     mouse_utf8_flag                 Pane mouse UTF-8 flag
     mouse_word                      Word under mouse, if any
     mouse_x                         Mouse X position, if any
     mouse_y                         Mouse Y position, if any
     origin_flag                     Pane origin flag
     pane_active                     1 if active pane
     pane_at_bottom                  1 if pane is at the bottom of window
     pane_at_left                    1 if pane is at the left of window
     pane_at_right                   1 if pane is at the right of window
     pane_at_top                     1 if pane is at the top of window
     pane_bottom                     Bottom of pane
     pane_current_command            Current command if available
     pane_current_path               Current path if available
     pane_dead                       1 if pane is dead
     pane_dead_status                Exit status of process in dead pane
     pane_format                     1 if format is for a pane
     pane_height                     Height of pane
     pane_id                #D       Unique pane ID
     pane_in_mode                    1 if pane is in a mode
     pane_index             #P       Index of pane
     pane_input_off                  1 if input to pane is disabled
     pane_left                       Left of pane
     pane_marked                     1 if this is the marked pane
     pane_marked_set                 1 if a marked pane is set
     pane_mode                       Name of pane mode, if any
     pane_path              #T       Path of pane (can be set by application)
     pane_pid                        PID of first process in pane
     pane_pipe                       1 if pane is being piped
     pane_right                      Right of pane
     pane_search_string              Last search string in copy mode
     pane_start_command              Command pane started with
     pane_synchronized               1 if pane is synchronized
     pane_tabs                       Pane tab positions
     pane_title             #T       Title of pane (can be set by application)
     pane_top                        Top of pane
     pane_tty                        Pseudo terminal of pane
     pane_width                      Width of pane
     pid                             Server PID
     rectangle_toggle                1 if rectangle selection is activated
     scroll_position                 Scroll position in copy mode
     scroll_region_lower             Bottom of scroll region in pane
     scroll_region_upper             Top of scroll region in pane
     selection_active                1 if selection started and changes with the
                                     cursor in copy mode
     selection_end_x                 X position of the end of the selection
     selection_end_y                 Y position of the end of the selection
     selection_present               1 if selection started in copy mode
     selection_start_x               X position of the start of the selection
     selection_start_y               Y position of the start of the selection
     session_activity                Time of session last activity
     session_alerts                  List of window indexes with alerts
     session_attached                Number of clients session is attached to
     session_attached_list           List of clients session is attached to
     session_created                 Time session created
     session_format                  1 if format is for a session
     session_group                   Name of session group
     session_group_attached          Number of clients sessions in group are
                                     attached to
     session_group_attached_list     List of clients sessions in group are
                                     attached to
     session_group_list              List of sessions in group
     session_group_many_attached     1 if multiple clients attached to sessions
                                     in group
     session_group_size              Size of session group
     session_grouped                 1 if session in a group
     session_id                      Unique session ID
     session_last_attached           Time session last attached
     session_many_attached           1 if multiple clients attached
     session_name           #S       Name of session
     session_stack                   Window indexes in most recent order
     session_windows                 Number of windows in session
     socket_path                     Server socket path
     start_time                      Server start time
     version                         Server version
     window_active                   1 if window active
     window_active_clients           Number of clients viewing this window
     window_active_clients_list      List of clients viewing this window
     window_active_sessions          Number of sessions on which this window is
     window_active_sessions_list     List of sessions on which this window is
     window_activity                 Time of window last activity
     window_activity_flag            1 if window has activity
     window_bell_flag                1 if window has bell
     window_bigger                   1 if window is larger than client
     window_cell_height              Height of each cell in pixels
     window_cell_width               Width of each cell in pixels
     window_end_flag                 1 if window has the highest index
     window_flags           #F       Window flags
     window_format                   1 if format is for a window
     window_height                   Height of window
     window_id                       Unique window ID
     window_index           #I       Index of window
     window_last_flag                1 if window is the last used
     window_layout                   Window layout description, ignoring zoomed
                                     window panes
     window_linked                   1 if window is linked across sessions
     window_linked_sessions          Number of sessions this window is linked to
     window_linked_sessions_list     List of sessions this window is linked to
     window_marked_flag              1 if window contains the marked pane
     window_name            #W       Name of window
     window_offset_x                 X offset into window if larger than client
     window_offset_y                 Y offset into window if larger than client
     window_panes                    Number of panes in window
     window_silence_flag             1 if window has silence alert
     window_stack_index              Index in session most recent stack
     window_start_flag               1 if window has the lowest index
     window_visible_layout           Window layout description, respecting
                                     zoomed window panes
     window_width                    Width of window
     window_zoomed_flag              1 if window is zoomed
     wrap_flag                       Pane wrap flag

     tmux offers various options to specify the colour and attributes of aspects
     of the interface, for example status-style for the status line.  In
     addition, embedded styles may be specified in format options, such as
     status-left, by enclosing them in ‘#[’ and ‘]’.

     A style may be the single term ‘default’ to specify the default style
     (which may come from an option, for example status-style in the status
     line) or a space or comma separated list of the following:

             Set the foreground colour.  The colour is one of: black, red,
             green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white; if supported the bright
             variants brightred, brightgreen, brightyellow; colour0 to colour255
             from the 256-colour set; default for the default colour; terminal
             for the terminal default colour; or a hexadecimal RGB string such
             as ‘#ffffff’.

             Set the background colour.

     none    Set no attributes (turn off any active attributes).

     bright (or bold), dim, underscore, blink, reverse, hidden, italics,
             overline, strikethrough, double-underscore, curly-underscore,
             dotted-underscore, dashed-underscore
             Set an attribute.  Any of the attributes may be prefixed with ‘no’
             to unset.

     align=left (or noalign), align=centre, align=right
             Align text to the left, centre or right of the available space if

             Fill the available space with a background colour if appropriate.

     list=on, list=focus, list=left-marker, list=right-marker, nolist
             Mark the position of the various window list components in the
             status-format option: list=on marks the start of the list;
             list=focus is the part of the list that should be kept in focus if
             the entire list won't fit in the available space (typically the
             current window); list=left-marker and list=right-marker mark the
             text to be used to mark that text has been trimmed from the left or
             right of the list if there is not enough space.

     push-default, pop-default
             Store the current colours and attributes as the default or reset to
             the previous default.  A push-default affects any subsequent use of
             the default term until a pop-default.  Only one default may be
             pushed (each push-default replaces the previous saved default).

     range=left, range=right, range=window|X, norange
             Mark a range in the status-format option.  range=left and
             range=right are the text used for the ‘StatusLeft’ and
             ‘StatusRight’ mouse keys.  range=window|X is the range for a window
             passed to the ‘Status’ mouse key, where ‘X’ is a window index.

     Examples are:

           fg=yellow bold underscore blink

     tmux distinguishes between names and titles.  Windows and sessions have
     names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed in
     the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier for a
     window or session.  Only panes have titles.  A pane's title is typically
     set by the program running inside the pane using an escape sequence (like
     it would set the xterm(1) window title in X(7)).  Windows themselves do not
     have titles - a window's title is the title of its active pane.  tmux
     itself may set the title of the terminal in which the client is running,
     see the set-titles option.

     A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session commands.
     A window's name is set with one of:

     1.      A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session).

     2.      An escape sequence (if the allow-rename option is turned on):

                   $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\'

     3.      Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command in
             the window's active pane.  See the automatic-rename option.

     When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname.  A pane's title
     can be set via the title setting escape sequence, for example:

           $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'

     It can also be modified with the select-pane -T command.

     When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global
     environment; in addition, each session has a session environment.  When a
     window is created, the session and global environments are merged.  If a
     variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is used.
     The result is the initial environment passed to the new process.

     The update-environment session option may be used to update the session
     environment from the client when a new session is created or an old
     reattached.  tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal
     information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM
     variable with the correct terminal setting of ‘screen’.

     Commands to alter and view the environment are:

     set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value]
                   (alias: setenv)
             Set or unset an environment variable.  If -g is used, the change is
             made in the global environment; otherwise, it is applied to the
             session environment for target-session.  The -u flag unsets a
             variable.  -r indicates the variable is to be removed from the
             environment before starting a new process.

     show-environment [-gs] [-t target-session] [variable]
                   (alias: showenv)
             Display the environment for target-session or the global
             environment with -g.  If variable is omitted, all variables are
             shown.  Variables removed from the environment are prefixed with
             ‘-’.  If -s is used, the output is formatted as a set of Bourne
             shell commands.

     tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom line
     of each terminal.

     By default, the status line is enabled and one line in height (it may be
     disabled or made multiple lines with the status session option) and
     contains, from left-to-right: the name of the current session in square
     brackets; the window list; the title of the active pane in double quotes;
     and the time and date.

     Each line of the status line is configured with the status-format option.
     The default is made of three parts: configurable left and right sections
     (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or output from a shell
     command, see the status-left, status-left-length, status-right, and
     status-right-length options below), and a central window list.  By default,
     the window list shows the index, name and (if any) flag of the windows
     present in the current session in ascending numerical order.  It may be
     customised with the window-status-format and window-status-current-format
     options.  The flag is one of the following symbols appended to the window

           Symbol    Meaning
           *         Denotes the current window.
           -         Marks the last window (previously selected).
           #         Window activity is monitored and activity has been
           !         Window bells are monitored and a bell has occurred in the
           ~         The window has been silent for the monitor-silence
           M         The window contains the marked pane.
           Z         The window's active pane is zoomed.

     The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity window option.  The window
     name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or silence)
     is present.

     The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the entire
     status line using the status-style session option and individual windows
     using the window-status-style window option.

     The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has changed,
     the interval may be controlled with the status-interval session option.

     Commands related to the status line are as follows:

     command-prompt [-1ikN] [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client]
             Open the command prompt in a client.  This may be used from inside
             tmux to execute commands interactively.

             If template is specified, it is used as the command.  If present,
             -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for each prompt.
             If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list of prompts which
             are displayed in order; otherwise a single prompt is displayed,
             constructed from template if it is present, or ‘:’ if not.

             Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the string
             ‘%%’ and all occurrences of ‘%1’ are replaced by the response to
             the first prompt, all ‘%2’ are replaced with the response to the
             second prompt, and so on for further prompts.  Up to nine prompt
             responses may be replaced (‘%1’ to ‘%9’).  ‘%%%’ is like ‘%%’ but
             any quotation marks are escaped.

             -1 makes the prompt only accept one key press, in this case the
             resulting input is a single character.  -k is like -1 but the key
             press is translated to a key name.  -N makes the prompt only accept
             numeric key presses.  -i executes the command every time the prompt
             input changes instead of when the user exits the command prompt.

             The following keys have a special meaning in the command prompt,
             depending on the value of the status-keys option:

                   Function                             vi        emacs
                   Cancel command prompt                Escape    Escape
                   Delete from cursor to start of word            C-w
                   Delete entire command                d         C-u
                   Delete from cursor to end            D         C-k
                   Execute command                      Enter     Enter
                   Get next command from history                  Down
                   Get previous command from history              Up
                   Insert top paste buffer              p         C-y
                   Look for completions                 Tab       Tab
                   Move cursor left                     h         Left
                   Move cursor right                    l         Right
                   Move cursor to end                   $         C-e
                   Move cursor to next word             w         M-f
                   Move cursor to previous word         b         M-b
                   Move cursor to start                 0         C-a
                   Transpose characters                           C-t

     confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command
                   (alias: confirm)
             Ask for confirmation before executing command.  If -p is given,
             prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is constructed
             from command.  It may contain the special character sequences
             supported by the status-left option.

             This command works only from inside tmux.

     display-menu [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [-T title] [-x position]
             [-y position] name key command ...
                   (alias: menu)
             Display a menu on target-client.  target-pane gives the target for
             any commands run from the menu.

             A menu is passed as a series of arguments: first the menu item
             name, second the key shortcut (or empty for none) and third the
             command to run when the menu item is chosen.  The name and command
             are formats, see the FORMATS and STYLES sections.  If the name
             begins with a hyphen (-), then the item is disabled (shown dim) and
             may not be chosen.  The name may be empty for a separator line, in
             which case both the key and command should be omitted.

             -T is a format for the menu title (see FORMATS).

             -x and -y give the position of the menu.  Both may be a row or
             column number, or one of the following special values:

                   Value    Flag    Meaning
                   R        -x      The right side of the terminal
                   P        Both    The bottom left of the pane
                   M        Both    The mouse position
                   W        -x      The window position on the status line
                   S        -y      The line above or below the status line

             Each menu consists of items followed by a key shortcut shown in
             brackets.  If the menu is too large to fit on the terminal, it is
             not displayed.  Pressing the key shortcut chooses the corresponding
             item.  If the mouse is enabled and the menu is opened from a mouse
             key binding, releasing the mouse button with an item selected will
             choose that item.  The following keys are also available:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected item
                   Up     Select previous item
                   Down   Select next item
                   q      Exit menu

     display-message [-aIpv] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message]
                   (alias: display)
             Display a message.  If -p is given, the output is printed to
             stdout, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status line.
             The format of message is described in the FORMATS section;
             information is taken from target-pane if -t is given, otherwise the
             active pane.

             -v prints verbose logging as the format is parsed and -a lists the
             format variables and their values.

             -I forwards any input read from stdin to the empty pane given by

     tmux maintains a set of named paste buffers.  Each buffer may be either
     explicitly or automatically named.  Explicitly named buffers are named when
     created with the set-buffer or load-buffer commands, or by renaming an
     automatically named buffer with set-buffer -n.  Automatically named buffers
     are given a name such as ‘buffer0001’, ‘buffer0002’ and so on.  When the
     buffer-limit option is reached, the oldest automatically named buffer is
     deleted.  Explicitly named buffers are not subject to buffer-limit and may
     be deleted with the delete-buffer command.

     Buffers may be added using copy-mode or the set-buffer and load-buffer
     commands, and pasted into a window using the paste-buffer command.  If a
     buffer command is used and no buffer is specified, the most recently added
     automatically named buffer is assumed.

     A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window.  By
     default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the
     history-limit option (see the set-option command above).

     The buffer commands are as follows:

     choose-buffer [-NZr] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into buffer mode, where a buffer may be chosen
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following keys
             may be used in buffer mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Paste selected buffer
                   Up     Select previous buffer
                   Down   Select next buffer
                   C-s    Search by name or content
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if buffer is tagged
                   T      Tag no buffers
                   C-t    Tag all buffers
                   p      Paste selected buffer
                   P      Paste tagged buffers
                   d      Delete selected buffer
                   D      Delete tagged buffers
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a buffer is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the buffer name in
             template and the result executed as a command.  If template is not
             given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘time’, ‘name’ or
             ‘size’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f specifies an initial
             filter: the filter is a format - if it evaluates to zero, the item
             in the list is not shown, otherwise it is shown.  If a filter would
             lead to an empty list, it is ignored.  -F specifies the format for
             each item in the list.  -N starts without the preview.  This
             command works only if at least one client is attached.

     clear-history [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: clearhist)
             Remove and free the history for the specified pane.

     delete-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: deleteb)
             Delete the buffer named buffer-name, or the most recently added
             automatically named buffer if not specified.

     list-buffers [-F format]
                   (alias: lsb)
             List the global buffers.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.

     load-buffer [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: loadb)
             Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path.

     paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-name] [-s separator] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: pasteb)
             Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane.  If
             not specified, paste into the current one.  With -d, also delete
             the paste buffer.  When output, any linefeed (LF) characters in the
             paste buffer are replaced with a separator, by default carriage
             return (CR).  A custom separator may be specified using the -s
             flag.  The -r flag means to do no replacement (equivalent to a
             separator of LF).  If -p is specified, paste bracket control codes
             are inserted around the buffer if the application has requested
             bracketed paste mode.

     save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: saveb)
             Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path.  The -a
             option appends to rather than overwriting the file.

     set-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] [-n new-buffer-name] data
                   (alias: setb)
             Set the contents of the specified buffer to data.  The -a option
             appends to rather than overwriting the buffer.  The -n option
             renames the buffer to new-buffer-name.

     show-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: showb)
             Display the contents of the specified buffer.

     Miscellaneous commands are as follows:

     clock-mode [-t target-pane]
             Display a large clock.

     if-shell [-bF] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command]
                   (alias: if)
             Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or the
             second command otherwise.  Before being executed, shell-command is
             expanded using the rules specified in the FORMATS section,
             including those relevant to target-pane.  With -b, shell-command is
             run in the background.

             If -F is given, shell-command is not executed but considered
             success if neither empty nor zero (after formats are expanded).

                   (alias: lock)
             Lock each client individually by running the command specified by
             the lock-command option.

     run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command
                   (alias: run)
             Execute shell-command in the background without creating a window.
             Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules
             specified in the FORMATS section.  With -b, the command is run in
             the background.  After it finishes, any output to stdout is
             displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by -t or the current
             pane if omitted).  If the command doesn't return success, the exit
             status is also displayed.

     wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel
                   (alias: wait)
             When used without options, prevents the client from exiting until
             woken using wait-for -S with the same channel.  When -L is used,
             the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock the same
             channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked with
             wait-for -U.

     When a tmux client detaches, it prints a message.  This may be one of:

     [detached (from session ...)]
             The client was detached normally.

     [detached and SIGHUP]
             The client was detached and its parent sent the SIGHUP signal (for
             example with detach-client -P).

     [lost tty]
             The client's tty(4) or pty(4) was unexpectedly destroyed.

             The client was killed with SIGTERM.

             The server exited when it had no sessions.

     [server exited]
             The server exited when it received SIGTERM.

     [server exited unexpectedly]
             The server crashed or otherwise exited without telling the client
             the reason.

     tmux understands some unofficial extensions to terminfo(5):

     Cs, Cr  Set the cursor colour.  The first takes a single string argument
             and is used to set the colour; the second takes no arguments and
             restores the default cursor colour.  If set, a sequence such as
             this may be used to change the cursor colour from inside tmux:

                   $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\'

     Smol    Enable the overline attribute.  The capability is usually SGR 53
             and can be added to terminal-overrides as:


     Smulx   Set a styled underscore.  The single parameter is one of: 0 for no
             underscore, 1 for normal underscore, 2 for double underscore, 3 for
             curly underscore, 4 for dotted underscore and 5 for dashed
             underscore.  The capability can typically be added to
             terminal-overrides as:


     Setulc  Set the underscore colour.  The argument is (red * 65536) + (green
             * 256) + blue where each is between 0 and 255.  The capability can
             typically be added to terminal-overrides as:


     Ss, Se  Set or reset the cursor style.  If set, a sequence such as this may
             be used to change the cursor to an underline:

                   $ printf '\033[4 q'

             If Se is not set, Ss with argument 0 will be used to reset the
             cursor style instead.

     Tc      Indicate that the terminal supports the ‘direct colour’ RGB escape
             sequence (for example, \e[38;2;255;255;255m).

             If supported, this is used for the initialize colour escape
             sequence (which may be enabled by adding the ‘initc’ and ‘ccc’
             capabilities to the tmux terminfo(5) entry).

     Ms      Store the current buffer in the host terminal's selection
             (clipboard).  See the set-clipboard option above and the xterm(1)
             man page.

     tmux offers a textual interface called control mode.  This allows
     applications to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only protocol.

     In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences
     terminated by newlines on standard input.  Each command will produce one
     block of output on standard output.  An output block consists of a %begin
     line followed by the output (which may be empty).  The output block ends
     with a %end or %error.  %begin and matching %end or %error have two
     arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command number.  For

           %begin 1363006971 2
           0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active)
           %end 1363006971 2

     The refresh-client -C command may be used to set the size of a client in
     control mode.

     In control mode, tmux outputs notifications.  A notification will never
     occur inside an output block.

     The following notifications are defined:

     %client-session-changed client session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id, which
             is named name.

     %exit [reason]
             The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is not
             attached to any session or an error occurred.  If present, reason
             describes why the client exited.

     %layout-change window-id window-layout window-visible-layout window-flags
             The layout of a window with ID window-id changed.  The new layout
             is window-layout.  The window's visible layout is
             window-visible-layout and the window flags are window-flags.

     %output pane-id value
             A window pane produced output.  value escapes non-printable
             characters and backslash as octal \xxx.

     %pane-mode-changed pane-id
             The pane with ID pane-id has changed mode.

     %session-changed session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id, which
             is named name.

     %session-renamed name
             The current session was renamed to name.

     %session-window-changed session-id window-id
             The session with ID session-id changed its active window to the
             window with ID window-id.

             A session was created or destroyed.

     %unlinked-window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to the
             current session.

     %window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session.

     %window-close window-id
             The window with ID window-id closed.

     %window-pane-changed window-id pane-id
             The active pane in the window with ID window-id changed to the pane
             with ID pane-id.

     %window-renamed window-id name
             The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.

     When tmux is started, it inspects the following environment variables:

     EDITOR    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’ and VISUAL is unset, use vi-style key bindings.  Overridden
               by the mode-keys and status-keys options.

     HOME      The user's login directory.  If unset, the passwd(5) database is

     LC_CTYPE  The character encoding locale(1).  It is used for two separate
               purposes.  For output to the terminal, UTF-8 is used if the -u
               option is given or if LC_CTYPE contains "UTF-8" or "UTF8".
               Otherwise, only ASCII characters are written and non-ASCII
               characters are replaced with underscores (‘_’).  For input, tmux
               always runs with a UTF-8 locale.  If en_US.UTF-8 is provided by
               the operating system it is used and LC_CTYPE is ignored for
               input.  Otherwise, LC_CTYPE tells tmux what the UTF-8 locale is
               called on the current system.  If the locale specified by
               LC_CTYPE is not available or is not a UTF-8 locale, tmux exits
               with an error message.

     LC_TIME   The date and time format locale(1).  It is used for locale-
               dependent strftime(3) format specifiers.

     PWD       The current working directory to be set in the global
               environment.  This may be useful if it contains symbolic links.
               If the value of the variable does not match the current working
               directory, the variable is ignored and the result of getcwd(3) is
               used instead.

     SHELL     The absolute path to the default shell for new windows.  See the
               default-shell option for details.

               The parent directory of the directory containing the server
               sockets.  See the -L option for details.

     VISUAL    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’, use vi-style key bindings.  Overridden by the mode-keys and
               status-keys options.

     ~/.tmux.conf       Default tmux configuration file.
     /etc/tmux.conf     System-wide configuration file.

     To create a new tmux session running vi(1):

           $ tmux new-session vi

     Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias.  For new-session,
     this is new:

           $ tmux new vi

     Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted.  If
     there are several options, they are listed:

           $ tmux n
           ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window

     Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing ‘C-b c’
     (Ctrl followed by the ‘b’ key followed by the ‘c’ key).

     Windows may be navigated with: ‘C-b 0’ (to select window 0), ‘C-b 1’ (to
     select window 1), and so on; ‘C-b n’ to select the next window; and ‘C-b p’
     to select the previous window.

     A session may be detached using ‘C-b d’ (or by an external event such as
     ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with:

           $ tmux attach-session

     Typing ‘C-b ?’ lists the current key bindings in the current window; up and
     down may be used to navigate the list or ‘q’ to exit from it.

     Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the
     ~/.tmux.conf configuration file.  Common examples include:

     Changing the default prefix key:

           set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix

     Turning the status line off, or changing its colour:

           set-option -g status off
           set-option -g status-style bg=blue

     Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30
     minutes of inactivity:

           set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh"
           set-option -g lock-after-time 1800

     Creating new key bindings:

           bind-key b set-option status
           bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'"
           bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"


     Nicholas Marriott <>

BSD                            September 23, 2021                            BSD