TMUX(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   TMUX(1)

     tmux — terminal multiplexer

     tmux [-2lCquvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name]
          [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]

     tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be
     created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen.  tmux may be
     detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later

     When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and
     displays it on screen.  A status line at the bottom of the screen shows
     information on the current session and is used to enter interactive

     A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the management
     of tmux.  Each session has one or more windows linked to it.  A window
     occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular panes, each of
     which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(7) manual page documents the
     technical details of pseudo terminals).  Any number of tmux instances may
     connect to the same session, and any number of windows may be present in
     the same session.  Once all sessions are killed, tmux exits.

     Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection (such
     as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the ‘C-b d’
     key strokes).  tmux may be reattached using:

           $ tmux attach

     In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions are
     managed by a single server.  The server and each client are separate
     processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp.

     The options are as follows:

     -2            Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours.

     -C            Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section).  Given
                   twice (-CC) disables echo.

     -c shell-command
                   Execute shell-command using the default shell.  If necessary,
                   the tmux server will be started to retrieve the default-shell
                   option.  This option is for compatibility with sh(1) when
                   tmux is used as a login shell.

     -f file       Specify an alternative configuration file.  By default, tmux
                   loads the system configuration file from /etc/tmux.conf, if
                   present, then looks for a user configuration file at

                   The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which are
                   executed in sequence when the server is first started.  tmux
                   loads configuration files once when the server process has
                   started.  The source-file command may be used to load a file

                   tmux shows any error messages from commands in configuration
                   files in the first session created, and continues to process
                   the rest of the configuration file.

     -L socket-name
                   tmux stores the server socket in a directory under
                   TMUX_TMPDIR, TMPDIR if it is unset, or /tmp if both are
                   unset.  The default socket is named default.  This option
                   allows a different socket name to be specified, allowing
                   several independent tmux servers to be run.  Unlike -S a full
                   path is not necessary: the sockets are all created in the
                   same directory.

                   If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal may
                   be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it.

     -l            Behave as a login shell.  This flag currently has no effect
                   and is for compatibility with other shells when using tmux as
                   a login shell.

     -S socket-path
                   Specify a full alternative path to the server socket.  If -S
                   is specified, the default socket directory is not used and
                   any -L flag is ignored.

     -u            tmux attempts to guess if the terminal is likely to support
                   UTF-8 by checking the first of the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and LANG
                   environment variables to be set for the string "UTF-8".  This
                   is not always correct: the -u flag explicitly informs tmux
                   that UTF-8 is supported.

                   If the server is started from a client passed -u or where
                   UTF-8 is detected, the utf8 and status-utf8 options are
                   enabled in the global window and session options

     -v            Request verbose logging.  This option may be specified
                   multiple times for increasing verbosity.  Log messages will
                   be saved into tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log
                   files in the current directory, where PID is the PID of the
                   server or client process.

     -V            Report the tmux version.

     command [flags]
                   This specifies one of a set of commands used to control tmux,
                   as described in the following sections.  If no commands are
                   specified, the new-session command is assumed.

     tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination
     of a prefix key, ‘C-b’ (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command key.

     The default command key bindings are:

           C-b         Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application.
           C-o         Rotate the panes in the current window forwards.
           C-z         Suspend the tmux client.
           !           Break the current pane out of the window.
           "           Split the current pane into two, top and bottom.
           #           List all paste buffers.
           $           Rename the current session.
           %           Split the current pane into two, left and right.
           &           Kill the current window.
           '           Prompt for a window index to select.
           (           Switch the attached client to the previous session.
           )           Switch the attached client to the next session.
           ,           Rename the current window.
           -           Delete the most recently copied buffer of text.
           .           Prompt for an index to move the current window.
           0 to 9      Select windows 0 to 9.
           :           Enter the tmux command prompt.
           ;           Move to the previously active pane.
           =           Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a list.
           ?           List all key bindings.
           D           Choose a client to detach.
           L           Switch the attached client back to the last session.
           [           Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history.
           ]           Paste the most recently copied buffer of text.
           c           Create a new window.
           d           Detach the current client.
           f           Prompt to search for text in open windows.
           i           Display some information about the current window.
           l           Move to the previously selected window.
           n           Change to the next window.
           o           Select the next pane in the current window.
           p           Change to the previous window.
           q           Briefly display pane indexes.
           r           Force redraw of the attached client.
           s           Select a new session for the attached client
           t           Show the time.
           w           Choose the current window interactively.
           x           Kill the current pane.
           z           Toggle zoom state of the current pane.
           {           Swap the current pane with the previous pane.
           }           Swap the current pane with the next pane.
           ~           Show previous messages from tmux, if any.
           Page Up     Enter copy mode and scroll one page up.
           Up, Down
           Left, Right
                       Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to the
                       right of the current pane.
           M-1 to M-5  Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts: even-
                       horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal, main-
                       vertical, or tiled.
           Space       Arrange the current window in the next preset layout.
           M-n         Move to the next window with a bell or activity marker.
           M-o         Rotate the panes in the current window backwards.
           M-p         Move to the previous window with a bell or activity
           C-Up, C-Down
           C-Left, C-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of one cell.
           M-Up, M-Down
           M-Left, M-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of five cells.

     Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.

     This section contains a list of the commands supported by tmux.  Most
     commands accept the optional -t argument with one of target-client,
     target-session target-window, or target-pane.  These specify the client,
     session, window or pane which a command should affect.  target-client is
     the name of the pty(7) file to which the client is connected, for example
     either of /dev/ttyp1 or ttyp1 for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1.  If no
     client is specified, the current client is chosen, if possible, or an error
     is reported.  Clients may be listed with the list-clients command.

     target-session is the session id prefixed with a $, the name of a session
     (as listed by the list-sessions command), or the name of a client with the
     same syntax as target-client, in which case the session attached to the
     client is used.  When looking for the session name, tmux initially searches
     for an exact match; if none is found, the session names are checked for any
     for which target-session is a prefix or for which it matches as an
     fnmatch(3) pattern.  If a single match is found, it is used as the target
     session; multiple matches produce an error.  If a session is omitted, the
     current session is used if available; if no current session is available,
     the most recently used is chosen.

     target-window specifies a window in the form session:window.  session
     follows the same rules as for target-session, and window is looked for in
     order: as a window index, for example mysession:1; as a window ID, such as
     @1; as an exact window name, such as mysession:mywindow; then as an
     fnmatch(3) pattern or the start of a window name, such as mysession:mywin*
     or mysession:mywin.  An empty window name specifies the next unused index
     if appropriate (for example the new-window and link-window commands)
     otherwise the current window in session is chosen.  The special character
     ‘!’ uses the last (previously current) window, ‘^’ selects the highest
     numbered window, ‘$’ selects the lowest numbered window, and ‘+’ and ‘-’
     select the next window or the previous window by number.  When the argument
     does not contain a colon, tmux first attempts to parse it as window; if
     that fails, an attempt is made to match a session.

     target-pane takes a similar form to target-window but with the optional
     addition of a period followed by a pane index, for example:
     mysession:mywindow.1.  If the pane index is omitted, the currently active
     pane in the specified window is used.  If neither a colon nor period
     appears, tmux first attempts to use the argument as a pane index; if that
     fails, it is looked up as for target-window.  A ‘+’, ‘-’ or ‘!’ indicate
     the next, previous or last pane.  One of the strings top, bottom, left,
     right, top-left, top-right, bottom-left or bottom-right may be used instead
     of a pane index.

     The special characters ‘+’ and ‘-’ may be followed by an offset, for

           select-window -t:+2

     When dealing with a session that doesn't contain sequential window indexes,
     they will be correctly skipped.

     tmux also gives each pane created in a server an identifier consisting of a
     ‘%’ and a number, starting from zero.  A pane's identifier is unique for
     the life of the tmux server and is passed to the child process of the pane
     in the TMUX_PANE environment variable.  It may be used alone to target a
     pane or the window containing it.

     shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands.  This may be a single argument
     passed to the shell, for example:

           new-window 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Will run:

           /bin/sh -c 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Additionally, the new-window, new-session, split-window, respawn-window and
     respawn-pane commands allow shell-command to be given as multiple arguments
     and executed directly (without ‘sh -c’).  This can avoid issues with shell
     quoting.  For example:

           $ tmux new-window vi /etc/passwd

     Will run vi(1) directly without invoking the shell.

     command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, passed with the command and
     arguments separately, for example:

           bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81

     Or if using sh(1):

           $ tmux bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81

     Multiple commands may be specified together as part of a command sequence.
     Each command should be separated by spaces and a semicolon; commands are
     executed sequentially from left to right and lines ending with a backslash
     continue on to the next line, except when escaped by another backslash.  A
     literal semicolon may be included by escaping it with a backslash (for
     example, when specifying a command sequence to bind-key).

     Example tmux commands include:

           refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2

           rename-session -tfirst newname

           set-window-option -t:0 monitor-activity on

           new-window ; split-window -d

           bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \
                   display-message "source-file done"

     Or from sh(1):

           $ tmux kill-window -t :1

           $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d

           $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach

     The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes.  Clients are
     attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are created
     with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session command.
     Each session has one or more windows linked into it.  Windows may be linked
     to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more panes, each of which
     contains a pseudo terminal.  Commands for creating, linking and otherwise
     manipulating windows are covered in the WINDOWS AND PANES section.

     The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions:

     attach-session [-dr] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: attach)
             If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current
             terminal and attach it to target-session.  If used from inside,
             switch the current client.  If -d is specified, any other clients
             attached to the session are detached.  -r signifies the client is
             read-only (only keys bound to the detach-client or switch-client
             commands have any effect)

             If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start it;
             this will fail unless sessions are created in the configuration

             The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly adjusted:
             if tmux needs to select the most recently used session, it will
             prefer the most recently used unattached session.

             -c will set the session working directory (used for new windows) to

     detach-client [-P] [-a] [-s target-session] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: detach)
             Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client specified
             with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session specified
             by -s.  The -a option kills all but the client given with -t.  If
             -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of the client,
             typically causing it to exit.

     has-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: has)
             Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does not
             exist.  If it does exist, exit with 0.

             Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions.

     kill-session [-a] [-t target-session]
             Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and no
             other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it.  If -a is
             given, all sessions but the specified one is killed.

     list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsc)
             List all clients attached to the server.  For the meaning of the -F
             flag, see the FORMATS section.  If target-session is specified,
             list only clients connected to that session.

                   (alias: lscm)
             List the syntax of all commands supported by tmux.

     list-sessions [-F format]
                   (alias: ls)
             List all sessions managed by the server.  For the meaning of the -F
             flag, see the FORMATS section.

     lock-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: lockc)
             Lock target-client, see the lock-server command.

     lock-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: locks)
             Lock all clients attached to target-session.

     new-session [-AdDP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s
             session-name] [-t target-session] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: new)
             Create a new session with name session-name.

             The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d is
             given.  window-name and shell-command are the name of and shell
             command to execute in the initial window.  If -d is used, -x and -y
             specify the size of the initial window (80 by 24 if not given).

             If run from a terminal, any termios(3) special characters are saved
             and used for new windows in the new session.

             The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if
             session-name already exists; in the case, -D behaves like -d to

             If -t is given, the new session is grouped with target-session.
             This means they share the same set of windows - all windows from
             target-session are linked to the new session and any subsequent new
             windows or windows being closed are applied to both sessions.  The
             current and previous window and any session options remain
             independent and either session may be killed without affecting the
             other.  Giving -n or shell-command are invalid if -t is used.

             The -P option prints information about the new session after it has
             been created.  By default, it uses the format ‘#{session_name}:’
             but a different format may be specified with -F.

     refresh-client [-S] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: refresh)
             Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single client if
             one is given with -t.  If -S is specified, only update the client's
             status bar.

     rename-session [-t target-session] new-name
                   (alias: rename)
             Rename the session to new-name.

     show-messages [-IJT] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: showmsgs)
             Show client messages or server information.  Any messages displayed
             on the status line are saved in a per-client message log, up to a
             maximum of the limit set by the message-limit server option.  With
             -t, display the log for target-client.  -I, -J and -T show
             debugging information about the running server, jobs and terminals.

     source-file path
                   (alias: source)
             Execute commands from path.

                   (alias: start)
             Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating any

     suspend-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: suspendc)
             Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop).

     switch-client [-lnpr] [-c target-client] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: switchc)
             Switch the current session for client target-client to
             target-session.  If -l, -n or -p is used, the client is moved to
             the last, next or previous session respectively.  -r toggles
             whether a client is read-only (see the attach-session command).

     A tmux window may be in one of several modes.  The default permits direct
     access to the terminal attached to the window.  The other is copy mode,
     which permits a section of a window or its history to be copied to a paste
     buffer for later insertion into another window.  This mode is entered with
     the copy-mode command, bound to ‘[’ by default.  It is also entered when a
     command that produces output, such as list-keys, is executed from a key

     The keys available depend on whether emacs or vi mode is selected (see the
     mode-keys option).  The following keys are supported as appropriate for the

           Function                     vi              emacs
           Append selection             A
           Back to indentation          ^               M-m
           Bottom of history            G               M-<
           Clear selection              Escape          C-g
           Copy selection               Enter           M-w
           Copy to named buffer         "
           Cursor down                  j               Down
           Cursor left                  h               Left
           Cursor right                 l               Right
           Cursor to bottom line        L
           Cursor to middle line        M               M-r
           Cursor to top line           H               M-R
           Cursor up                    k               Up
           Delete entire line           d               C-u
           Delete/Copy to end of line   D               C-k
           End of line                  $               C-e
           Go to line                   :               g
           Half page down               C-d             M-Down
           Half page up                 C-u             M-Up
           Jump again                   ;               ;
           Jump again in reverse        ,               ,
           Jump backward                F               F
           Jump forward                 f               f
           Jump to backward             T
           Jump to forward              t
           Next page                    C-f             Page down
           Next space                   W
           Next space, end of word      E
           Next word                    w
           Next word end                e               M-f
           Other end of selection       o
           Paste buffer                 p               C-y
           Previous page                C-b             Page up
           Previous space               B
           Previous word                b               M-b
           Quit mode                    q               Escape
           Rectangle toggle             v               R
           Scroll down                  C-Down or C-e   C-Down
           Scroll up                    C-Up or C-y     C-Up
           Search again                 n               n
           Search again in reverse      N               N
           Search backward              ?               C-r
           Search forward               /               C-s
           Select line                  V
           Start of line                0               C-a
           Start selection              Space           C-Space
           Top of history               g               M->
           Transpose characters                         C-t

     The next and previous word keys use space and the ‘-’, ‘_’ and ‘@’
     characters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by
     setting the word-separators session option.  Next word moves to the start
     of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and previous
     word to the start of the previous word.  The three next and previous space
     keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word separator.

     The jump commands enable quick movement within a line.  For instance,
     typing ‘f’ followed by ‘/’ will move the cursor to the next ‘/’ character
     on the current line.  A ‘;’ will then jump to the next occurrence.

     Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count.  With vi
     key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with emacs, the
     Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry.  For example, to move the
     cursor forward by ten words, use ‘M-1 0 M-f’ in emacs mode, and ‘10w’ in

     Mode key bindings are defined in a set of named tables: vi-edit and
     emacs-edit for keys used when line editing at the command prompt; vi-choice
     and emacs-choice for keys used when choosing from lists (such as produced
     by the choose-window command); and vi-copy and emacs-copy used in copy
     mode.  The tables may be viewed with the list-keys command and keys
     modified or removed with bind-key and unbind-key.  One command accepts an
     argument, copy-pipe, which copies the selection and pipes it to a command.
     For example the following will bind ‘C-q’ to copy the selection into /tmp
     as well as the paste buffer:

           bind-key -temacs-copy C-q copy-pipe "cat >/tmp/out"

     The paste buffer key pastes the first line from the top paste buffer on the

     The synopsis for the copy-mode command is:

     copy-mode [-u] [-t target-pane]
             Enter copy mode.  The -u option scrolls one page up.

     Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each
     pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal.  A
     window may be split into panes using the split-window command.  Windows may
     be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically.  Panes may be
     resized with the resize-pane command (bound to ‘C-up’, ‘C-down’ ‘C-left’
     and ‘C-right’ by default), the current pane may be changed with the
     select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane commands may be
     used to swap panes without changing their position.  Panes are numbered
     beginning from zero in the order they are created.

     A number of preset layouts are available.  These may be selected with the
     select-layout command or cycled with next-layout (bound to ‘Space’ by
     default); once a layout is chosen, panes within it may be moved and resized
     as normal.

     The following layouts are supported:

             Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the window.

             Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom.

             A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the
             remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover space
             at the bottom.  Use the main-pane-height window option to specify
             the height of the top pane.

             Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the left
             and the others spread from top to bottom along the right.  See the
             main-pane-width window option.

     tiled   Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in both
             rows and columns.

     In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used layout -
     the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a form
     suitable for use with select-layout.  For example:

           $ tmux list-windows
           0: ksh [159x48]
               layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}
           $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}

     tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current window
     size.  Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more panes
     than that from which the layout was originally defined.

     Commands related to windows and panes are as follows:

     break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: breakp)
             Break target-pane off from its containing window to make it the
             only pane in a new window.  If -d is given, the new window does not
             become the current window.  The -P option prints information about
             the new window after it has been created.  By default, it uses the
             format ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may
             be specified with -F.

     capture-pane [-aepPq] [-b buffer-name] [-E end-line] [-S start-line] [-t
                   (alias: capturep)
             Capture the contents of a pane.  If -p is given, the output goes to
             stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a new buffer
             if omitted.  If -a is given, the alternate screen is used, and the
             history is not accessible.  If no alternate screen exists, an error
             will be returned unless -q is given.  If -e is given, the output
             includes escape sequences for text and background attributes.  -C
             also escapes non-printable characters as octal \xxx.  -J joins
             wrapped lines and preserves trailing spaces at each line's end.  -P
             captures only any output that the pane has received that is the
             beginning of an as-yet incomplete escape sequence.

             -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is the
             first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are lines in
             the history.  ‘-’ to -S is the start of the history and to -E the
             end of the visible pane.  The default is to capture only the
             visible contents of the pane.

     choose-client [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into client choice mode, allowing a client to be
             selected interactively from a list.  After a client is chosen, ‘%%’
             is replaced by the client pty(7) path in template and the result
             executed as a command.  If template is not given, "detach-client -t
             '%%'" is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS
             section.  This command works only if at least one client is

     choose-session [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into session choice mode, where a session may be
             selected interactively from a list.  When one is chosen, ‘%%’ is
             replaced by the session name in template and the result executed as
             a command.  If template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is
             used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.
             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     choose-tree [-suw] [-b session-template] [-c window-template] [-S format]
             [-W format] [-t target-window]
             Put a window into tree choice mode, where either sessions or
             windows may be selected interactively from a list.  By default,
             windows belonging to a session are indented to show their
             relationship to a session.

             Note that the choose-window and choose-session commands are
             wrappers around choose-tree.

             If -s is given, will show sessions.  If -w is given, will show

             By default, the tree is collapsed and sessions must be expanded to
             windows with the right arrow key.  The -u option will start with
             all sessions expanded instead.

             If -b is given, will override the default session command.  Note
             that ‘%%’ can be used and will be replaced with the session name.
             The default option if not specified is "switch-client -t '%%'".  If
             -c is given, will override the default window command.  Like -b,
             ‘%%’ can be used and will be replaced with the session name and
             window index.  When a window is chosen from the list, the session
             command is run before the window command.

             If -S is given will display the specified format instead of the
             default session format.  If -W is given will display the specified
             format instead of the default window format.  For the meaning of
             the -s and -w options, see the FORMATS section.

             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     choose-window [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into window choice mode, where a window may be chosen
             interactively from a list.  After a window is selected, ‘%%’ is
             replaced by the session name and window index in template and the
             result executed as a command.  If template is not given, "select-
             window -t '%%'" is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.  This command works only if at least one client is

     display-panes [-t target-client]
                   (alias: displayp)
             Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by target-client.
             See the display-panes-time, display-panes-colour, and
             display-panes-active-colour session options.  While the indicator
             is on screen, a pane may be selected with the ‘0’ to ‘9’ keys.

     find-window [-CNT] [-F format] [-t target-window] match-string
                   (alias: findw)
             Search for the fnmatch(3) pattern match-string in window names,
             titles, and visible content (but not history).  The flags control
             matching behavior: -C matches only visible window contents, -N
             matches only the window name and -T matches only the window title.
             The default is -CNT.  If only one window is matched, it'll be
             automatically selected, otherwise a choice list is shown.  For the
             meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.  This command
             works only if at least one client is attached.

     join-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: joinp)
             Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creating a
             new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space.  This can be
             used to reverse break-pane.  The -b option causes src-pane to be
             joined to left of or above dst-pane.

     kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: killp)
             Destroy the given pane.  If no panes remain in the containing
             window, it is also destroyed.  The -a option kills all but the pane
             given with -t.

     kill-window [-a] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: killw)
             Kill the current window or the window at target-window, removing it
             from any sessions to which it is linked.  The -a option kills all
             but the window given with -t.

     last-pane [-de] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: lastp)
             Select the last (previously selected) pane.  -e enables or -d
             disables input to the pane.

     last-window [-t target-session]
                   (alias: last)
             Select the last (previously selected) window.  If no target-session
             is specified, select the last window of the current session.

     link-window [-dk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: linkw)
             Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window.  If
             dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the src-window
             is linked there.  If -k is given and dst-window exists, it is
             killed, otherwise an error is generated.  If -d is given, the newly
             linked window is not selected.

     list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target]
                   (alias: lsp)
             If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server are
             listed.  If -s is given, target is a session (or the current
             session).  If neither is given, target is a window (or the current
             window).  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsw)
             If -a is given, list all windows on the server.  Otherwise, list
             windows in the current session or in target-session.  For the
             meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: movep)
             Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the same

     move-window [-rdk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: movew)
             This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window is
             moved to dst-window.  With -r, all windows in the session are
             renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index option.

     new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-t
             target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: neww)
             Create a new window.  With -a, the new window is inserted at the
             next index up from the specified target-window, moving windows up
             if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window location.

             If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the
             current window.  target-window represents the window to be created;
             if the target already exists an error is shown, unless the -k flag
             is used, in which case it is destroyed.  shell-command is the
             command to execute.  If shell-command is not specified, the value
             of the default-command option is used.  -c specifies the working
             directory in which the new window is created.

             When the shell command completes, the window closes.  See the
             remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour.

             The TERM environment variable must be set to “screen” for all
             programs running inside tmux.  New windows will automatically have
             “TERM=screen” added to their environment, but care must be taken
             not to reset this in shell start-up files.

             The -P option prints information about the new window after it has
             been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     next-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: nextl)
             Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to fit.

     next-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: next)
             Move to the next window in the session.  If -a is used, move to the
             next window with an alert.

     pipe-pane [-o] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: pipep)
             Pipe any output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell
             command.  A pane may only be piped to one command at a time, any
             existing pipe is closed before shell-command is executed.  The
             shell-command string may contain the special character sequences
             supported by the status-left option.  If no shell-command is given,
             the current pipe (if any) is closed.

             The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists,
             allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example:

                   bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P'

     previous-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: prevl)
             Move to the previous layout in the session.

     previous-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: prev)
             Move to the previous window in the session.  With -a, move to the
             previous window with an alert.

     rename-window [-t target-window] new-name
                   (alias: renamew)
             Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if
             specified, to new-name.

     resize-pane [-DLRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height] [adjustment]
                   (alias: resizep)
             Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U, -D,
             -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The adjustment is
             given in lines or cells (the default is 1).

             With -Z, the active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying the
             whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal position in the

     respawn-pane [-k] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnp)
             Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given, the
             command used when the pane was created is executed.  The pane must
             be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any existing
             command is killed.

     respawn-window [-k] [-t target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnw)
             Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given, the
             command used when the window was created is executed.  The window
             must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any
             existing command is killed.

     rotate-window [-DU] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: rotatew)
             Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either upward
             (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically higher).

     select-layout [-np] [-t target-window] [layout-name]
                   (alias: selectl)
             Choose a specific layout for a window.  If layout-name is not
             given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied.  -n and
             -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout commands.

     select-pane [-DdeLlRU] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: selectp)
             Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window.  If
             one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is used, respectively the pane below, to
             the left, to the right, or above the target pane is used.  -l is
             the same as using the last-pane command.  -e enables or -d disables
             input to the pane.

     select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: selectw)
             Select the window at target-window.  -l, -n and -p are equivalent
             to the last-window, next-window and previous-window commands.  If
             -T is given and the selected window is already the current window,
             the command behaves like last-window.

     split-window [-bdhvP] [-c start-directory] [-l size | -p percentage] [-t
             target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format]
                   (alias: splitw)
             Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizontal
             split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v is
             assumed.  The -l and -p options specify the size of the new pane in
             lines (for vertical split) or in cells (for horizontal split), or
             as a percentage, respectively.  The -b option causes the new pane
             to be created to the left of or above target-pane.  All other
             options have the same meaning as for the new-window command.

     swap-pane [-dDU] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: swapp)
             Swap two panes.  If -U is used and no source pane is specified with
             -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it
             numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numerically).
             -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane.

     swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: swapw)
             This is similar to link-window, except the source and destination
             windows are swapped.  It is an error if no window exists at

     unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: unlinkw)
             Unlink target-window.  Unless -k is given, a window may be unlinked
             only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows may not be
             linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the window is linked
             to only one session, it is unlinked and destroyed.

     tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a prefix
     key.  When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example ‘A’ to
     ‘Z’).  Ctrl keys may be prefixed with ‘C-’ or ‘^’, and Alt (meta) with
     ‘M-’.  In addition, the following special key names are accepted: Up, Down,
     Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter, Escape, F1 to F12,
     Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn, PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space, and Tab.
     Note that to bind the ‘"’ or ‘'’ keys, quotation marks are necessary, for

           bind-key '"' split-window
           bind-key "'" new-window

     Commands related to key bindings are as follows:

     bind-key [-cnr] [-t mode-table] key command [arguments]
                   (alias: bind)
             Bind key key to command.  By default (without -t) the primary key
             bindings are modified (those normally activated with the prefix
             key); in this case, if -n is specified, it is not necessary to use
             the prefix key, command is bound to key alone.  The -r flag
             indicates this key may repeat, see the repeat-time option.

             If -t is present, key is bound in mode-table: the binding for
             command mode with -c or for normal mode without.  To view the
             default bindings and possible commands, see the list-keys command.

     list-keys [-t key-table]
                   (alias: lsk)
             List all key bindings.  Without -t the primary key bindings - those
             executed when preceded by the prefix key - are printed.

             With -t, the key bindings in key-table are listed; this may be one
             of: vi-edit, emacs-edit, vi-choice, emacs-choice, vi-copy or

     send-keys [-lR] [-t target-pane] key ...
                   (alias: send)
             Send a key or keys to a window.  Each argument key is the name of
             the key (such as ‘C-a’ or ‘npage’ ) to send; if the string is not
             recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters.  The -l
             flag disables key name lookup and sends the keys literally.  All
             arguments are sent sequentially from first to last.  The -R flag
             causes the terminal state to be reset.

     send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane]
             Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a
             window as if it was pressed.

     unbind-key [-acn] [-t mode-table] key
                   (alias: unbind)
             Unbind the command bound to key.  Without -t the primary key
             bindings are modified; in this case, if -n is specified, the
             command bound to key without a prefix (if any) is removed.  If -a
             is present, all key bindings are removed.

             If -t is present, key in mode-table is unbound: the binding for
             command mode with -c or for normal mode without.

     The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the value
     of various options.  There are three types of option: server options,
     session options and window options.

     The tmux server has a set of global options which do not apply to any
     particular window or session.  These are altered with the set-option -s
     command, or displayed with the show-options -s command.

     In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options, and
     there is a separate set of global session options.  Sessions which do not
     have a particular option configured inherit the value from the global
     session options.  Session options are set or unset with the set-option
     command and may be listed with the show-options command.  The available
     server and session options are listed under the set-option command.

     Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window, and there is
     a set of global window options from which any unset options are inherited.
     Window options are altered with the set-window-option command and can be
     listed with the show-window-options command.  All window options are
     documented with the set-window-option command.

     tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a ‘@’.  User
     options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with ‘@’, and be
     set to any string.  For example

           $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"
           $ tmux showw -v @foo

     Commands which set options are as follows:

     set-option [-agoqsuw] [-t target-session | target-window] option value
                   (alias: set)
             Set a window option with -w (equivalent to the set-window-option
             command), a server option with -s, otherwise a session option.

             If -g is specified, the global session or window option is set.
             The -u flag unsets an option, so a session inherits the option from
             the global options.  It is not possible to unset a global option.

             The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set.

             The -q flag suppresses errors about unknown options.

             With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value is
             appended to the existing setting.  For example:

                   set -g status-left "foo"
                   set -ag status-left "bar"

             Will result in ‘foobar’.  And:

                   set -g status-style "bg=red"
                   set -ag status-style "fg=blue"

             Will result in a red background and blue foreground.  Without -a,
             the result would be the default background and a blue foreground.

             Available window options are listed under set-window-option.

             value depends on the option and may be a number, a string, or a
             flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle).

             Available server options are:

             buffer-limit number
                     Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to the
                     top of the stack, old ones are removed from the bottom if
                     necessary to maintain this maximum length.

             default-terminal terminal
                     Set the default terminal for new windows created in this
                     session - the default value of the TERM environment
                     variable.  For tmux to work correctly, this must be set to
                     ‘screen’, ‘tmux’ or a derivative of them.

             escape-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after an
                     escape is input to determine if it is part of a function or
                     meta key sequences.  The default is 500 milliseconds.

             exit-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled, the server will exit when there are no attached

             focus-events [on | off]
                     When enabled, focus events are requested from the terminal
                     if supported and passed through to applications running in
                     tmux.  Attached clients should be detached and attached
                     again after changing this option.

             message-limit number
                     Set the number of error or information messages to save in
                     the message log for each client.  The default is 100.

             set-clipboard [on | off]
                     Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the
                     \e]52;...\007 xterm(1) escape sequences.  This option is on
                     by default if there is an Ms entry in the terminfo(5)
                     description for the client terminal.  Note that this
                     feature needs to be enabled in xterm(1) by setting the

                           disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop

                     Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive
                     menu when required.

             terminal-overrides string
                     Contains a list of entries which override terminal
                     descriptions read using terminfo(5).  string is a comma-
                     separated list of items each a colon-separated string made
                     up of a terminal type pattern (matched using fnmatch(3))
                     and a set of name=value entries.

                     For example, to set the ‘clear’ terminfo(5) entry to
                     ‘\e[H\e[2J’ for all terminal types and the ‘dch1’ entry to
                     ‘\e[P’ for the ‘rxvt’ terminal type, the option could be
                     set to the string:


                     The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3)
                     before interpretation.  The default value forcibly corrects
                     the ‘colors’ entry for terminals which support 256 colours:


             Available session options are:

             assume-paste-time milliseconds
                     If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds, they
                     are assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and tmux
                     key bindings are not processed.  The default is one
                     millisecond and zero disables.

             base-index index
                     Set the base index from which an unused index should be
                     searched when a new window is created.  The default is

             bell-action [any | none | current]
                     Set action on window bell.  any means a bell in any window
                     linked to a session causes a bell in the current window of
                     that session, none means all bells are ignored and current
                     means only bells in windows other than the current window
                     are ignored.

             bell-on-alert [on | off]
                     If on, ring the terminal bell when an alert occurs.

             default-command shell-command
                     Set the command used for new windows (if not specified when
                     the window is created) to shell-command, which may be any
                     sh(1) command.  The default is an empty string, which
                     instructs tmux to create a login shell using the value of
                     the default-shell option.

             default-shell path
                     Specify the default shell.  This is used as the login shell
                     for new windows when the default-command option is set to
                     empty, and must be the full path of the executable.  When
                     started tmux tries to set a default value from the first
                     suitable of the SHELL environment variable, the shell
                     returned by getpwuid(3), or /bin/sh.  This option should be
                     configured when tmux is used as a login shell.

             destroy-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any
                     clients, it is destroyed.

             detach-on-destroy [on | off]
                     If on (the default), the client is detached when the
                     session it is attached to is destroyed.  If off, the client
                     is switched to the most recently active of the remaining

             display-panes-active-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show
                     the indicator for the active pane.

             display-panes-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show
                     the indicators for inactive panes.

             display-panes-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators shown
                     by the display-panes command appear.

             display-time time
                     Set the amount of time for which status line messages and
                     other on-screen indicators are displayed.  time is in

             history-limit lines
                     Set the maximum number of lines held in window history.
                     This setting applies only to new windows - existing window
                     histories are not resized and retain the limit at the point
                     they were created.

             lock-after-time number
                     Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after
                     number seconds of inactivity, or the entire server (all
                     sessions) if the lock-server option is set.  The default is
                     not to lock (set to 0).

             lock-command shell-command
                     Command to run when locking each client.  The default is to
                     run lock(1) with -np.

             lock-server [on | off]
                     If this option is on (the default), instead of each session
                     locking individually as each has been idle for
                     lock-after-time, the entire server will lock after all
                     sessions would have locked.  This has no effect as a
                     session option; it must be set as a global option.

             message-command-style style
                     Set status line message command style, where style is a
                     comma-separated list of characteristics to be specified.

                     These may be ‘bg=colour’ to set the background colour,
                     ‘fg=colour’ to set the foreground colour, and a list of
                     attributes as specified below.

                     The colour is one of: black, red, green, yellow, blue,
                     magenta, cyan, white, aixterm bright variants (if
                     supported: brightred, brightgreen, and so on), colour0 to
                     colour255 from the 256-colour set, default, or a
                     hexadecimal RGB string such as ‘#ffffff’, which chooses the
                     closest match from the default 256-colour set.

                     The attributes is either none or a comma-delimited list of
                     one or more of: bright (or bold), dim, underscore, blink,
                     reverse, hidden, or italics, to turn an attribute on, or an
                     attribute prefixed with ‘no’ to turn one off.

                     Examples are:


                     With the -a flag to the set-option command the new style is
                     added otherwise the existing style is replaced.

             message-style style
                     Set status line message style.  For how to specify style,
                     see the message-command-style option.

             mouse-resize-pane [on | off]
                     If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows panes to be
                     resized by dragging on their borders.

             mouse-select-pane [on | off]
                     If on, tmux captures the mouse and when a window is split
                     into multiple panes the mouse may be used to select the
                     current pane.  The mouse click is also passed through to
                     the application as normal.

             mouse-select-window [on | off]
                     If on, clicking the mouse on a window name in the status
                     line will select that window.

             mouse-utf8 [on | off]
                     If enabled, request mouse input as UTF-8 on UTF-8

             prefix key
                     Set the key accepted as a prefix key.

             prefix2 key
                     Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.

             renumber-windows [on | off]
                     If on, when a window is closed in a session, automatically
                     renumber the other windows in numerical order.  This
                     respects the base-index option if it has been set.  If off,
                     do not renumber the windows.

             repeat-time time
                     Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing the
                     prefix-key again in the specified time milliseconds (the
                     default is 500).  Whether a key repeats may be set when it
                     is bound using the -r flag to bind-key.  Repeat is enabled
                     for the default keys bound to the resize-pane command.

             set-remain-on-exit [on | off]
                     Set the remain-on-exit window option for any windows first
                     created in this session.  When this option is true, windows
                     in which the running program has exited do not close,
                     instead remaining open but inactivate.  Use the
                     respawn-window command to reactivate such a window, or the
                     kill-window command to destroy it.

             set-titles [on | off]
                     Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl and
                     fsl terminfo(5) entries if they exist.  tmux automatically
                     sets these to the \e]2;...\007 sequence if the terminal
                     appears to be an xterm.  This option is off by default.
                     Note that elinks will only attempt to set the window title
                     if the STY environment variable is set.

             set-titles-string string
                     String used to set the window title if set-titles is on.
                     Character sequences are replaced as for the status-left

             status [on | off]
                     Show or hide the status line.

             status-interval interval
                     Update the status bar every interval seconds.  By default,
                     updates will occur every 15 seconds.  A setting of zero
                     disables redrawing at interval.

             status-justify [left | centre | right]
                     Set the position of the window list component of the status
                     line: left, centre or right justified.

             status-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line, for
                     example at the command prompt.  The default is emacs,
                     unless the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables are set
                     and contain the string ‘vi’.

             status-left string
                     Display string (by default the session name) to the left of
                     the status bar.  string will be passed through strftime(3)
                     and formats (see FORMATS) will be expanded.  It may also
                     contain any of the following special character sequences:

                           Character pair    Replaced with
                           #(shell-command)  First line of the command's output
                           #[attributes]     Colour or attribute change
                           ##                A literal ‘#’

                     The #(shell-command) form executes ‘shell-command’ and
                     inserts the first line of its output.  Note that shell
                     commands are only executed once at the interval specified
                     by the status-interval option: if the status line is
                     redrawn in the meantime, the previous result is used.
                     Shell commands are executed with the tmux global
                     environment set (see the ENVIRONMENT section).

                     For details on how the names and titles can be set see the
                     NAMES AND TITLES section.  For a list of allowed attributes
                     see the message-command-style option.

                     Examples are:

                           #(sysctl vm.loadavg)
                           #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S]

                     By default, UTF-8 in string is not interpreted, to enable
                     UTF-8, use the status-utf8 option.

                     The default is ‘[#S] ’.

             status-left-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the left component of the status
                     bar.  The default is 10.

             status-left-style style
                     Set the style of the left part of the status line.  For how
                     to specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             status-position [top | bottom]
                     Set the position of the status line.

             status-right string
                     Display string to the right of the status bar.  By default,
                     the current window title in double quotes, the date and the
                     time are shown.  As with status-left, string will be passed
                     to strftime(3), character pairs are replaced, and UTF-8 is
                     dependent on the status-utf8 option.

             status-right-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the right component of the status
                     bar.  The default is 40.

             status-right-style style
                     Set the style of the right part of the status line.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             status-style style
                     Set status line style.  For how to specify style, see the
                     message-command-style option.

             status-utf8 [on | off]
                     Instruct tmux to treat top-bit-set characters in the
                     status-left and status-right strings as UTF-8; notably,
                     this is important for wide characters.  This option
                     defaults to off.

             update-environment variables
                     Set a space-separated string containing a list of
                     environment variables to be copied into the session
                     environment when a new session is created or an existing
                     session is attached.  Any variables that do not exist in
                     the source environment are set to be removed from the
                     session environment (as if -r was given to the
                     set-environment command).  The default is "DISPLAY
                     WINDOWID XAUTHORITY".

             visual-activity [on | off]
                     If on, display a status line message when activity occurs
                     in a window for which the monitor-activity window option is

             visual-bell [on | off]
                     If this option is on, a message is shown on a bell instead
                     of it being passed through to the terminal (which normally
                     makes a sound).  Also see the bell-action option.

             visual-silence [on | off]
                     If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the
                     interval has expired on a given window.

             word-separators string
                     Sets the session's conception of what characters are
                     considered word separators, for the purposes of the next
                     and previous word commands in copy mode.  The default is
                     ‘ -_@’.

     set-window-option [-agoqu] [-t target-window] option value
                   (alias: setw)
             Set a window option.  The -a, -g, -o, -q and -u flags work
             similarly to the set-option command.

             Supported window options are:

             aggressive-resize [on | off]
                     Aggressively resize the chosen window.  This means that
                     tmux will resize the window to the size of the smallest
                     session for which it is the current window, rather than the
                     smallest session to which it is attached.  The window may
                     resize when the current window is changed on another
                     sessions; this option is good for full-screen programs
                     which support SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs
                     such as shells.

             allow-rename [on | off]
                     Allow programs to change the window name using a terminal
                     escape sequence (\033k...\033\\).  The default is on.

             alternate-screen [on | off]
                     This option configures whether programs running inside tmux
                     may use the terminal alternate screen feature, which allows
                     the smcup and rmcup terminfo(5) capabilities.  The
                     alternate screen feature preserves the contents of the
                     window when an interactive application starts and restores
                     it on exit, so that any output visible before the
                     application starts reappears unchanged after it exits.  The
                     default is on.

             automatic-rename [on | off]
                     Control automatic window renaming.  When this setting is
                     enabled, tmux will rename the window automatically using
                     the format specified by automatic-rename-format.  This flag
                     is automatically disabled for an individual window when a
                     name is specified at creation with new-window or
                     new-session, or later with rename-window, or with a
                     terminal escape sequence.  It may be switched off globally

                           set-window-option -g automatic-rename off

             automatic-rename-format format
                     The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename
                     option is enabled.

             c0-change-interval interval
             c0-change-trigger trigger
                     These two options configure a simple form of rate limiting
                     for a pane.  If tmux sees more than trigger C0 sequences
                     that modify the screen (for example, carriage returns,
                     linefeeds or backspaces) in one millisecond, it will stop
                     updating the pane immediately and instead redraw it
                     entirely every interval milliseconds.  This helps to
                     prevent fast output (such as yes(1)) overwhelming the
                     terminal.  The default is a trigger of 250 and an interval
                     of 100.  A trigger of zero disables the rate limiting.

             clock-mode-colour colour
                     Set clock colour.

             clock-mode-style [12 | 24]
                     Set clock hour format.

             force-height height
             force-width width
                     Prevent tmux from resizing a window to greater than width
                     or height.  A value of zero restores the default unlimited

             main-pane-height height
             main-pane-width width
                     Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in
                     the main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts.

             mode-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy and choice
                     modes.  As with the status-keys option, the default is
                     emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains ‘vi’.

             mode-mouse [on | off | copy-mode]
                     Mouse state in modes.  If on, the mouse may be used to
                     enter copy mode and copy a selection by dragging, to enter
                     copy mode and scroll with the mouse wheel, or to select an
                     option in choice mode.  If set to copy-mode, the mouse
                     behaves as set to on, but cannot be used to enter copy

             mode-style style
                     Set window modes style.  For how to specify style, see the
                     message-command-style option.

             monitor-activity [on | off]
                     Monitor for activity in the window.  Windows with activity
                     are highlighted in the status line.

             monitor-silence [interval]
                     Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within
                     interval seconds.  Windows that have been silent for the
                     interval are highlighted in the status line.  An interval
                     of zero disables the monitoring.

             other-pane-height height
                     Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in
                     the main-horizontal layout.  If this option is set to 0
                     (the default), it will have no effect.  If both the
                     main-pane-height and other-pane-height options are set, the
                     main pane will grow taller to make the other panes the
                     specified height, but will never shrink to do so.

             other-pane-width width
                     Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other panes in
                     the main-vertical layout.

             pane-active-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for the currently active pane.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style
                     option.  Attributes are ignored.

             pane-base-index index
                     Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane

             pane-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for panes aside from the active
                     pane.  For how to specify style, see the
                     message-command-style option.  Attributes are ignored.

             remain-on-exit [on | off]
                     A window with this flag set is not destroyed when the
                     program running in it exits.  The window may be reactivated
                     with the respawn-window command.

             synchronize-panes [on | off]
                     Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the same
                     window (only for panes that are not in any special mode).

             utf8 [on | off]
                     Instructs tmux to expect UTF-8 sequences to appear in this

             window-status-activity-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with an activity alert.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-bell-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with a bell alert.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             window-status-current-format string
                     Like window-status-format, but is the format used when the
                     window is the current window.

             window-status-current-style style
                     Set status line style for the currently active window.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             window-status-format string
                     Set the format in which the window is displayed in the
                     status line window list.  See the status-left option for
                     details of special character sequences available.  The
                     default is ‘#I:#W#F’.

             window-status-last-style style
                     Set status line style for the last active window.  For how
                     to specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             window-status-separator string
                     Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status
                     line.  The default is a single space character.

             window-status-style style
                     Set status line style for a single window.  For how to
                     specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             xterm-keys [on | off]
                     If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1) -style
                     function key sequences; these have a number included to
                     indicate modifiers such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl.  The default
                     is off.

             wrap-search [on | off]
                     If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end of
                     the pane contents.  The default is on.

     show-options [-gqsvw] [-t target-session | target-window] [option]
                   (alias: show)
             Show the window options (or a single window option if given) with
             -w (equivalent to show-window-options), the server options with -s,
             otherwise the session options for target session.  Global session
             or window options are listed if -g is used.  -v shows only the
             option value, not the name.  If -q is set, no error will be
             returned if option is unset.

     show-window-options [-gv] [-t target-window] [option]
                   (alias: showw)
             List the window options or a single option for target-window, or
             the global window options if -g is used.  -v shows only the option
             value, not the name.

     Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument.  This is a
     string which controls the output format of the command.  Replacement
     variables are enclosed in ‘#{’ and ‘}’, for example ‘#{session_name}’.  The
     possible variables are listed in the table below, or the name of a tmux
     option may be used for an option's value.  Some variables have a shorter
     alias such as ‘#S’, and ‘##’ is replaced by a single ‘#’.

     Conditionals are available by prefixing with ‘?’ and separating two
     alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not
     zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used.  For
     example ‘#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}’ will include the
     string ‘attached’ if the session is attached and the string ‘not attached’
     if it is unattached, or ‘#{?automatic-rename,yes,no}’ will include ‘yes’ if
     automatic-rename is enabled, or ‘no’ if not.  A limit may be placed on the
     length of the resultant string by prefixing it by an ‘=’, a number and a
     colon, so ‘#{=10:pane_title}’ will include at most the first 10 characters
     of the pane title.

     The following variables are available, where appropriate:

     Variable name          Alias    Replaced with
     alternate_on                    If pane is in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_x               Saved cursor X in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_y               Saved cursor Y in alternate screen
     buffer_sample                   Sample of start of buffer
     buffer_size                     Size of the specified buffer in bytes
     client_activity                 Integer time client last had activity
     client_activity_string          String time client last had activity
     client_created                  Integer time client created
     client_created_string           String time client created
     client_height                   Height of client
     client_last_session             Name of the client's last session
     client_prefix                   1 if prefix key has been pressed
     client_readonly                 1 if client is readonly
     client_session                  Name of the client's session
     client_termname                 Terminal name of client
     client_tty                      Pseudo terminal of client
     client_utf8                     1 if client supports utf8
     client_width                    Width of client
     cursor_flag                     Pane cursor flag
     cursor_x                        Cursor X position in pane
     cursor_y                        Cursor Y position in pane
     history_bytes                   Number of bytes in window history
     history_limit                   Maximum window history lines
     history_size                    Size of history in bytes
     host                   #H       Hostname of local host
     host_short             #h       Hostname of local host (no domain name)
     insert_flag                     Pane insert flag
     keypad_cursor_flag              Pane keypad cursor flag
     keypad_flag                     Pane keypad flag
     line                            Line number in the list
     mouse_any_flag                  Pane mouse any flag
     mouse_button_flag               Pane mouse button flag
     mouse_standard_flag             Pane mouse standard flag
     mouse_utf8_flag                 Pane mouse UTF-8 flag
     pane_active                     1 if active pane
     pane_bottom                     Bottom of pane
     pane_current_command            Current command if available
     pane_current_path               Current path if available
     pane_dead                       1 if pane is dead
     pane_dead_status                Exit status of process in dead pane
     pane_height                     Height of pane
     pane_id                #D       Unique pane ID
     pane_in_mode                    If pane is in a mode
     pane_input_off                  If input to pane is disabled
     pane_index             #P       Index of pane
     pane_left                       Left of pane
     pane_pid                        PID of first process in pane
     pane_right                      Right of pane
     pane_start_command              Command pane started with
     pane_synchronized               If pane is synchronized
     pane_tabs                       Pane tab positions
     pane_title             #T       Title of pane
     pane_top                        Top of pane
     pane_tty                        Pseudo terminal of pane
     pane_width                      Width of pane
     saved_cursor_x                  Saved cursor X in pane
     saved_cursor_y                  Saved cursor Y in pane
     scroll_region_lower             Bottom of scroll region in pane
     scroll_region_upper             Top of scroll region in pane
     session_attached                Number of clients session is attached to
     session_created                 Integer time session created
     session_created_string          String time session created
     session_group                   Number of session group
     session_grouped                 1 if session in a group
     session_height                  Height of session
     session_id                      Unique session ID
     session_many_attached           1 if multiple clients attached
     session_name           #S       Name of session
     session_width                   Width of session
     session_windows                 Number of windows in session
     window_active                   1 if window active
     window_activity_flag            1 if window has activity alert
     window_bell_flag                1 if window has bell
     window_find_matches             Matched data from the find-window
     window_flags           #F       Window flags
     window_height                   Height of window
     window_id                       Unique window ID
     window_index           #I       Index of window
     window_last_flag                1 if window is the last used
     window_layout                   Window layout description
     window_name            #W       Name of window
     window_panes                    Number of panes in window
     window_silence_flag             1 if window has silence alert
     window_width                    Width of window
     window_zoomed_flag              1 if window is zoomed
     wrap_flag                       Pane wrap flag

     tmux distinguishes between names and titles.  Windows and sessions have
     names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed in
     the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier for a
     window or session.  Only panes have titles.  A pane's title is typically
     set by the program running inside the pane and is not modified by tmux.  It
     is the same mechanism used to set for example the xterm(1) window title in
     an X(7) window manager.  Windows themselves do not have titles - a window's
     title is the title of its active pane.  tmux itself may set the title of
     the terminal in which the client is running, see the set-titles option.

     A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session commands.
     A window's name is set with one of:

     1.      A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session).

     2.      An escape sequence:

                   $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\'

     3.      Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command in
             the window's active pane.  See the automatic-rename option.

     When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname.  A pane's title
     can be set via the OSC title setting sequence, for example:

           $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'

     When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global
     environment; in addition, each session has a session environment.  When a
     window is created, the session and global environments are merged.  If a
     variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is used.
     The result is the initial environment passed to the new process.

     The update-environment session option may be used to update the session
     environment from the client when a new session is created or an old
     reattached.  tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal
     information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM
     variable with the correct terminal setting of ‘screen’.

     Commands to alter and view the environment are:

     set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value]
                   (alias: setenv)
             Set or unset an environment variable.  If -g is used, the change is
             made in the global environment; otherwise, it is applied to the
             session environment for target-session.  The -u flag unsets a
             variable.  -r indicates the variable is to be removed from the
             environment before starting a new process.

     show-environment [-g] [-t target-session] [variable]
                   (alias: showenv)
             Display the environment for target-session or the global
             environment with -g.  If variable is omitted, all variables are
             shown.  Variables removed from the environment are prefixed with

     tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom line
     of each terminal.  By default, the status line is enabled (it may be
     disabled with the status session option) and contains, from left-to-right:
     the name of the current session in square brackets; the window list; the
     title of the active pane in double quotes; and the time and date.

     The status line is made of three parts: configurable left and right
     sections (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or output from
     a shell command, see the status-left, status-left-length, status-right, and
     status-right-length options below), and a central window list.  By default,
     the window list shows the index, name and (if any) flag of the windows
     present in the current session in ascending numerical order.  It may be
     customised with the window-status-format and window-status-current-format
     options.  The flag is one of the following symbols appended to the window

           Symbol    Meaning
           *         Denotes the current window.
           -         Marks the last window (previously selected).
           #         Window is monitored and activity has been detected.
           !         A bell has occurred in the window.
           ~         The window has been silent for the monitor-silence
           Z         The window's active pane is zoomed.

     The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity window option.  The window
     name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or silence)
     is present.

     The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the entire
     status line using the status-style session option and individual windows
     using the window-status-style window option.

     The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has changed,
     the interval may be controlled with the status-interval session option.

     Commands related to the status line are as follows:

     command-prompt [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client] [template]
             Open the command prompt in a client.  This may be used from inside
             tmux to execute commands interactively.

             If template is specified, it is used as the command.  If present,
             -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for each prompt.
             If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list of prompts which
             are displayed in order; otherwise a single prompt is displayed,
             constructed from template if it is present, or ‘:’ if not.

             Both inputs and prompts may contain the special character sequences
             supported by the status-left option.

             Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the string
             ‘%%’ and all occurrences of ‘%1’ are replaced by the response to
             the first prompt, the second ‘%%’ and all ‘%2’ are replaced with
             the response to the second prompt, and so on for further prompts.
             Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced (‘%1’ to ‘%9’).

     confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command
                   (alias: confirm)
             Ask for confirmation before executing command.  If -p is given,
             prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is constructed
             from command.  It may contain the special character sequences
             supported by the status-left option.

             This command works only from inside tmux.

     display-message [-p] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message]
                   (alias: display)
             Display a message.  If -p is given, the output is printed to
             stdout, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status line.
             The format of message is described in the FORMATS section;
             information is taken from target-pane if -t is given, otherwise the
             active pane for the session attached to target-client.

     tmux maintains a set of named paste buffers.  Each buffer may be either
     explicitly or automatically named.  Explicitly named buffers are named when
     created with the set-buffer or load-buffer commands, or by renaming an
     automatically named buffer with set-buffer -n.  Automatically named buffers
     are given a name such as ‘buffer0001’, ‘buffer0002’ and so on.  When the
     buffer-limit option is reached, the oldest automatically named buffer is
     deleted.  Explicitly named are not subject to buffer-limit and may be
     deleted with delete-buffer command.

     Buffers may be added using copy-mode or the set-buffer and load-buffer
     commands, and pasted into a window using the paste-buffer command.  If a
     buffer command is used and no buffer is specified, the most recently added
     automatically named buffer is assumed.

     A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window.  By
     default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the
     history-limit option (see the set-option command above).

     The buffer commands are as follows:

     choose-buffer [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into buffer choice mode, where a buffer may be chosen
             interactively from a list.  After a buffer is selected, ‘%%’ is
             replaced by the buffer name in template and the result executed as
             a command.  If template is not given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is
             used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.
             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     clear-history [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: clearhist)
             Remove and free the history for the specified pane.

     delete-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: deleteb)
             Delete the buffer named buffer-name, or the most recently added
             automatically named buffer if not specified.

     list-buffers [-F format]
                   (alias: lsb)
             List the global buffers.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.

     load-buffer [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: loadb)
             Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path.

     paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-name] [-s separator] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: pasteb)
             Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane.  If
             not specified, paste into the current one.  With -d, also delete
             the paste buffer.  When output, any linefeed (LF) characters in the
             paste buffer are replaced with a separator, by default carriage
             return (CR).  A custom separator may be specified using the -s
             flag.  The -r flag means to do no replacement (equivalent to a
             separator of LF).  If -p is specified, paste bracket control codes
             are inserted around the buffer if the application has requested
             bracketed paste mode.

     save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: saveb)
             Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path.  The -a
             option appends to rather than overwriting the file.

     set-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] [-n new-buffer-name] data
                   (alias: setb)
             Set the contents of the specified buffer to data.  The -a option
             appends to rather than overwriting the buffer.  The -n option
             renames the buffer to new-buffer-name.

     show-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: showb)
             Display the contents of the specified buffer.

     Miscellaneous commands are as follows:

     clock-mode [-t target-pane]
             Display a large clock.

     if-shell [-bF] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command]
                   (alias: if)
             Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or the
             second command otherwise.  Before being executed, shell-command is
             expanded using the rules specified in the FORMATS section,
             including those relevant to target-pane.  With -b, shell-command is
             run in the background.

             If -F is given, shell-command is not executed but considered
             success if neither empty nor zero (after formats are expanded).

                   (alias: lock)
             Lock each client individually by running the command specified by
             the lock-command option.

     run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command
                   (alias: run)
             Execute shell-command in the background without creating a window.
             Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules
             specified in the FORMATS section.  With -b, the command is run in
             the background.  After it finishes, any output to stdout is
             displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by -t or the current
             pane if omitted).  If the command doesn't return success, the exit
             status is also displayed.

     wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel
                   (alias: wait)
             When used without options, prevents the client from exiting until
             woken using wait-for -S with the same channel.  When -L is used,
             the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock the same
             channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked with
             wait-for -U.  This command only works from outside tmux.

     tmux understands some extensions to terminfo(5):

     Cs, Cr  Set the cursor colour.  The first takes a single string argument
             and is used to set the colour; the second takes no arguments and
             restores the default cursor colour.  If set, a sequence such as
             this may be used to change the cursor colour from inside tmux:

                   $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\'

     Ss, Se  Set or reset the cursor style.  If set, a sequence such as this may
             be used to change the cursor to an underline:

                   $ printf '\033[4 q'

             If Se is not set, Ss with argument 0 will be used to reset the
             cursor style instead.

     Ms      This sequence can be used by tmux to store the current buffer in
             the host terminal's selection (clipboard).  See the set-clipboard
             option above and the xterm(1) man page.

     tmux offers a textual interface called control mode.  This allows
     applications to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only protocol.

     In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences
     terminated by newlines on standard input.  Each command will produce one
     block of output on standard output.  An output block consists of a %begin
     line followed by the output (which may be empty).  The output block ends
     with a %end or %error.  %begin and matching %end or %error have two
     arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command number.  For

           %begin 1363006971 2
           0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active)
           %end 1363006971 2

     In control mode, tmux outputs notifications.  A notification will never
     occur inside an output block.

     The following notifications are defined:

     %exit [reason]
             The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is not
             attached to any session or an error occurred.  If present, reason
             describes why the client exited.

     %layout-change window-id window-layout
             The layout of a window with ID window-id changed.  The new layout
             is window-layout.

     %output pane-id value
             A window pane produced output.  value escapes non-printable
             characters and backslash as octal \xxx.

     %session-changed session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id, which
             is named name.

     %session-renamed name
             The current session was renamed to name.

             A session was created or destroyed.

     %unlinked-window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to the
             current session.

     %window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session.

     %window-close window-id
             The window with ID window-id closed.

     %window-renamed window-id name
             The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.

     ~/.tmux.conf       Default tmux configuration file.
     /etc/tmux.conf     System-wide configuration file.

     To create a new tmux session running vi(1):

           $ tmux new-session vi

     Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias.  For new-session,
     this is new:

           $ tmux new vi

     Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted.  If
     there are several options, they are listed:

           $ tmux n
           ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window

     Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing ‘C-b c’
     (Ctrl followed by the ‘b’ key followed by the ‘c’ key).

     Windows may be navigated with: ‘C-b 0’ (to select window 0), ‘C-b 1’ (to
     select window 1), and so on; ‘C-b n’ to select the next window; and ‘C-b p’
     to select the previous window.

     A session may be detached using ‘C-b d’ (or by an external event such as
     ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with:

           $ tmux attach-session

     Typing ‘C-b ?’ lists the current key bindings in the current window; up and
     down may be used to navigate the list or ‘q’ to exit from it.

     Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the
     ~/.tmux.conf configuration file.  Common examples include:

     Changing the default prefix key:

           set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix

     Turning the status line off, or changing its colour:

           set-option -g status off
           set-option -g status-style bg=blue

     Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30
     minutes of inactivity:

           set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh"
           set-option -g lock-after-time 1800

     Creating new key bindings:

           bind-key b set-option status
           bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'"
           bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"


     Nicholas Marriott <>

BSD                              March 25, 2013                              BSD