twm

TWM(1)                      General Commands Manual                     TWM(1)



NAME
       twm - Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX
       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f initfile ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION
       Twm is a window manager for the X Window System.  It provides
       titlebars, shaped windows, several forms of icon management, user-
       defined macro functions, click-to-type and pointer-driven keyboard
       focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This program is usually started by the user's session manager or
       startup script.  When used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager, twm is frequently executed in the foreground as the last
       client.  When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be
       terminated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a ``frame'' with a
       titlebar at the top and a special border around the window.  The
       titlebar contains the window's name, a rectangle that is lit when the
       window is receiving keyboard input, and function boxes known as
       ``titlebuttons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button unless it has
       been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In the default interface, windows are
       iconified by clicking (pressing and then immediately releasing) the
       left titlebutton (which looks like a Dot).  Conversely, windows are
       deiconified by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager (see description of the variable ShowIconManager and of the
       function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer over edge that is to
       be moved, and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the
       title or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new
       location, and then releasing when the outline is in the desired
       position.  Just clicking in the title or highlight region raises the
       window without moving it.

       When new windows are created, twm will honor any size and location
       information requested by the user (usually through -geometry command
       line argument or resources for the individual applications).
       Otherwise, an outline of the window's default size, its titlebar, and
       lines dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are
       displayed.  Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the
       current position and give it the default size.  Pressing pointer
       Button2 (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline
       will give the window its current position but allow the sides to be
       resized as described above.  Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the
       right pointer button) will give the window its current position but
       attempt to make it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display dpy
               This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This option indicates that only the default screen (as
               specified by -display or by the DISPLAY environment variable)
               should be managed.  By default, twm will attempt to manage all
               screens on the display.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.  By
               default, twm will look in the user's home directory for files
               named .twmrc.num (where num is a screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that twm should print error messages
               whenever an unexpected X Error event is received.  This can be
               useful when debugging applications but can be distracting in
               regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much of twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched in order for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
               The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
               representing the screen number (e.g. the last number in the
               DISPLAY environment variable host:displaynum.screennum) that
               would be used to contact that screen of the display.  This is
               intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual
               types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
               This is the usual name for an individual user's startup file.

       /usr/share/X11/twm/system.twmrc
               If neither of the preceding files are found, twm will look in
               this file for a default configuration.  This is often tailored
               by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or
               familiar bindings for novice users.

       If no startup files are found, twm will use the built-in defaults
       described above.  The only resource used by twm is bitmapFilePath for a
       colon-separated list of directories to search when looking for bitmap
       files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets manual and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm startup files are logically broken up into three types of
       specifications:  Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section
       must come first and is used to describe the fonts, colors, cursors,
       border widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising,
       layout of titles, warping, use of the icon manager.  The Bindings
       section usually comes second and is used to specify the functions that
       should be to be invoked when keyboard and pointer buttons are pressed
       in windows, icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section gives any
       user-defined menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to
       be executed).

       Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be
       surrounded by double quote characters (e.g. "blue") and are case-
       sensitive.  A pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder
       of the line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables
       that may be set in the user's startup file.  Some of the options are
       enabled or disabled simply by the presence of a particular keyword.
       Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of all of
       these.

       Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
               "emacs"
               "XTerm"
               "Xmh"
       }
       When a variable containing a list of strings representing windows is
       searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string must be an exact, case-sensitive match to the window's
       name (given by the WM_NAME window property), resource name or class
       name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property).  The preceding
       example would enable autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as well as
       any xterm (since they are of class ``XTerm'') or xmh windows (which are
       of class ``Xmh'').

       String arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will prepend the user's directory
       (specified by the HOME environment variable) if the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :delete (both refer to
       the X logo), :dot or :iconify (both refer to the dot), :resize (the
       nested squares used by the resize button), :menu (a page with lines),
       and :question (the question mark used for non-existent bitmap files).

       The following variables may be specified at the top of a twm startup
       file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indicated by win-list.
       Optional arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should
               automatically be raised whenever the pointer enters the window.
               This action can be interactively enabled or disabled on
               individual windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
               This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
               when initially sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
               resizing it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed the
               window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes
               the nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount.  This
               allows the resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the
               screen.  If the pointer is in the center of the window, or if
               the resize is begun by pressing a titlebutton, twm will still
               wait for the pointer to cross a window edge (to prevent
               accidents).  This option is particularly useful for people who
               like the press-drag-release method of sweeping out window
               sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default color of the border to be
               placed around all non-iconified windows, and may only be given
               within a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional
               wincolorlist specifies a list of window and color name pairs
               for specifying particular border colors for different types of
               windows.  For example:
               BorderColor "gray50"
               {
                       "XTerm" "red"
                       "xmh"   "green"
               }
               The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default background color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn't been set), and may only be given within a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default  is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default foreground color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn't been set), and may only be given within a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has
               not been specified.  This value is also used to set the border
               size of windows created by twm (such as the icon manager).  The
               default is 2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
               This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should
               be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause the buttons to
               be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
               stand out.  Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth
               variables to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as
               possible.  The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
               This variable indicates that border width of a window's frame
               should be set to the initial border width of the window, rather
               than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be made
               if the default display is capable of displaying more than
               simple black and white.  The colors-list is made up of the
               following color variables and their values: DefaultBackground,
               DefaultForeground, MenuBackground, MenuForeground,
               MenuTitleBackground, MenuTitleForeground, MenuShadowColor,
               MenuBorderColor, PointerForeground, and PointerBackground.  The
               following color variables may also be given a list of window
               and color name pairs to allow per-window colors to be specified
               (see BorderColor for details): BorderColor,
               IconManagerHighlight, BorderTitleBackground,
               BorderTitleForeground, TitleBackground, TitleForeground,
               IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,
               IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground.  For example:
               Color
               {
                       MenuBackground          "gray50"
                       MenuForeground          "blue"
                       BorderColor                     "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                       TitleForeground         "yellow"
                       TitleBackground         "blue"
               }
               All of these color variables may also be specified for the
               Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization file to
               be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
               This variable specifies the length of time between button
               clicks needed to begin a constrained move operation.  Double
               clicking within this amount of time when invoking f.move will
               cause the window to be moved only in a horizontal or vertical
               direction.  Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained
               moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
               This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for
               various pointer cursors.  Each cursor may be defined either
               from the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the
               cursor font may be specified directly as:
                       cursorname        "string"
               where cursorname is one of the cursor names listed below, and
               string is the name of a glyph as found in the file
               /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h (without the ``XC_'' prefix).  If
               the cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following
               syntax is used instead:
                       cursorname        "image"   "mask"
               The image and mask strings specify the names of files
               containing the glyph image and mask in bitmap(1) form.  The
               bitmap files are located in the same manner as icon bitmap
               files.  The following example shows the default cursor
               definitions:
               Cursors
               {
                       Frame           "top_left_arrow"
                       Title           "top_left_arrow"
                       Icon            "top_left_arrow"
                       IconMgr "top_left_arrow"
                       Move            "fleur"
                       Resize          "fleur"
                       Menu            "sb_left_arrow"
                       Button          "hand2"
                       Wait            "watch"
                       Select          "dot"
                       Destroy "pirate"
               }

       DecorateTransients
               This variable indicates that transient windows (those
               containing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property) should have titlebars.
               By default, transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color to be used for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be
               iconified by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
               if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is frequently used
               to force some windows to be treated as icons while other
               windows are handled by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
               This variable indicates that windows should not be allowed to
               be moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the
               f.forcemove function.

       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that titlebars should not be squeezed
               to their minimum size as described under SqueezeTitle below.
               If the optional window list is supplied, only those windows
               will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
               This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the
               Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the distance between the titlebar
               decorations (the button and text) and the window frame.  The
               default is 2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should
               be made if the screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the
               description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color of icons, and may
               only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
               list.  The optional win-list is a list of window names and
               colors so that per-window colors may be specified.  See the
               BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-
               list.  The default is "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the color of the border used for icon
               windows, and may only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale
               or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
               This variable specifies the directory that should be searched
               if if a bitmap file cannot be found in any of the directories
               in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used to display icon
               names within icons.  The default is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
               displaying icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list
               of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
               specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete
               description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by
               being unmapped without trying to map any icons.  This assumes
               that the user will remap the window through the icon manager,
               the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu.  If the optional
               win-list is provided, only those windows will be iconified by
               simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and the
               IconManagerDontShow options set may not be accessible if no
               binding to the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's startup
               file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color to use for icon
               manager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list
               of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
               specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete
               description of the win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the icon manager should not
               display any windows.  If the optional win-list is given, only
               those windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used to
               prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
               xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying
               icon manager entries.  The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
               displaying icon manager entries, and may only be specified
               inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional
               win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-
               window colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable
               for a complete description of the win-list.  The default is
               "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
               This variable specifies the geometry of the icon manager
               window.  The string argument is standard geometry specification
               that indicates the initial full size of the icon manager.  The
               icon manager window is then broken into columns pieces and
               scaled according to the number of entries in the icon manager.
               Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
               number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the border color to be used when
               highlighting the icon manager entry that currently has the
               focus, and can only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale
               or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
               This variable specifies a list of icon managers to create.
               Each item in the iconmgr-list has the following format:
                       "winname" ["iconname"]      "geometry" columns
               where winname is the name of the windows that should be put
               into this icon manager, iconname is the name of that icon
               manager window's icon, geometry is a standard geometry
               specification, and columns is the number of columns in this
               icon manager as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
               IconManagers
               {
                       "XTerm" "=300x5+800+5"  5
                       "myhost"        "=400x5+100+5"  2
               }
               Clients whose name or class is ``XTerm'' will have an entry
               created in the ``XTerm'' icon manager.  Clients whose name was
               ``myhost'' would be put into the ``myhost'' icon manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
               the icon manager.  When used in conjunction with the
               IconManagerDontShow variable, only the windows in this list
               will be shown in the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
               This variable specifies an area on the root window in which
               icons are placed if no specific icon location is provided by
               the client.  The geomstring is a quoted string containing a
               standard geometry specification.  If more than one IconRegion
               lines are given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon
               regions when the first is full.  The vgrav argument should be
               either North or South and control and is used to control
               whether icons are first filled in from the top or bottom of the
               icon region.  Similarly, the hgrav argument should be either
               East or West and is used to control whether icons should be
               filled in from left from the right.  Icons are laid out within
               the region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and
               gridheight pixels high.

       Icons { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of window names and the bitmap
               filenames that should be used as their icons.  For example:
               Icons
               {
                       "XTerm" "xterm.icon"
                       "xfd"           "xfd_icon"
               }
               Windows that match ``XTerm'' and would not be iconified by
               unmapping, and would try to use the icon bitmap in the file
               ``xterm.icon''.  If ForceIcons is specified, this bitmap will
               be used even if the client has requested its own icon pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
               This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be
               interpolated between entry specified colors.  In the example
               below:
               Menu "mymenu"
               {
                       "Title"         ("black":"red")         f.title
                       "entry1"                                f.nop
                       "entry2"                                f.nop
                       "entry3"        ("white":"green")       f.nop
                       "entry4"                                f.nop
                       "entry5"        ("red":"white")         f.nop
               }
               the foreground colors for ``entry1'' and ``entry2'' will be
               interpolated between black and white, and the background colors
               between red and green.  Similarly, the foreground for
               ``entry4'' will be half-way between white and red, and the
               background will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar
               should be placed and is used to request titles on specific
               windows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
               This variable specifies a geometry in which the width and
               height give the maximum size for a given window.  This is
               typically used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.
               The default width is 32767 - screen width.  The default height
               is 32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color used for menus,
               and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The default is "white".

       MenuBorderColor string
               This variable specifies the color of the menu border and can
               only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
               list.  The default is "black".

       MenuBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding menu windows.  The default is 2.

       MenuFont string
               This variable specifies the font to use when displaying menus.
               The default is "variable".

       MenuForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color used for menus,
               and can only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or
               Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
               This variable specifies the color of the shadow behind pull-
               down menus and can only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color for f.title
               entries in menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color for f.title
               entries in menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       Monochrome { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should
               be made if the screen has a depth of 1.  See the description of
               Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
               This variable specifies the number of pixels the pointer must
               move before the f.move function starts working.  Also see the
               f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
               This variable indicates that twm's menus should not request
               backing store to minimize repainting of menus.  This is
               typically used with servers that can repaint faster than they
               can handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
               This variable indicates that case should be ignored when
               sorting icon names in an icon manager.  This option is
               typically used with applications that capitalize the first
               letter of their icon name.

       NoDefaults
               This variable indicates that twm should not supply the default
               titlebuttons and bindings.  This option should only be used if
               the startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and
               definitions.

       NoGrabServer
               This variable indicates that twm should not grab the server
               when popping up menus and moving opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted
               to track the location of the pointer.  If the optional win-list
               is given, highlighting will only be disabled for those windows.
               When the border is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current
               BorderColor.  When the border is not highlighted, it will be
               stippled with a gray pattern using the current
               BorderTileForeground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
               This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
               This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
               drawn behind them.  This is typically used with slower servers
               since it speeds up menu drawing at the expense of making the
               menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
               This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified
               should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide
               underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               resized.  This is typically used to allow windows to be resized
               underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               the pointer is warped into them with the f.warpto function.  If
               this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
               the pointer ending up in the occluding window instead the
               desired window (which causes unexpected behavior with
               f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
               This variable indicates that menus should not request save-
               unders to minimize window repainting following menu selection.
               It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
               they can handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client window requests to change
               stacking order should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is
               given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
               typically used to prevent applications from relentlessly
               popping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
               If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not
               have titlebars.  MakeTitle may be used with this option to
               force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
               This variable indicates that twm should not set keyboard input
               focus to each window as it is entered.  Normally, twm sets the
               focus so that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon
               managers are delivered to the application.  If the pointer is
               moved quickly and twm is slow to respond, input can be directed
               to the old window instead of the new.  This option is typically
               used to prevent this ``input lag'' and to work around bugs in
               older applications that have problems with focus events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the highlight area of the
               titlebar, which is used to indicate the window that currently
               has the input focus, should not be displayed.  If the optional
               win-list is given, only those windows will not have highlight
               areas.  This and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to
               substantially reduce the amount of screen space required by
               titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
               This variable indicates that the f.move function should
               actually move the window instead of just an outline so that the
               user can immediately see what the window will look like in the
               new position.  This option is typically used on fast displays
               (particularly if NoGrabServer is set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
               This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define the
               appearance of various images.  Each entry is a keyword
               indicating the pixmap to set, followed by a string giving the
               name of the bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be
               specified:
               Pixmaps
               {
                       TitleHighlight  "gray1"
               }
               The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple
               pattern.

       Priority priority
               This variable sets twm's priority.  priority should be an
               unquoted, signed number (e.g. 999).  This variable has an
               effect only if the server supports the SYNC extension.

       RandomPlacement
               This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
               should be placed in a pseudo-random location instead of having
               the user drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used for in the
               dimensions window when resizing windows.  The default is
               "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
               This variable indicates that twm should attempt to use the
               WM_STATE property on client windows to tell which windows
               should be iconified and which should be left visible.  This is
               typically used to try to regenerate the state that the screen
               was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
               This variable indicates a list of color assignments to be
               stored as pixel values in the root window property
               _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.  Clients may elect to preserve these
               values when installing their own colormap.  Note that use of
               this mechanism is a way an for application to avoid the
               "technicolor" problem, whereby useful screen objects such as
               window borders and titlebars disappear when a programs custom
               colors are installed by the window manager.  For example:
               SaveColor
               {
                       BorderColor
                       TitleBackground
                       TitleForeground
                       "red"
                       "green"
                       "blue"
               }
               This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders
               and titlebars, as well as the three color strings, all taken
               from the default colormap.

       ShowIconManager
               This variable indicates that the icon manager window should be
               displayed when twm is started.  It can always be brought up
               using the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
               This variable indicates that entries in the icon manager should
               be sorted alphabetically rather than by simply appending new
               windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
               This variable indicates that twm should attempt to use the
               SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy only as much screen
               space as they need, rather than extending all the way across
               the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may be used
               to control the location of the squeezed titlebar along the top
               of the window.  It contains entries of the form:
                       "name"            justification     num       denom
               where name is a window name, justification is either left,
               center, or right, and num and denom are numbers specifying a
               ratio giving the relative position about which the titlebar is
               justified.  The ratio is measured from left to right if the
               numerator is positive, and right to left if negative.  A
               denominator of 0 indicates that the numerator should be
               measured in pixels.  For convenience, the ratio 0/0 is the same
               as 1/2 for center and -1/1 for right.  For example:
               SqueezeTitle
               {
                       "XTerm" left            0       0
                       "xterm1"        left            1       3
                       "xterm2"        left            2       3
                       "oclock"        center          0       0
                       "emacs" right           0       0
               }
               The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
               certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
               left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.  If the
               optional win-list is given, only those windows will be started
               iconic.  This is useful for programs that do not support an
               -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or
               Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               The default is "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding titlebuttons.  This is typically set to 0 to allow
               titlebuttons to take up as much space as possible and to not
               have a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used for displaying
               window names in titlebars.  The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or
               Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               The default is "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the distance between the various
               buttons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar.  The
               default is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
               This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap file to be
               used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
               of all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are not
               listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
               This variable specifies whether or not twm should honor
               program-requested locations (given by the PPosition flag in the
               WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence of a user-specified
               position.  The argument string may have one of three values:
               "off" (the default) indicating that twm should ignore the
               program-supplied position, "on" indicating that the position
               should be used, and "non-zero" indicating that the position
               should used if it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is
               for working around a bug in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped into
               windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
               given, the pointer will only be warped when those windows are
               deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows along which the
               f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
               This variable indicates that the f.warpto function should
               deiconify any iconified windows it encounters.  This is
               typically used to make a key binding that will pop a particular
               window (such as xmh), no matter where it is.  The default is
               for f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

       XorValue number
               This variable specifies the value to use when drawing window
               outlines for moving and resizing.  This should be set to a
               value that will result in a variety of of distinguishable
               colors when exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's
               typical screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice
               results if adjacent colors in the default colormap are
               distinct.  By default, twm will attempt to cause temporary
               lines to appear at the opposite end of the colormap from the
               graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
               This variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a
               window to and from its iconified state should be displayed
               whenever a window is iconified or deiconified.  The optional
               count argument specifies the number of outlines to be drawn.
               The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned,
       so it is usually best to put them at the end of the variables or
       beginning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when a key
               or button event is received for which no binding is provided.
               This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing
               window operations.

       WindowFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to execute when a window
               is selected from the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is not
               set, the window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached
       titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons may be added
       from the left or right side and appear in the titlebar from left-to-
       right according to the order in which they are specified.  Key and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use
       in the button box and the function to be invoked when a pointer button
       is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"        = function
       or
       RightTitleButton "bitmapname"       = function
       The bitmapname may refer to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over which parts of the screen the pointer must be, and
       what function is to be invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given as the keywords
       Button1-Button5:
       "FP1"           = modlist : context : function
       Button1   = modlist : context : function
       The modlist is any combination of the modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may be abbreviated
       as s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a
       vertical bar (|).  Similarly, the context is any combination of window,
       title, icon, root, frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr
       abbreviation is m), or all, separated by a vertical bar.  The function
       is any of the f.  keywords described below.  For example, the default
       startup file contains the following bindings:
       Button1 =       : root          : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1 = m     : window | icon : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2 = m     : window | icon : f.iconify
       Button3 = m     : window | icon : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1 =       : title         : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2 =       : title         : f.raiselower
       Button1 =       : icon          : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2 =       : icon          : f.iconify
       Button1 =       : iconmgr       : f.iconify
       Button2 =       : iconmgr       : f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard
       could use the following bindings:
       "F1"    =       : all           : f.iconify
       "F2"    =       : all           : f.raiselower
       "F3"    =       : all           : f.warpring "next"
       "F4"    =       : all           : f.warpto "xmh"
       "F5"    =       : all           : f.warpto "emacs"
       "F6"    =       : all           : f.colormap "next"
       "F7"    =       : all           : f.colormap "default"
       "F20"   =       : all           : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"  = m     : all           : f.backiconmgr
       "Right" = m | s : all           : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up"    = m     : all           : f.upiconmgr
       "Down"  = m | s : all           : f.downiconmgr
       Twm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be
       conveniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.
       Although a small set of defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is
       specified), most users will want to have their most common operations
       bound to key and button strokes.  To do this, twm associates names with
       each of the primitives and provides user-defined functions for building
       higher level primitives and menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in
       calls to f.function and a list of other functions to execute.  For
       example:
       Function "move-or-lower"        { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function "move-or-raise"        { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function "move-or-iconify"      { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function "restore-colormap"     { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it appears in
       the function specification.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the
       selected window, but is invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be
       changed to the Select cursor and the next window to receive a button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
               This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
               This function toggles whether or not the selected window is
               raised whenever entered by the pointer.  See the description of
               the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous column in the
               current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if
               necessary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
               This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, but
               resizes the window to fill only the bottom half of the screen.

       f.circledown
               This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another
               window.

       f.circleup
               This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by
               another window.

       f.colormap string
               This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the
               WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window) that twm will
               display when the pointer is in this window.  The argument
               string may have one of the following values: "next", "prev",
               and "default".  It should be noted here that in general, the
               installed colormap is determined by keyboard focus.  A pointer
               driven keyboard focus will install a private colormap upon
               entry of the window owning the colormap.  Using the click to
               type model, private colormaps will not be installed until the
               user presses a mouse button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
               This function deiconifies the selected window.  If the window
               is not an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
               This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the
               selected window if the client application has requested it
               through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The application is
               supposed to respond to the message by removing the indicated
               window.  If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW
               messages, the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the
               user should choose an alternative method.  Note this is very
               different from f.destroy.  The intent here is to delete a
               single window,  not necessarily the entire application.

       f.deltastop
               This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if
               the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
               example definition given for Function "move-or-raise" at the
               beginning of the section.

       f.destroy
               This function instructs the X server to close the display
               connection of the client that created the selected window.
               This should only be used as a last resort for shutting down
               runaway clients.  See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next row in the current
               icon manger, wrapping to the beginning of the next column if
               necessary.

       f.exec string
               This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for
               execution.  In multiscreen mode, if string starts a new X
               client without giving a display argument, the client will
               appear on the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server to the
               selected window, changing the focus rule from pointer-driven if
               necessary.  If the selected window already was focused, this
               function executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
               This function is like f.move except that it ignores the
               DontMoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next column in the
               current icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next row
               if necessary.

       f.fullzoom
               This function resizes the selected window to the full size of
               the display or else restores the original size if the window
               was already zoomed.

       f.function string
               This function executes the user-defined function whose name is
               specified by the argument string.

       f.hbzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
               This function unmaps the current icon manager.

       f.horizoom
               This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the
               selected window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
               This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or
               icon, respectively.

       f.identify
               This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of
               the selected window.  If the server supports the SYNC
               extension, the priority of the client owning the window is also
               displayed.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a key in the
               window will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
               This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping
               does not change rows.

       f.leftzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function but
               causes the selected window is only resized to the left half of
               the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

       f.menu string
               This function invokes the menu specified by the argument
               string.  Cascaded menus may be built by nesting calls to
               f.menu.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the
               window itself if the OpaqueMove variable is set) until the
               invoking pointer button is released.  Double clicking within
               the number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps
               the pointer to the center of the window and constrains the move
               to be either horizontal or vertical depending on which grid
               line is crossed.  To abort a move, press another button before
               releasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager
               containing any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This function does nothing and is typically used with the
               DefaultFunction or WindowFunction variables or to introduce
               blank lines in menus.

       f.previconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous icon manager
               containing any windows on the current or preceding screens.

       f.priority string
               This function sets the priority of the client owning the
               selected window to the numeric value of the argument string,
               which should be a signed integer in double quotes (e.g. "999"
               ).  This function has an effect only if the server supports the
               SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This function causes twm to restore the window's borders and
               exit.  If twm is the first client invoked from xdm, this will
               result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the selected window.

       f.raiselower
               This function raises the selected window to the top of the
               stacking order if it is occluded by any windows, otherwise the
               window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
               This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

       f.resize
               This function displays an outline of the selected window.
               Crossing a border (or setting AutoRelativeResize) will cause
               the outline to begin to rubber band until the invoking button
               is released.  To abort a resize, press another button before
               releasing the first button.

       f.restart
               This function kills and restarts twm.

       f.startwm string
               This function kills twm and starts another window manager, as
               specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
               This function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping
               does not change rows.

       f.rightzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except
               that the selected window is only resized to the right half of
               the display.

       f.saveyourself
               This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
               window if it has requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS
               window property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed
               to checkpoint all state associated with the window and update
               the WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If the
               selected window has not selected for this message, the keyboard
               bell will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
               This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
               This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager
               alphabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item in a menu
               definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except
               that the selected window is only resized to the top half of the
               display.

       f.unfocus
               This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
               should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the
               current icon manager, wrapping to the last row in the same
               column if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
               This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window
               (as indicated by the argument string, which may be "next" or
               "prev") specified in the WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto string
               This function warps the pointer to the window which has a name
               or class that matches string.  If the window is iconified, it
               will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else
               ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
               This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry
               associated with the window containing the pointer in the icon
               manager specified by the argument string.  If string is empty
               (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
               This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by the
               argument string.  String may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the
               word "next" (indicating the current screen plus 1, skipping
               over any unmanaged screens), the word "back" (indicating the
               current screen minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens),
               or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
               This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that
               only the selected window is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, except
               that the only the height of the selected window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when
       bound to a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated with a
       titlebutton) menus.  Each menu specification contains the name of the
       menu as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional default foreground
       and background colors, the list of item names and the functions they
       should invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for
       individual items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
               string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]        function1
               string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]        function2
                       .
                       .
                       .
               stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]        functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.  The optional deffore and defback
       arguments specify the foreground and background colors used on a color
       display to highlight menu entries.  The string portion of each menu
       entry will be the text which will appear in the menu.  The optional
       fore and back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of
       the menu entry when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will
       only be used on a color display.  The default is to use the colors
       specified by the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.  The
       function portion of the menu entry is one of the functions, including
       any user-defined functions, or additional menus.

       There is a special menu named TwmWindows which contains the names of
       all of the client and twm-supplied windows.  Selecting an entry will
       cause the WindowFunction to be executed on that window.  If
       WindowFunction hasn't been set, the window will be deiconified and
       raised.

ICONS
       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.
       The common pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or
       automatically arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.  In
       addition, a terse grid of icon names, called an icon manager, provides
       a more efficient use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate
       among windows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all
       windows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a
       small button using the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the
       left of the name when the window is iconified.  By default, clicking on
       an entry in the icon manager performs f.iconify.  To change the actions
       taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending
       synthetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr,
       f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions, the input
       focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will
       sometimes cause the window to move, even though the pointer is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in
       IconManagerDontShow but not in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost
       if they are iconified and no bindings to f.menu "TwmWindows" or
       f.warpto are setup.

FILES
       $HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This variable is used to determine which X server to use.  It
               is also set during f.exec so that programs come up on the
               proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin with a
               tilde and for locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve
       Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.



X Version 11                      twm 1.0.10                            TWM(1)