URI(7)                     Linux Programmer's Manual                    URI(7)

       uri, url, urn - uniform resource identifier (URI), including a URL or

       URI = [ absoluteURI | relativeURI ] [ "#" fragment ]

       absoluteURI = scheme ":" ( hierarchical_part | opaque_part )

       relativeURI = ( net_path | absolute_path | relative_path ) [ "?" query ]

       scheme = "http" | "ftp" | "gopher" | "mailto" | "news" | "telnet" |
                  "file" | "man" | "info" | "whatis" | "ldap" | "wais" | ...

       hierarchical_part = ( net_path | absolute_path ) [ "?" query ]

       net_path = "//" authority [ absolute_path ]

       absolute_path = "/"  path_segments

       relative_path = relative_segment [ absolute_path ]

       A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a short string of characters
       identifying an abstract or physical resource (for example, a web page).
       A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a URI that identifies a resource
       through its primary access mechanism (e.g., its network "location"),
       rather than by name or some other attribute of that resource.  A
       Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a URI that must remain globally unique
       and persistent even when the resource ceases to exist or becomes

       URIs are the standard way to name hypertext link destinations for tools
       such as web browsers.  The string "http://www.kernel.org" is a URL (and
       thus it is also a URI).  Many people use the term URL loosely as a
       synonym for URI (though technically URLs are a subset of URIs).

       URIs can be absolute or relative.  An absolute identifier refers to a
       resource independent of context, while a relative identifier refers to
       a resource by describing the difference from the current context.
       Within a relative path reference, the complete path segments "." and
       ".." have special meanings: "the current hierarchy level" and "the
       level above this hierarchy level", respectively, just like they do in
       UNIX-like systems.  A path segment which contains a colon character
       can't be used as the first segment of a relative URI path (e.g.,
       "this:that"), because it would be mistaken for a scheme name; precede
       such segments with ./ (e.g., "./this:that").  Note that descendants of
       MS-DOS (e.g., Microsoft Windows) replace devicename colons with the
       vertical bar ("|") in URIs, so "C:" becomes "C|".

       A fragment identifier, if included, refers to a particular named
       portion (fragment) of a resource; text after a '#' identifies the
       fragment.  A URI beginning with '#' refers to that fragment in the
       current resource.

       There are many different URI schemes, each with specific additional
       rules and meanings, but they are intentionally made to be as similar as
       possible.  For example, many URL schemes permit the authority to be the
       following format, called here an ip_server (square brackets show what's

       ip_server = [user [ : password ] @ ] host [ : port]

       This format allows you to optionally insert a username, a user plus
       password, and/or a port number.  The host is the name of the host
       computer, either its name as determined by DNS or an IP address
       (numbers separated by periods).  Thus the URI
       <http://fred:fredpassword@example.com:8080/> logs into a web server on
       host example.com as fred (using fredpassword) using port 8080.  Avoid
       including a password in a URI if possible because of the many security
       risks of having a password written down.  If the URL supplies a
       username but no password, and the remote server requests a password,
       the program interpreting the URL should request one from the user.

       Here are some of the most common schemes in use on UNIX-like systems
       that are understood by many tools.  Note that many tools using URIs
       also have internal schemes or specialized schemes; see those tools'
       documentation for information on those schemes.

       http - Web (HTTP) server


       This is a URL accessing a web (HTTP) server.  The default port is 80.
       If the path refers to a directory, the web server will choose what to
       return; usually if there is a file named "index.html" or "index.htm"
       its content is returned, otherwise, a list of the files in the current
       directory (with appropriate links) is generated and returned.  An
       example is <http://lwn.net>.

       A query can be given in the archaic "isindex" format, consisting of a
       word or phrase and not including an equal sign (=).  A query can also
       be in the longer "GET" format, which has one or more query entries of
       the form key=value separated by the ampersand character (&).  Note that
       key can be repeated more than once, though it's up to the web server
       and its application programs to determine if there's any meaning to
       that.  There is an unfortunate interaction with HTML/XML/SGML and the
       GET query format; when such URIs with more than one key are embedded in
       SGML/XML documents (including HTML), the ampersand (&) has to be
       rewritten as &amp;.  Note that not all queries use this format; larger
       forms may be too long to store as a URI, so they use a different
       interaction mechanism (called POST) which does not include the data in
       the URI.  See the Common Gateway Interface specification at
       ⟨http://www.w3.org/CGI⟩ for more information.

       ftp - File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


       This is a URL accessing a file through the file transfer protocol
       (FTP).  The default port (for control) is 21.  If no username is
       included, the username "anonymous" is supplied, and in that case many
       clients provide as the password the requestor's Internet email address.
       An example is <ftp://ftp.is.co.za/rfc/rfc1808.txt>.

       gopher - Gopher server

       gopher://ip_server/gophertype selector
       gopher://ip_server/gophertype selector%09search
       gopher://ip_server/gophertype selector%09search%09gopher+_string

       The default gopher port is 70.  gophertype is a single-character field
       to denote the Gopher type of the resource to which the URL refers.  The
       entire path may also be empty, in which case the delimiting "/" is also
       optional and the gophertype defaults to "1".

       selector is the Gopher selector string.  In the Gopher protocol, Gopher
       selector strings are a sequence of octets which may contain any octets
       except 09 hexadecimal (US-ASCII HT or tab), 0A hexadecimal (US-ASCII
       character LF), and 0D (US-ASCII character CR).

       mailto - Email address


       This is an email address, usually of the form name@hostname.  See
       mailaddr(7) for more information on the correct format of an email
       address.  Note that any % character must be rewritten as %25.  An
       example is <mailto:dwheeler@dwheeler.com>.

       news - Newsgroup or News message


       A newsgroup-name is a period-delimited hierarchical name, such as
       "comp.infosystems.www.misc".  If <newsgroup-name> is "*" (as in
       <news:*>), it is used to refer to "all available news groups".  An
       example is <news:comp.lang.ada>.

       A message-id corresponds to the Message-ID of IETF RFC 1036,
       ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1036.txt⟩ without the enclosing "<" and
       ">"; it takes the form unique@full_domain_name.  A message identifier
       may be distinguished from a news group name by the presence of the "@"

       telnet - Telnet login


       The Telnet URL scheme is used to designate interactive text services
       that may be accessed by the Telnet protocol.  The final "/" character
       may be omitted.  The default port is 23.  An example is

       file - Normal file


       This represents a file or directory accessible locally.  As a special
       case, ip_server can be the string "localhost" or the empty string; this
       is interpreted as "the machine from which the URL is being
       interpreted".  If the path is to a directory, the viewer should display
       the directory's contents with links to each containee; not all viewers
       currently do this.  KDE supports generated files through the URL
       <file:/cgi-bin>.  If the given file isn't found, browser writers may
       want to try to expand the filename via filename globbing (see glob(7)
       and glob(3)).

       The second format (e.g., <file:/etc/passwd>) is a correct format for
       referring to a local file.  However, older standards did not permit
       this format, and some programs don't recognize this as a URI.  A more
       portable syntax is to use an empty string as the server name, for
       example, <file:///etc/passwd>; this form does the same thing and is
       easily recognized by pattern matchers and older programs as a URI.
       Note that if you really mean to say "start from the current location,"
       don't specify the scheme at all; use a relative address like
       <../test.txt>, which has the side-effect of being scheme-independent.
       An example of this scheme is <file:///etc/passwd>.

       man - Man page documentation


       This refers to local online manual (man) reference pages.  The command
       name can optionally be followed by a parenthesis and section number;
       see man(7) for more information on the meaning of the section numbers.
       This URI scheme is unique to UNIX-like systems (such as Linux) and is
       not currently registered by the IETF.  An example is <man:ls(1)>.

       info - Info page documentation


       This scheme refers to online info reference pages (generated from
       texinfo files), a documentation format used by programs such as the GNU
       tools.  This URI scheme is unique to UNIX-like systems (such as Linux)
       and is not currently registered by the IETF.  As of this writing, GNOME
       and KDE differ in their URI syntax and do not accept the other's
       syntax.  The first two formats are the GNOME format; in nodenames all
       spaces are written as underscores.  The second two formats are the KDE
       format; spaces in nodenames must be written as spaces, even though this
       is forbidden by the URI standards.  It's hoped that in the future most
       tools will understand all of these formats and will always accept
       underscores for spaces in nodenames.  In both GNOME and KDE, if the
       form without the nodename is used the nodename is assumed to be "Top".
       Examples of the GNOME format are <info:gcc> and <info:gcc#G++_and_GCC>.
       Examples of the KDE format are <info:(gcc)> and <info:(gcc)G++ and

       whatis - Documentation search


       This scheme searches the database of short (one-line) descriptions of
       commands and returns a list of descriptions containing that string.
       Only complete word matches are returned.  See whatis(1).  This URI
       scheme is unique to UNIX-like systems (such as Linux) and is not
       currently registered by the IETF.

       ghelp - GNOME help documentation


       This loads GNOME help for the given application.  Note that not much
       documentation currently exists in this format.

       ldap - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol


       This scheme supports queries to the Lightweight Directory Access
       Protocol (LDAP), a protocol for querying a set of servers for
       hierarchically organized information (such as people and computing
       resources).  See RFC 2255 ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2255.txt⟩ for
       more information on the LDAP URL scheme.  The components of this URL

       hostport    the LDAP server to query, written as a hostname optionally
                   followed by a colon and the port number.  The default LDAP
                   port is TCP port 389.  If empty, the client determines
                   which the LDAP server to use.

       dn          the LDAP Distinguished Name, which identifies the base
                   object of the LDAP search (see RFC 2253
                   ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2253.txt⟩ section 3).

       attributes  a comma-separated list of attributes to be returned; see
                   RFC 2251 section 4.1.5.  If omitted, all attributes should
                   be returned.

       scope       specifies the scope of the search, which can be one of
                   "base" (for a base object search), "one" (for a one-level
                   search), or "sub" (for a subtree search).  If scope is
                   omitted, "base" is assumed.

       filter      specifies the search filter (subset of entries to return).
                   If omitted, all entries should be returned.  See RFC 2254
                   ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2254.txt⟩ section 4.

       extensions  a comma-separated list of type=value pairs, where the
                   =value portion may be omitted for options not requiring it.
                   An extension prefixed with a '!' is critical (must be
                   supported to be valid), otherwise it is noncritical

       LDAP queries are easiest to explain by example.  Here's a query that
       asks ldap.itd.umich.edu for information about the University of
       Michigan in the U.S.:


       To just get its postal address attribute, request:


       To ask a host.com at port 6666 for information about the person with
       common name (cn) "Babs Jensen" at University of Michigan, request:


       wais - Wide Area Information Servers


       This scheme designates a WAIS database, search, or document (see IETF
       RFC 1625 ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1625.txt⟩ for more information on
       WAIS).  Hostport is the hostname, optionally followed by a colon and
       port number (the default port number is 210).

       The first form designates a WAIS database for searching.  The second
       form designates a particular search of the WAIS database database.  The
       third form designates a particular document within a WAIS database to
       be retrieved.  wtype is the WAIS designation of the type of the object
       and wpath is the WAIS document-id.

       other schemes

       There are many other URI schemes.  Most tools that accept URIs support
       a set of internal URIs (e.g., Mozilla has the about: scheme for
       internal information, and the GNOME help browser has the toc: scheme
       for various starting locations).  There are many schemes that have been
       defined but are not as widely used at the current time (e.g.,
       prospero).  The nntp: scheme is deprecated in favor of the news:
       scheme.  URNs are to be supported by the urn: scheme, with a
       hierarchical name space (e.g., urn:ietf:... would identify IETF
       documents); at this time URNs are not widely implemented.  Not all
       tools support all schemes.

   Character encoding
       URIs use a limited number of characters so that they can be typed in
       and used in a variety of situations.

       The following characters are reserved, that is, they may appear in a
       URI but their use is limited to their reserved purpose (conflicting
       data must be escaped before forming the URI):

                 ; / ? : @ & = + $ ,

       Unreserved characters may be included in a URI.  Unreserved characters
       include uppercase and lowercase English letters, decimal digits, and
       the following limited set of punctuation marks and symbols:

               - _ . ! ~ * ' ( )

       All other characters must be escaped.  An escaped octet is encoded as a
       character triplet, consisting of the percent character "%" followed by
       the two hexadecimal digits representing the octet code (you can use
       uppercase or lowercase letters for the hexadecimal digits).  For
       example, a blank space must be escaped as "%20", a tab character as
       "%09", and the "&" as "%26".  Because the percent "%" character always
       has the reserved purpose of being the escape indicator, it must be
       escaped as "%25".  It is common practice to escape space characters as
       the plus symbol (+) in query text; this practice isn't uniformly
       defined in the relevant RFCs (which recommend %20 instead) but any tool
       accepting URIs with query text should be prepared for them.  A URI is
       always shown in its "escaped" form.

       Unreserved characters can be escaped without changing the semantics of
       the URI, but this should not be done unless the URI is being used in a
       context that does not allow the unescaped character to appear.  For
       example, "%7e" is sometimes used instead of "~" in an HTTP URL path,
       but the two are equivalent for an HTTP URL.

       For URIs which must handle characters outside the US ASCII character
       set, the HTML 4.01 specification (section B.2) and IETF RFC 2718
       (section 2.2.5) recommend the following approach:

       1.  translate the character sequences into UTF-8 (IETF RFC 2279)—see
           utf-8(7)—and then

       2.  use the URI escaping mechanism, that is, use the %HH encoding for
           unsafe octets.

   Writing a URI
       When written, URIs should be placed inside double quotes (e.g.,
       "http://www.kernel.org"), enclosed in angle brackets (e.g.,
       <http://lwn.net>), or placed on a line by themselves.  A warning for
       those who use double-quotes: never move extraneous punctuation (such as
       the period ending a sentence or the comma in a list) inside a URI,
       since this will change the value of the URI.  Instead, use angle
       brackets instead, or switch to a quoting system that never includes
       extraneous characters inside quotation marks.  This latter system,
       called the 'new' or 'logical' quoting system by "Hart's Rules" and the
       "Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors", is preferred practice in
       Great Britain and hackers worldwide (see the Jargon File's section on
       Hacker Writing Style, ⟨http://www.fwi.uva.nl/~mes/jargon/h
       /HackerWritingStyle.html⟩, for more information).  Older documents
       suggested inserting the prefix "URL:" just before the URI, but this
       form has never caught on.

       The URI syntax was designed to be unambiguous.  However, as URIs have
       become commonplace, traditional media (television, radio, newspapers,
       billboards, etc.) have increasingly used abbreviated URI references
       consisting of only the authority and path portions of the identified
       resource (e.g., <www.w3.org/Addressing>).  Such references are
       primarily intended for human interpretation rather than machine, with
       the assumption that context-based heuristics are sufficient to complete
       the URI (e.g., hostnames beginning with "www" are likely to have a URI
       prefix of "http://" and hostnames beginning with "ftp" likely to have a
       prefix of "ftp://").  Many client implementations heuristically resolve
       these references.  Such heuristics may change over time, particularly
       when new schemes are introduced.  Since an abbreviated URI has the same
       syntax as a relative URL path, abbreviated URI references cannot be
       used where relative URIs are permitted, and can be used only when there
       is no defined base (such as in dialog boxes).  Don't use abbreviated
       URIs as hypertext links inside a document; use the standard format as
       described here.

       (IETF RFC 2396) ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt⟩, (HTML 4.0)

       Any tool accepting URIs (e.g., a web browser) on a Linux system should
       be able to handle (directly or indirectly) all of the schemes described
       here, including the man: and info: schemes.  Handling them by invoking
       some other program is fine and in fact encouraged.

       Technically the fragment isn't part of the URI.

       For information on how to embed URIs (including URLs) in a data format,
       see documentation on that format.  HTML uses the format <A HREF="uri">
       text </A>.  Texinfo files use the format @uref{uri}.  Man and mdoc have
       the recently added UR macro, or just include the URI in the text
       (viewers should be able to detect :// as part of a URI).

       The GNOME and KDE desktop environments currently vary in the URIs they
       accept, in particular in their respective help browsers.  To list man
       pages, GNOME uses <toc:man> while KDE uses <man:(index)>, and to list
       info pages, GNOME uses <toc:info> while KDE uses <info:(dir)> (the
       author of this man page prefers the KDE approach here, though a more
       regular format would be even better).  In general, KDE uses <file:/cgi-
       bin/> as a prefix to a set of generated files.  KDE prefers
       documentation in HTML, accessed via the <file:/cgi-bin/helpindex>.
       GNOME prefers the ghelp scheme to store and find documentation.
       Neither browser handles file: references to directories at the time of
       this writing, making it difficult to refer to an entire directory with
       a browsable URI.  As noted above, these environments differ in how they
       handle the info: scheme, probably the most important variation.  It is
       expected that GNOME and KDE will converge to common URI formats, and a
       future version of this man page will describe the converged result.
       Efforts to aid this convergence are encouraged.

       A URI does not in itself pose a security threat.  There is no general
       guarantee that a URL, which at one time located a given resource, will
       continue to do so.  Nor is there any guarantee that a URL will not
       locate a different resource at some later point in time; such a
       guarantee can be obtained only from the person(s) controlling that
       namespace and the resource in question.

       It is sometimes possible to construct a URL such that an attempt to
       perform a seemingly harmless operation, such as the retrieval of an
       entity associated with the resource, will in fact cause a possibly
       damaging remote operation to occur.  The unsafe URL is typically
       constructed by specifying a port number other than that reserved for
       the network protocol in question.  The client unwittingly contacts a
       site that is in fact running a different protocol.  The content of the
       URL contains instructions that, when interpreted according to this
       other protocol, cause an unexpected operation.  An example has been the
       use of a gopher URL to cause an unintended or impersonating message to
       be sent via a SMTP server.

       Caution should be used when using any URL that specifies a port number
       other than the default for the protocol, especially when it is a number
       within the reserved space.

       Care should be taken when a URI contains escaped delimiters for a given
       protocol (for example, CR and LF characters for telnet protocols) that
       these are not unescaped before transmission.  This might violate the
       protocol, but avoids the potential for such characters to be used to
       simulate an extra operation or parameter in that protocol, which might
       lead to an unexpected and possibly harmful remote operation to be

       It is clearly unwise to use a URI that contains a password which is
       intended to be secret.  In particular, the use of a password within the
       "userinfo" component of a URI is strongly recommended against except in
       those rare cases where the "password" parameter is intended to be

       Documentation may be placed in a variety of locations, so there
       currently isn't a good URI scheme for general online documentation in
       arbitrary formats.  References of the form <file:///usr/doc/ZZZ> don't
       work because different distributions and local installation
       requirements may place the files in different directories (it may be in
       /usr/doc, or /usr/local/doc, or /usr/share, or somewhere else).  Also,
       the directory ZZZ usually changes when a version changes (though
       filename globbing could partially overcome this).  Finally, using the
       file: scheme doesn't easily support people who dynamically load
       documentation from the Internet (instead of loading the files onto a
       local filesystem).  A future URI scheme may be added (e.g., "userdoc:")
       to permit programs to include cross-references to more detailed
       documentation without having to know the exact location of that
       documentation.  Alternatively, a future version of the filesystem
       specification may specify file locations sufficiently so that the file:
       scheme will be able to locate documentation.

       Many programs and file formats don't include a way to incorporate or
       implement links using URIs.

       Many programs can't handle all of these different URI formats; there
       should be a standard mechanism to load an arbitrary URI that
       automatically detects the users' environment (e.g., text or graphics,
       desktop environment, local user preferences, and currently executing
       tools) and invokes the right tool for any URI.

       lynx(1), man2html(1), mailaddr(7), utf-8(7)

       IETF RFC 2255 ⟨http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2255.txtCOLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.07 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                             2017-09-15                            URI(7)