VERIFY(1)                           OpenSSL                          VERIFY(1)

       verify - Utility to verify certificates.

       openssl verify [-help] [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-no-CAfile]
       [-no-CApath] [-attime timestamp] [-check_ss_sig] [-CRLfile file]
       [-crl_download] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all] [-engine id]
       [-explicit_policy] [-extended_crl] [-ignore_critical] [-inhibit_any]
       [-inhibit_map] [-partial_chain] [-policy arg] [-policy_check]
       [-policy_print] [-purpose purpose] [-suiteB_128] [-suiteB_128_only]
       [-suiteB_192] [-trusted_first] [-no_alt_chains] [-untrusted file]
       [-trusted file] [-use_deltas] [-verbose] [-auth_level level]
       [-verify_depth num] [-verify_email email] [-verify_hostname hostname]
       [-verify_ip ip] [-verify_name name] [-x509_strict] [-show_chain] [-]

       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

           Print out a usage message.

       -CAfile file
           A file of trusted certificates.  The file should contain one or
           more certificates in PEM format.

       -CApath directory
           A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have
           names of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
           form ("hash" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the -hash
           option of the x509 utility). Under Unix the c_rehash script will
           automatically create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.

           Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default file

           Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default directory

       -attime timestamp
           Perform validation checks using time specified by timestamp and not
           current system time. timestamp is the number of seconds since
           01.01.1970 (UNIX time).

           Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled
           by default because it doesn't add any security.

       -CRLfile file
           The file should contain one or more CRLs in PEM format.  This
           option can be specified more than once to include CRLs from
           multiple files.

           Attempt to download CRL information for this certificate.

           Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting to look up a
           valid CRL.  If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.

           Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting
           to look up valid CRLs.

       -engine id
           Specifying an engine id will cause verify(1) to attempt to load the
           specified engine.  The engine will then be set as the default for
           all its supported algorithms.  If you want to load certificates or
           CRLs that require engine support via any of the -trusted,
           -untrusted or -CRLfile options, the -engine option must be
           specified before those options.

           Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (see RFC5280).

           Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate
           CRL signing keys.

           Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which is not
           supported by OpenSSL the certificate is rejected (as required by
           RFC5280).  If this option is set critical extensions are ignored.

           Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (see RFC5280).

           Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (see RFC5280).

           Allow verification to succeed even if a complete chain cannot be
           built to a self-signed trust-anchor, provided it is possible to
           construct a chain to a trusted certificate that might not be self-

       -policy arg
           Enable policy processing and add arg to the user-initial-policy-set
           (see RFC5280). The policy arg can be an object name an OID in
           numeric form.  This argument can appear more than once.

           Enables certificate policy processing.

           Print out diagnostics related to policy processing.

       -purpose purpose
           The intended use for the certificate. If this option is not
           specified, verify will not consider certificate purpose during
           chain verification.  Currently accepted uses are sslclient,
           sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See the VERIFY
           OPERATION section for more information.

       -suiteB_128_only, -suiteB_128, -suiteB_192
           enable the Suite B mode operation at 128 bit Level of Security, 128
           bit or 192 bit, or only 192 bit Level of Security respectively.
           See RFC6460 for details. In particular the supported signature
           algorithms are reduced to support only ECDSA and SHA256 or SHA384
           and only the elliptic curves P-256 and P-384.

           When constructing the certificate chain, use the trusted
           certificates specified via -CAfile, -CApath or -trusted before any
           certificates specified via -untrusted.  This can be useful in
           environments with Bridge or Cross-Certified CAs.  As of OpenSSL
           1.1.0 this option is on by default and cannot be disabled.

           By default, unless -trusted_first is specified, when building a
           certificate chain, if the first certificate chain found is not
           trusted, then OpenSSL will attempt to replace untrusted issuer
           certificates with certificates from the trust store to see if an
           alternative chain can be found that is trusted.  As of OpenSSL
           1.1.0, with -trusted_first always on, this option has no effect.

       -untrusted file
           A file of additional untrusted certificates (intermediate issuer
           CAs) used to construct a certificate chain from the subject
           certificate to a trust-anchor.  The file should contain one or more
           certificates in PEM format.  This option can be specified more than
           once to include untrusted certiificates from multiple files.

       -trusted file
           A file of trusted certificates, which must be self-signed, unless
           the -partial_chain option is specified.  The file contain one or
           more certificates in PEM format.  With this option, no additional
           (e.g., default) certificate lists are consulted.  That is, the only
           trust-anchors are those listed in file.  This option can be
           specified more than once to include trusted certificates from
           multiple files.  This option implies the -no-CAfile and -no-CApath
           options.  This option cannot be used in combination with either of
           the -CAfile or -CApath options.

           Enable support for delta CRLs.

           Print extra information about the operations being performed.

       -auth_level level
           Set the certificate chain authentication security level to level.
           The authentication security level determines the acceptable
           signature and public key strength when verifying certificate
           chains.  For a certificate chain to validate, the public keys of
           all the certificates must meet the specified security level.  The
           signature algorithm security level is enforced for all the
           certificates in the chain except for the chain's trust anchor,
           which is either directly trusted or validated by means other than
           its signature.  See SSL_CTX_set_security_level(3) for the
           definitions of the available levels.  The default security level is
           -1, or "not set".  At security level 0 or lower all algorithms are
           acceptable.  Security level 1 requires at least 80-bit-equivalent
           security and is broadly interoperable, though it will, for example,
           reject MD5 signatures or RSA keys shorter than 1024 bits.

       -verify_depth num
           Limit the certificate chain to num intermediate CA certificates.  A
           maximal depth chain can have up to num+2 certificates, since
           neither the end-entity certificate nor the trust-anchor certificate
           count against the -verify_depth limit.

       -verify_email email
           Verify if the email matches the email address in Subject
           Alternative Name or the email in the subject Distinguished Name.

       -verify_hostname hostname
           Verify if the hostname matches DNS name in Subject Alternative Name
           or Common Name in the subject certificate.

       -verify_ip ip
           Verify if the ip matches the IP address in Subject Alternative Name
           of the subject certificate.

       -verify_name name
           Use default verification policies like trust model and required
           certificate policies identified by name.  The trust model
           determines which auxiliary trust or reject OIDs are applicable to
           verifying the given certificate chain.  See the -addtrust and
           -addreject options of the x509(1) command-line utility.  Supported
           policy names include: default, pkcs7, smime_sign, ssl_client,
           ssl_server.  These mimics the combinations of purpose and trust
           settings used in SSL, CMS and S/MIME.  As of OpenSSL 1.1.0, the
           trust model is inferred from the purpose when not specified, so the
           -verify_name options are functionally equivalent to the
           corresponding -purpose settings.

           For strict X.509 compliance, disable non-compliant workarounds for
           broken certificates.

           Display information about the certificate chain that has been built
           (if successful). Certificates in the chain that came from the
           untrusted list will be flagged as "untrusted".

       -   Indicates the last option. All arguments following this are assumed
           to be certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate
           filename begins with a -.

           One or more certificates to verify. If no certificates are given,
           verify will attempt to read a certificate from standard input.
           Certificates must be in PEM format.

       The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and
       S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these verify
       operations too.

       There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
       by the verify program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
       after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
       first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to
       be determined.

       The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.

       Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied
       certificate and ending in the root CA.  It is an error if the whole
       chain cannot be built up.  The chain is built up by looking up the
       issuers certificate of the current certificate.  If a certificate is
       found which is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.

       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
       number of steps.  Ater all certificates whose subject name matches the
       issuer name of the current certificate are subject to further tests.
       The relevant authority key identifier components of the current
       certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier (if
       present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in
       addition the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present)
       must permit certificate signing.

       The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no
       match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates.
       The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the
       certificate to verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be
       found in the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's
       extensions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose
       option is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf"
       certificate must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose
       and all other certificates must also be valid CA certificates. The
       precise extensions required are described in more detail in the
       CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
       root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose.  For compatibility
       with previous versions of OpenSSL, a certificate with no trust settings
       is considered to be valid for all purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
       The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
       notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate. The certificate
       signatures are also checked at this point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered
       valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

       When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat
       cryptic. The general form of the error message is:

        server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
        error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified
       followed by the subject name of the certificate. The second line
       contains the error number and the depth. The depth is number of the
       certificate being verified when a problem was detected starting with
       zero for the certificate being verified itself then 1 for the CA that
       signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version of the error
       number is presented.

       An partial list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this
       also includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file
       x509_vfy.h Some of the error codes are defined but never returned:
       these are described as "unused".

       0 X509_V_OK: ok
           the operation was successful.

       1 X509_V_ERR_UNSPECIFIED: unspecified certificate verification error
           unspecified error, should not happen.

       2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer
           the issuer certificate of a looked up certificate could not be
           found. This normally means the list of trusted certificates is not

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL
           the CRL of a certificate could not be found.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt
       certificate's signature
           the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that
           the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it
           not matching the expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
           the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the
           actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not
           matching the expected value. Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode
       issuer public key
           the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid
           the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the
           current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
           the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before
           the current time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid
           the CRL is not yet valid.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
           the CRL has expired.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notBefore field
           the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notAfter field
           the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       lastUpdate field
           the CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time.

       16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       nextUpdate field
           the CRL nextUpdate field contains an invalid time.

       17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory
           an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never

       18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
           the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate
           cannot be found in the list of trusted certificates.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in
       certificate chain
           the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted
           certificates but the root could not be found locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local
       issuer certificate
           the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the
           issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the
       first certificate
           no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
           certificate and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long
           the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum
           depth. Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
           the certificate has been revoked.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
           a CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its
           extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded
           the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
           the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
           the root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected
           the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
           Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the
           -issuer_checks option.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
           Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the
           -issuer_checks option.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial
       number mismatch
           Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the
           -issuer_checks option.

       32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN: key usage does not include
       certificate signing
           Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the
           -issuer_checks option.

       33 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL_ISSUER: unable to get CRL issuer

       34 X509_V_ERR_UNHANDLED_CRITICAL_EXTENSION: unhandled critical

       35 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CRL_SIGN: key usage does not include CRL

       36 X509_V_ERR_UNHANDLED_CRITICAL_CRL_EXTENSION: unhandled critical CRL

       37 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_NON_CA: invalid non-CA certificate has CA

       38 X509_V_ERR_PROXY_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: proxy path length constraint

       39 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_DIGITAL_SIGNATURE: key usage does not include
       digital signature

       40 X509_V_ERR_PROXY_CERTIFICATES_NOT_ALLOWED: proxy certificates not
       allowed, please set the appropriate flag

       41 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_EXTENSION: invalid or inconsistent certificate

       42 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_POLICY_EXTENSION: invalid or inconsistent
       certificate policy extension

       43 X509_V_ERR_NO_EXPLICIT_POLICY: no explicit policy

       44 X509_V_ERR_DIFFERENT_CRL_SCOPE: Different CRL scope

       45 X509_V_ERR_UNSUPPORTED_EXTENSION_FEATURE: Unsupported extension

       46 X509_V_ERR_UNNESTED_RESOURCE: RFC 3779 resource not subset of
       parent's resources

       47 X509_V_ERR_PERMITTED_VIOLATION: permitted subtree violation

       48 X509_V_ERR_EXCLUDED_VIOLATION: excluded subtree violation

       49 X509_V_ERR_SUBTREE_MINMAX: name constraints minimum and maximum not

       50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification
           an application specific error. Unused.

       51 X509_V_ERR_UNSUPPORTED_CONSTRAINT_TYPE: unsupported name constraint

       52 X509_V_ERR_UNSUPPORTED_CONSTRAINT_SYNTAX: unsupported or invalid
       name constraint syntax

       53 X509_V_ERR_UNSUPPORTED_NAME_SYNTAX: unsupported or invalid name

       54 X509_V_ERR_CRL_PATH_VALIDATION_ERROR: CRL path validation error

       55 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LOOP: Path Loop

       56 X509_V_ERR_SUITE_B_INVALID_VERSION: Suite B: certificate version

       57 X509_V_ERR_SUITE_B_INVALID_ALGORITHM: Suite B: invalid public key

       58 X509_V_ERR_SUITE_B_INVALID_CURVE: Suite B: invalid ECC curve

       signature algorithm

       60 X509_V_ERR_SUITE_B_LOS_NOT_ALLOWED: Suite B: curve not allowed for
       this LOS

       61 X509_V_ERR_SUITE_B_CANNOT_SIGN_P_384_WITH_P_256: Suite B: cannot
       sign P-384 with P-256

       62 X509_V_ERR_HOSTNAME_MISMATCH: Hostname mismatch

       63 X509_V_ERR_EMAIL_MISMATCH: Email address mismatch

       64 X509_V_ERR_IP_ADDRESS_MISMATCH: IP address mismatch

       65 X509_V_ERR_DANE_NO_MATCH: No matching DANE TLSA records
           DANE TLSA authentication is enabled, but no TLSA records matched
           the certificate chain.  This error is only possible in s_client(1).

       Although the issuer checks are a considerable improvement over the old
       technique they still suffer from limitations in the underlying
       X509_LOOKUP API. One consequence of this is that trusted certificates
       with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified
       by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath). If
       they occur in both then only the certificates in the file will be

       Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject
       name are identical and mishandled them.

       Previous versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the


       The -show_chain option was first added to OpenSSL 1.1.0.

       The -issuer_checks option is deprecated as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 and is
       silently ignored.

1.1.0-pre5                        2016-09-09                         VERIFY(1)