wait

WAIT(2)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   WAIT(2)



NAME
       wait, waitpid, waitid - wait for process to change state

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/wait.h>

       pid_t wait(int *wstatus);

       pid_t waitpid(pid_t pid, int *wstatus, int options);

       int waitid(idtype_t idtype, id_t id, siginfo_t *infop, int options);
                       /* This is the glibc and POSIX interface; see
                          NOTES for information on the raw system call. */

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       waitid():
           Since glibc 2.26: _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
               _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L
           Glibc 2.25 and earlier:
               _XOPEN_SOURCE
                   || /* Since glibc 2.12: */ _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L
                   || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION
       All of these system calls are used to wait for state changes in a child
       of the calling process, and obtain information about the child whose
       state has changed.  A state change is considered to be: the child
       terminated; the child was stopped by a signal; or the child was resumed
       by a signal.  In the case of a terminated child, performing a wait
       allows the system to release the resources associated with the child;
       if a wait is not performed, then the terminated child remains in a
       "zombie" state (see NOTES below).

       If a child has already changed state, then these calls return
       immediately.  Otherwise, they block until either a child changes state
       or a signal handler interrupts the call (assuming that system calls are
       not automatically restarted using the SA_RESTART flag of sigaction(2)).
       In the remainder of this page, a child whose state has changed and
       which has not yet been waited upon by one of these system calls is
       termed waitable.

   wait() and waitpid()
       The wait() system call suspends execution of the calling thread until
       one of its children terminates.  The call wait(&wstatus) is equivalent
       to:

           waitpid(-1, &wstatus, 0);

       The waitpid() system call suspends execution of the calling thread
       until a child specified by pid argument has changed state.  By default,
       waitpid() waits only for terminated children, but this behavior is
       modifiable via the options argument, as described below.

       The value of pid can be:

       < -1   meaning wait for any child process whose process group ID is
              equal to the absolute value of pid.

       -1     meaning wait for any child process.

       0      meaning wait for any child process whose process group ID is
              equal to that of the calling process.

       > 0    meaning wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the
              value of pid.

       The value of options is an OR of zero or more of the following
       constants:

       WNOHANG     return immediately if no child has exited.

       WUNTRACED   also return if a child has stopped (but not traced via
                   ptrace(2)).  Status for traced children which have stopped
                   is provided even if this option is not specified.

       WCONTINUED (since Linux 2.6.10)
                   also return if a stopped child has been resumed by delivery
                   of SIGCONT.

       (For Linux-only options, see below.)

       If wstatus is not NULL, wait() and waitpid() store status information
       in the int to which it points.  This integer can be inspected with the
       following macros (which take the integer itself as an argument, not a
       pointer to it, as is done in wait() and waitpid()!):

       WIFEXITED(wstatus)
              returns true if the child terminated normally, that is, by
              calling exit(3) or _exit(2), or by returning from main().

       WEXITSTATUS(wstatus)
              returns the exit status of the child.  This consists of the
              least significant 8 bits of the status argument that the child
              specified in a call to exit(3) or _exit(2) or as the argument
              for a return statement in main().  This macro should be employed
              only if WIFEXITED returned true.

       WIFSIGNALED(wstatus)
              returns true if the child process was terminated by a signal.

       WTERMSIG(wstatus)
              returns the number of the signal that caused the child process
              to terminate.  This macro should be employed only if WIFSIGNALED
              returned true.

       WCOREDUMP(wstatus)
              returns true if the child produced a core dump (see core(5)).
              This macro should be employed only if WIFSIGNALED returned true.

              This macro is not specified in POSIX.1-2001 and is not available
              on some UNIX implementations (e.g., AIX, SunOS).  Therefore,
              enclose its use inside #ifdef WCOREDUMP ... #endif.

       WIFSTOPPED(wstatus)
              returns true if the child process was stopped by delivery of a
              signal; this is possible only if the call was done using
              WUNTRACED or when the child is being traced (see ptrace(2)).

       WSTOPSIG(wstatus)
              returns the number of the signal which caused the child to stop.
              This macro should be employed only if WIFSTOPPED returned true.

       WIFCONTINUED(wstatus)
              (since Linux 2.6.10) returns true if the child process was
              resumed by delivery of SIGCONT.

   waitid()
       The waitid() system call (available since Linux 2.6.9) provides more
       precise control over which child state changes to wait for.

       The idtype and id arguments select the child(ren) to wait for, as
       follows:

       idtype == P_PID
              Wait for the child whose process ID matches id.

       idtype == P_PGID
              Wait for any child whose process group ID matches id.

       idtype == P_ALL
              Wait for any child; id is ignored.

       The child state changes to wait for are specified by ORing one or more
       of the following flags in options:

       WEXITED     Wait for children that have terminated.

       WSTOPPED    Wait for children that have been stopped by delivery of a
                   signal.

       WCONTINUED  Wait for (previously stopped) children that have been
                   resumed by delivery of SIGCONT.

       The following flags may additionally be ORed in options:

       WNOHANG     As for waitpid().

       WNOWAIT     Leave the child in a waitable state; a later wait call can
                   be used to again retrieve the child status information.

       Upon successful return, waitid() fills in the following fields of the
       siginfo_t structure pointed to by infop:

       si_pid      The process ID of the child.

       si_uid      The real user ID of the child.  (This field is not set on
                   most other implementations.)

       si_signo    Always set to SIGCHLD.

       si_status   Either the exit status of the child, as given to _exit(2)
                   (or exit(3)), or the signal that caused the child to
                   terminate, stop, or continue.  The si_code field can be
                   used to determine how to interpret this field.

       si_code     Set to one of: CLD_EXITED (child called _exit(2));
                   CLD_KILLED (child killed by signal); CLD_DUMPED (child
                   killed by signal, and dumped core); CLD_STOPPED (child
                   stopped by signal); CLD_TRAPPED (traced child has trapped);
                   or CLD_CONTINUED (child continued by SIGCONT).

       If WNOHANG was specified in options and there were no children in a
       waitable state, then waitid() returns 0 immediately and the state of
       the siginfo_t structure pointed to by infop depends on the
       implementation.  To (portably) distinguish this case from that where a
       child was in a waitable state, zero out the si_pid field before the
       call and check for a nonzero value in this field after the call
       returns.

       POSIX.1-2008 Technical Corrigendum 1 (2013) adds the requirement that
       when WNOHANG is specified in options and there were no children in a
       waitable state, then waitid() should zero out the si_pid and si_signo
       fields of the structure.  On Linux and other implementations that
       adhere to this requirement, it is not necessary to zero out the si_pid
       field before calling waitid().  However, not all implementations follow
       the POSIX.1 specification on this point.

RETURN VALUE
       wait(): on success, returns the process ID of the terminated child; on
       error, -1 is returned.

       waitpid(): on success, returns the process ID of the child whose state
       has changed; if WNOHANG was specified and one or more child(ren)
       specified by pid exist, but have not yet changed state, then 0 is
       returned.  On error, -1 is returned.

       waitid(): returns 0 on success or if WNOHANG was specified and no
       child(ren) specified by id has yet changed state; on error, -1 is
       returned.

       Each of these calls sets errno to an appropriate value in the case of
       an error.

ERRORS
       ECHILD (for wait()) The calling process does not have any unwaited-for
              children.

       ECHILD (for waitpid() or waitid()) The process specified by pid
              (waitpid()) or idtype and id (waitid()) does not exist or is not
              a child of the calling process.  (This can happen for one's own
              child if the action for SIGCHLD is set to SIG_IGN.  See also the
              Linux Notes section about threads.)

       EINTR  WNOHANG was not set and an unblocked signal or a SIGCHLD was
              caught; see signal(7).

       EINVAL The options argument was invalid.

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       A child that terminates, but has not been waited for becomes a
       "zombie".  The kernel maintains a minimal set of information about the
       zombie process (PID, termination status, resource usage information) in
       order to allow the parent to later perform a wait to obtain information
       about the child.  As long as a zombie is not removed from the system
       via a wait, it will consume a slot in the kernel process table, and if
       this table fills, it will not be possible to create further processes.
       If a parent process terminates, then its "zombie" children (if any) are
       adopted by init(1), (or by the nearest "subreaper" process as defined
       through the use of the prctl(2) PR_SET_CHILD_SUBREAPER operation);
       init(1) automatically performs a wait to remove the zombies.

       POSIX.1-2001 specifies that if the disposition of SIGCHLD is set to
       SIG_IGN or the SA_NOCLDWAIT flag is set for SIGCHLD (see sigaction(2)),
       then children that terminate do not become zombies and a call to wait()
       or waitpid() will block until all children have terminated, and then
       fail with errno set to ECHILD.  (The original POSIX standard left the
       behavior of setting SIGCHLD to SIG_IGN unspecified.  Note that even
       though the default disposition of SIGCHLD is "ignore", explicitly
       setting the disposition to SIG_IGN results in different treatment of
       zombie process children.)

       Linux 2.6 conforms to the POSIX requirements.  However, Linux 2.4 (and
       earlier) does not: if a wait() or waitpid() call is made while SIGCHLD
       is being ignored, the call behaves just as though SIGCHLD were not
       being ignored, that is, the call blocks until the next child terminates
       and then returns the process ID and status of that child.

   Linux notes
       In the Linux kernel, a kernel-scheduled thread is not a distinct
       construct from a process.  Instead, a thread is simply a process that
       is created using the Linux-unique clone(2) system call; other routines
       such as the portable pthread_create(3) call are implemented using
       clone(2).  Before Linux 2.4, a thread was just a special case of a
       process, and as a consequence one thread could not wait on the children
       of another thread, even when the latter belongs to the same thread
       group.  However, POSIX prescribes such functionality, and since Linux
       2.4 a thread can, and by default will, wait on children of other
       threads in the same thread group.

       The following Linux-specific options are for use with children created
       using clone(2); they can also, since Linux 4.7, be used with waitid():

       __WCLONE
              Wait for "clone" children only.  If omitted, then wait for "non-
              clone" children only.  (A "clone" child is one which delivers no
              signal, or a signal other than SIGCHLD to its parent upon
              termination.)  This option is ignored if __WALL is also
              specified.

       __WALL (since Linux 2.4)
              Wait for all children, regardless of type ("clone" or "non-
              clone").

       __WNOTHREAD (since Linux 2.4)
              Do not wait for children of other threads in the same thread
              group.  This was the default before Linux 2.4.

       Since Linux 4.7, the __WALL flag is automatically implied if the child
       is being ptraced.

   C library/kernel differences
       wait() is actually a library function that (in glibc) is implemented as
       a call to wait4(2).

       On some architectures, there is no waitpid() system call; instead, this
       interface is implemented via a C library wrapper function that calls
       wait4(2).

       The raw waitid() system call takes a fifth argument, of type struct
       rusage *.  If this argument is non-NULL, then it is used to return
       resource usage information about the child, in the same manner as
       wait4(2).  See getrusage(2) for details.

BUGS
       According to POSIX.1-2008, an application calling waitid() must ensure
       that infop points to a siginfo_t structure (i.e., that it is a non-null
       pointer).  On Linux, if infop is NULL, waitid() succeeds, and returns
       the process ID of the waited-for child.  Applications should avoid
       relying on this inconsistent, nonstandard, and unnecessary feature.

EXAMPLE
       The following program demonstrates the use of fork(2) and waitpid().
       The program creates a child process.  If no command-line argument is
       supplied to the program, then the child suspends its execution using
       pause(2), to allow the user to send signals to the child.  Otherwise,
       if a command-line argument is supplied, then the child exits
       immediately, using the integer supplied on the command line as the exit
       status.  The parent process executes a loop that monitors the child
       using waitpid(), and uses the W*() macros described above to analyze
       the wait status value.

       The following shell session demonstrates the use of the program:

           $ ./a.out &
           Child PID is 32360
           [1] 32359
           $ kill -STOP 32360
           stopped by signal 19
           $ kill -CONT 32360
           continued
           $ kill -TERM 32360
           killed by signal 15
           [1]+  Done                    ./a.out
           $

   Program source

       #include <sys/wait.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <stdio.h>

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
           pid_t cpid, w;
           int wstatus;

           cpid = fork();
           if (cpid == -1) {
               perror("fork");
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           if (cpid == 0) {            /* Code executed by child */
               printf("Child PID is %ld\n", (long) getpid());
               if (argc == 1)
                   pause();                    /* Wait for signals */
               _exit(atoi(argv[1]));

           } else {                    /* Code executed by parent */
               do {
                   w = waitpid(cpid, &wstatus, WUNTRACED | WCONTINUED);
                   if (w == -1) {
                       perror("waitpid");
                       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                   }

                   if (WIFEXITED(wstatus)) {
                       printf("exited, status=%d\n", WEXITSTATUS(wstatus));
                   } else if (WIFSIGNALED(wstatus)) {
                       printf("killed by signal %d\n", WTERMSIG(wstatus));
                   } else if (WIFSTOPPED(wstatus)) {
                       printf("stopped by signal %d\n", WSTOPSIG(wstatus));
                   } else if (WIFCONTINUED(wstatus)) {
                       printf("continued\n");
                   }
               } while (!WIFEXITED(wstatus) && !WIFSIGNALED(wstatus));
               exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
           }
       }

SEE ALSO
       _exit(2), clone(2), fork(2), kill(2), ptrace(2), sigaction(2),
       signal(2), wait4(2), pthread_create(3), core(5), credentials(7),
       signal(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.03 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2018-04-30                           WAIT(2)