XLI(1)                      General Commands Manual                     XLI(1)

       xli, xsetbg, xview - load images into an X11 window or onto the root

       xli [global_options] {[image_options] image ...}
       xli [global_options] [image_options] stdin < image

       xli displays images in an X11 window or loads them onto the root
       window.  See the IMAGE TYPES section below for supported image types.

       If the filename stdin is given, xli will read the image from standard

       If the destination display cannot support the number of colors in the
       image, the image will be dithered (monochrome destination) or have its
       colormap reduced (color destination) as appropriate.  This can also be
       done forcibly with the -halftone, -dither, and -colors options.

       A variety of image manipulations can be specified, including gamma
       correction, brightening, clipping, dithering, depth-reduction,
       rotation, and zooming.  Most of these manipulations have simple
       implementations; speed was opted for above accuracy.

       If you are viewing a large image in a window, the initial window will
       be at most 90% of the size of the display unless the window manager
       does not correctly handle window size requests or if you've used the
       -fullscreen or -fillscreen options.  You may move the image around in
       the window by dragging with the first mouse button.  The cursor will
       indicate which directions you may drag, if any.

       When the keyboard focus is in the window you can:
       Type 'q' or '^C' to exit xli.
       Type space, 'n' or 'f' to move to the next image in the list.
       Type 'b' or 'p' to move to the previous image in the list.
       Type . to reload the image.
       Type l to rotate the image anti-clockwise.
       Type r to rotate the image clockwise.
       Type 0 to set the images assumed gamma to your display gamma
              (usually darkens images)
       Type 1 to set the images assumed gamma to 1.0
              (usually lightens images)
       Type 5-2 to lighten the image (5 in small steps, up to 2 in large steps)
       Type 6-9 to darken the image (6 in small steps, up to 9 in large steps)

       A wide variety of common image manipulations can be done by mixing and
       matching the available options.  See the section entitled HINTS FOR
       GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for some ideas.

       Xsetbg is equivalent to xli -onroot -quiet and xview is equivalent to
       xli -view -verbose.

       xli uses the resource class name _XSETROOT_Id for window managers which
       need this resource set.

       The following options affect the global operation of xli.  They may be
       specified anywhere on the command line.

              Set the root background to the default root weave.  This is the
              same as xsetroot with no arguments.

       -debug Talk to the X server in synchronous mode.  This is useful for
              debugging.  If an X error is seen while in this mode, a core
              will be dumped.

              Signals will not be trapped, and instead a coredump will occur.

       -display display_name
              X11 display name to send the image(s) to.

       -dispgamma Display_gamma
              Specify the gamma correction value appropriate for the display
              device.  This overides the value read from the environment
              variable DISPLAY_GAMMA, or the default value of 2.2, which is
              approximately correct for many displays. A value of between 1.6
              and 2.8 is reasonable. If individual images are too bright or
              dark, use the -gamma option.

       There is an image provided with xli called 'chkgamma.jpg' that lets you
       set the display gamma reasonably accurately.  This file contains two
       grayscale ramps. The ramps are chosen to look linear to the human eye,
       one using continuous tones, and the other using dithering.  When the
       display gamma is correct, then the two ramps should look symmetrical,
       and the point at which they look equally bright should be almost
       exactly half way from the top to the bottom. (To find this point it
       helps if you move away a little from the screen, and de-focus your eyes
       a bit.)

       If the equal brightness point is above center increase the gamma, and
       decrease it if it is below the center. The value will usually be around
       2.2 Once you've got it right, you can set the DISPLAY_GAMMA environment
       variable in your .profile

              Use the whole screen for displaying an image. The image will be
              zoomed so that it just fits the size of the screen. If -onroot
              is also specified, it will be zoomed to completely fill the

       -fit   Force image to use the default visual and colormap.  This is
              useful if you do not want technicolor effects when the colormap
              focus is inside the image window, but it may reduce the quality
              of the displayed image.  This is on by default if -onroot or
              -windowid is specified.

       -fork  Fork xli.  This causes xli to disassociate itself from the
              shell.  This option automatically turns on -quiet.

              Use the whole screen for displaying an image. The image will be
              surrounded by a border if it is smaller than the screen. If
              -onroot is also specified, the image will be zoomed so that it
              just fits the size of the screen.

       -geometry WxH[{+-X}{+-}Y]
              This sets the size of the window onto which the images are
              loaded to a different value than the size of the image.  When
              viewing an image in a window, this can be used to set the size
              and position of the viewing window.  If the size is not
              specified in the geometry, (or is set to 0), then the size will
              be chosen to be small enough to able to fit the window in the
              screen (as usual).

       -goto image_name
              When the end of the list of images is reached, go to image
              image_name.  This is useful for generating looped slideshows.
              If more than one image of the same name as the target exists on
              the argument list, the first in the argument list is used.

       -help [option ...]
              Give information on an option or list of options.  If no option
              is given, a simple interactive help facility is invoked.

              Identify the supplied images rather than display them.

              Forcibly install the images colormap when the window is focused.
              This violates ICCCM standards and only exists to allow operation
              with naive window managers.  Use this option only if your window
              manager does not install colormaps properly.

       -list  List the images which are along the image path.

              Load image(s) onto the root window instead of viewing in a
              window.  This option automatically sets the -fit option.  This
              is the opposite of -view.  XSetbg has this option set by
              default.  If used in conjunction with -fullscreen, the image
              will be zoomed to just fit. If used with -fillscreen, the image
              will be zoomed to completely fill the screen. -border, -at, and
              -center also affect the results.

       -path  Displays the image path and image suffixes which will be used
              when looking for images.  These are loaded from ~/.xlirc and
              optionally from a system wide file (normally /usr/lib/xlirc).

              Force the use of a pixmap as backing-store.  This is provided
              for servers where backing-store is broken (such as some versions
              of the AIXWindows server).  It may improve scrolling performance
              on servers which provide backing-store.

              Force the use of a private colormap.  Normally colors are
              allocated shared unless there are not enough colors available.

       -quiet Forces xli and xview to be quiet.  This is the default for
              xsetbg, but the others like to whistle.

              List the supported image types.

              Causes xli to be talkative, telling you what kind of image it's
              playing with and any special processing that it has to do.  This
              is the default for xview and xli.

              Print the version number and patchlevel of this version of xli.

       -view  View image(s) in a window.  This is the opposite of -onroot and
              the default for xview and xli.

       -visual visual_name
              Force the use of a specific visual type to display an image.
              Normally xli tries to pick the best available image for a
              particular image type.  The available visual types are:
              DirectColor, TrueColor, PseudoColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, and
              StaticGray.  Nonconflicting names may be abbreviated and case is

       -windowid hex_window_id
              Sets the background pixmap of a particular window ID.  The
              argument must be in hexadecimal and must be preceded by "0x" (eg
              -windowid 0x40000b.  This is intended for setting the background
              pixmap of some servers which use untagged virtual roots (eg HP-
              VUE), but can have other interesting applications.

       The following options may precede each image.  They take effect from
       the next image, and continue until overridden or canceled with

       -border color
              This sets the background portion of the window or clipped image
              which is not covered by any images to be color.

       -brighten percentage
              Specify a percentage multiplier for a color images colormap.  A
              value of more than 100 will brighten an image, one of less than
              100 will darken it.

       -colors n
              Specify the maximum number of colors to use in the image.  This
              is a way to forcibly reduce the depth of an image.


              Dither the image with a Floyd-Steinberg dither if the number of
              colors is reduced.  This will be slow, but will give a better
              looking result with a restricted color set. -cdither and
              -colordither are equivalent.

       -delay secs
              Sets xli to automatically advance to the following image, secs
              seconds after the next image file is displayed.

              Dither a color image to monochrome using a Floyd-Steinberg
              dithering algorithm.  This happens by default when viewing color
              images on a monochrome display.  This is slower than -halftone
              and affects the image accuracy but usually looks much better.

       -gamma Image_gamma
              Specify the gamma of the display the image was intended to be
              displayed on.  Images seem to come in two flavors: 1) linear
              color images, produced by ray tracers, scanners etc. These sort
              of images generally look too dark when displayed directly to a
              CRT display. 2) Images that have been processed to look right on
              a typical CRT display without any sort of processing. These
              images have been 'gamma corrected'. By default, xli assumes that
              8 bit images have been gamma corrected and need no other
              processing. 24 bit images are assumed to be linear.  If a linear
              image is displayed as if it is gamma corrected it will look too
              dark, and a gamma value of 1.0 should be specified, so that xli
              can correct the image for the CRT display device. If a gamma
              corrected image is displayed as if it were a linear image, then
              it will look too light, and a gamma value of (approximately) 2.2
              should be specified for that image.  Some formats (RLE) allow
              the image gamma to be embedded as a comment in the file itself,
              and the -gamma option allows overriding of the file comment.  In
              general, values smaller than 2.2 will lighten the image, and
              values greater than 2.2 will darken the image.  In general this
              will work better than the -brighten option.

       -gray  Convert an image to grayscale.  This is very useful when
              displaying colorful images on servers with limited color
              capability.  The optional spelling -grey may also be used.

       -idelay secs
              Set the delay to be used for this image to secs seconds (see
              -delay).  If -delay was specified, this overrides it.  If it was
              not specified, this sets the automatic advance delay for this
              image while others will wait for the user to advance them.

              Smooth a color image.  This reduces blockiness after zooming an
              image up.  If used on a monochrome image, nothing happens.  This
              option can take awhile to perform, especially on large images.
              You may specify more than one -smooth option per image, causing
              multiple iterations of the smoothing algorithm.

       -title window_title
              Set the titlebar of the window used to display the image.  This
              will overide any title that is read from the image file. The
              title will also be used for the icon name.

       -xpm color_context_key
              Select the prefered xpm colour map. XPM files may contain more
              than one color mapping, each mapping being appropriate for a
              particular visual.  Normally xli will select an apropriate color
              mapping from that supported by the XPM file by checking on the
              default X visual class and depth.  This option allows the user
              to overide this choice.  Legal values of  color_context_key are:
              m, g4, g and c.  m = mono, g4 = 4 level gray, g = gray, c =
              color ).

       -xzoom percentage
              Zoom the X axis of an image by percentage.  A number greater
              than 100 will expand the image, one smaller will compress it.  A
              zero value will be ignored.  This option, and the related -yzoom
              are useful for correcting the aspect ratio of images to be

       -yzoom percentage
              Zoom the Y axis of an image by percentage.  See -xzoom for more

       -zoom percentage
              Zoom both the X and Y axes by percentage.  See -xzoom for more
              information.  Technically the percentage actually zoomed is the
              square of the number supplied since the zoom is to both axes,
              but I opted for consistency instead of accuracy.

              Reset options that propagate.  The -bright, -colors,
              -colordither, -delay, -dither, -gamma, -gray, -normalize,
              -smooth, -xzoom, -yzoom, and -zoom options normally propagate to
              all following images.

       The following options may precede each image.  These options are local
       to the image they precede.

       -at X,Y
              Indicates coordinates to load the image at X,Y on the base
              image.  If this is an option to the first image, and the -onroot
              option is specified, the image will be loaded at the given
              location on the display background.

       -background color
              Use color as the background color instead of the default
              (usually white but this depends on the image type) if you are
              transferring a monochrome image to a color display.

              Center the image on the base image loaded.  If this is an option
              to the first image, and the -onroot option is specified, the
              image will be centered on the display background.

       -clip X,Y,W,H
              Clip the image before loading it.  X and Y define the upper-left
              corner of the clip area, and W and H define the extents of the
              area.  A zero value for W or H will be interpreted as the
              remainder of the image.  Note that X and Y may be negative, and
              that W and H may be larger than the image. This causes a border
              to be placed around the image. The border color may be set with
              the -border option.

              Forces the image (after all other optional processing) to be
              expanded into a True Color (24 bit) image. This is useful on
              systems which support 24 bit color, but where xli might choose
              to load a bitmap or 8 bit image into one of the other smaller
              depth visuals supported on your system.

       -foreground color
              Use color as the foreground color instead of black if you are
              transferring a monochrome image to a color display.  This can
              also be used to invert the foreground and background colors of a
              monochrome image.

              Force halftone dithering of a color image when displaying on a
              monochrome display.  This option is ignored on monochrome
              images.  This dithering algorithm blows an image up by sixteen
              times; if you don't like this, the -dither option will not blow
              the image up but will take longer to process and will be less

              Inverts a monochrome image.  This is shorthand for -foreground
              white -background black.

       -merge Merge this image onto the base image after local processing.
              The base image is considered to be the first image specified or
              the last image that was not preceded by -merge.  If used in
              conjunction with -at and -clip, very complex images can be built
              up.  Note that the final image will be the size of the first
              image, and that subsequent merged images overlay previous
              images. The final image size can be altered by using the -clip
              option on the base image to make it bigger or smaller.  This
              option is on by default for all images if the -onroot or
              -windowid options are specified.

       -name image_name
              Force the next argument to be treated as an image name.  This is
              useful if the name of the image is -dither, for instance.

              Normalize a color image.

       -rotate degrees
              Rotate the image by degrees clockwise.  The number must be a
              multiple of 90.

       To load the rasterfile "my.image" onto the background and replicate it
       to fill the entire background:

            xli -onroot my.image

       To load a monochrome image "my.image" onto the background, using red as
       the foreground color, replicate the image, and overlay "another.image"
       onto it at coordinate (10,10):

            xli -foreground red my.image -at 10,10 another.image

       To center the rectangular region from 10 to 110 along the X axis and
       from 10 to the height of the image along the Y axis:

            xli -center -clip 10,10,100,0 my.image

       To double the size of an image:

            xli -zoom 200 my.image

       To halve the size of an image:

            xli -zoom 50 my.image

       To brighten a dark image:

            xli -brighten 150 my.image

       To darken a bright image:

            xli -brighten 50 my.image

       Since images are likely to come from a variety of sources, they may be
       in a variety of aspect ratios which may not be supported by your
       display.  The -xzoom and -yzoom options can be used to change the
       aspect ratio of an image before display.  If you use these options, it
       is recommended that you increase the size of one of the dimensions
       instead of shrinking the other, since shrinking looses detail.  For
       instance, many GIF and G3 FAX images have an X:Y ratio of about 2:1.
       You can correct this for viewing on a 1:1 display with either -xzoom 50
       or -yzoom 200 (reduce X axis to 50% of its size and expand Y axis to
       200% of its size, respectively) but the latter should be used so no
       detail is lost in the conversion.

       When zooming color images up you can reduce blockiness with -smooth.
       For zooms of 300% or more, I recommend two smoothing passes (although
       this can take awhile to do on slow machines).  There will be a
       noticeable improvement in the image.

       You can perform image processing on a small portion of an image by
       loading the image more than once and using the -merge, -at and -clip
       options.  Load the image, then merge it with a clipped, processed
       version of itself.  To brighten a 100x100 rectangular portion of an
       image located at (50,50), for instance, you could type:

            xli my.image -merge -at 50,50 -clip 50,50,100,100 -brighten 150

       If you're using a display with a small colormap to display colorful
       images, try using the -gray option to convert to grayscale.

       xlito (XLoadImageTrailingOptions) is a separate utility that provides a
       file format independent way of marking image files with the appropriate
       options to display correctly.  It does this by appending to file a
       string specified by the user, marked with some magic numbers so that
       this string can be extracted by a program that knows where to look.
       Since almost all image files have some sort of image size specifier,
       the programs that load or manipulate these files do not look beyond the
       point at which they have read the image, so trailing information can
       safely be appended to the file. If appending this information causes
       trouble with other utilities, it can simply be deleted.

       xli will recognize these trailing options at the end of the image
       files, and will treat the embedded string as if it were a sequence of
       command line IMAGE OPTIONS. Any GLOBAL OPTIONS will be ignored, and the
       IMAGE OPTIONS are never propagated to other images.

       Trailing options can be examined with:

            xlito image_file ...

       Changed or added with:

            xlito -c "string of options" image_file

       And deleted with:

            xlito -d image_file ...

       For example, if you have a gif file fred.gif which is too dark and is
       the wrong aspect ratio, then it may need to be viewed with:

            xli -yzoom 130 -gamma 1.0 fred.gif

       to get it to look OK. These options can then be appended to the file

            xlito -c "-yzoom 130 -gamma 1.0" fred.gif

       and from then on xli will get the appropriate options from the image
       file itself.  See the  xlito manual entry for more details about this

       The file ~/.xlirc (and optionally a system-wide file) defines the path
       and default extensions that xli will use when looking for images.  This
       file can have two statements: "path=" and "extension=" (the equals
       signs must follow the word with no spaces between).  Everything
       following the "path=" keyword will be prepended to the supplied image
       name if the supplied name does not specify an existing file.  The paths
       will be searched in the order they are specified.  Everything following
       the "extension=" keyword will be appended to the supplied image name if
       the supplied name does not specify an existing file.  As with paths,
       these extensions will be searched in the order they are given.
       Comments are any portion of a line following a hash-mark (#).

       The following is a sample ~/.xlirc file:

         # paths to look for images in
         path= /usr/local/images

         # default extensions for images; .Z is automatic; scanned in order
         extension= .csun .msun .sun .face .xbm .bm

       Versions of xli prior to version 01, patchlevel 03 would load the
       system-wide file (if any), followed by the user's file.  This behavior
       made it difficult for the user to configure her environment if she
       didn't want the default.  Newer versions will ignore the system-wide
       file if a personal configuration file exists.

       xli currently supports the following image types:

         CMU Window Manager raster files
         Faces Project images
         Fuzzy Bitmap (.fbm) images
         GEM bit images
         GIF images (Including GIF89a compatibility)
         G3 FAX images
         JFIF style jpeg images
         McIDAS areafiles
         MacPaint images
         Windows, OS/2 RLE Image
         Monochrome PC Paintbrush (.pcx) images
         Photograph on CD Image
         Portable Bitmap (.pbm, .pgm, .ppm) images
         Sun monochrome rasterfiles
         Sun color RGB rasterfiles
         Targa (.tga) files
         Utah Raster Toolkit (.rle) files
         X pixmap (.xpm) files (Version 1, 2C and 3)
         X10 bitmap files
         X11 bitmap files
         X Window Dump (except TrueColor and DirectColor)

       Normal, compact, and raw PBM images are supported.  Both standard and
       run-length encoded Sun rasterfiles are supported.  Any image whose name
       ends in .Z is assumed to be a compressed image and will be filtered
       through "uncompress". If HAVE_GUNZIP is defined in the Makefile.std
       make file, then any image whose name ends in

       Any file that looks like a uuencoded file will be decoded

       The original Author is:
       Jim Frost
       Saber Software

       Version 1.16 of xli is derived from xloadimage 3.01 has been brought to
       you by:
       Graeme Gill

       Version 1.17 of xli is derived from xli 1.16 by

       For a more-or-less complete list of other contributors (there are a lot
       of them), please see the README file enclosed with the distribution.

            xli                      - the image loader and viewer
            xsetbg                  - pseudonym which quietly sets the background
            xview                   - pseudonym which views in a window
            xlito                   - the trailing options utility
            /usr/lib/X11/Xli        - default system-wide configuration file
            ~/.xlirc                - user's personal configuration file

       Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 Jim Frost, Graeme Gill and

       Xli is copywritten material with a very loose copyright allowing
       unlimited modification and distribution if the copyright notices are
       left intact.  Various portions are copywritten by various people, but
       all use a modification of the MIT copyright notice.  Please check the
       source for complete copyright information.  The intent is to keep the
       source free, not to stifle its distribution, so please write to me if
       you have any questions.

       Zooming dithered images, especially downwards, is UGLY.

       Images can come in a variety of aspect ratios.  Xli cannot detect what
       aspect ratio the particular image being loaded has, nor the aspect
       ratio of the destination display, so images with differing aspect
       ratios from the destination display will appear distorted.  The
       solution to this is to use xlito to append the appropriate options to
       the image file. See HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS and XLITO for more

       The GIF format allows more than one image to be stored in a single GIF
       file, but xli will only display the first.

       One of the pseudonyms for xli, xview, is the same name as Sun uses for
       their SunView-under-X package.  This will be confusing if you're one of
       those poor souls who has to use Sun's XView.

       Some window managers do not correctly handle window size requests.  In
       particular, many versions of the twm window manager use the MaxSize
       hint instead of the PSize hint, causing images which are larger than
       the screen to display in a window larger than the screen, something
       which is normally avoided.  Some versions of twm also ignore the
       MaxSize argument's real function, to limit the maximum size of the
       window, and allow the window to be resized larger than the image.  If
       this happens, xli merely places the image in the upper-left corner of
       the window and uses the zero-value'ed pixel for any space which is not
       covered by the image.  This behavior is less-than-graceful but so are
       window managers which are cruel enough to ignore such details.

       The order in which operations are performed on an image is independent
       of the order in which they were specified on the command line.
       Wherever possible I tried to order operations in such a way as to look
       the best possible (zooming before dithering, for instance) or to
       increase speed (zooming downward before compressing, for instance).

       Display Gamma should setable in the ~/.xlirc file.

       Embedded trailing options overide the command line Image Options.
       Command line options should really overide trailing options.

                                  27 Jul 1994                           XLI(1)