ZSH(1)                      General Commands Manual                     ZSH(1)

       zsh - the Z shell

       Because zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into
       a number of sections:

       zsh          Zsh overview (this section)
       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
       zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
       zshparam     Zsh parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
       zshzle       Zsh command line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities
       zshall       Meta-man page containing all of the above

       Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive
       login shell and as a shell script command processor.  Of the standard
       shells, zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.
       It does not provide compatibility with POSIX or other shells in its
       default operating mode:  see the section Compatibility below.

       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history
       mechanism, and a host of other features.

       Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh is now
       maintained by the members of the zsh-workers mailing list
       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>.  The development is currently coordinated by
       Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at
       <coordinator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code should
       generally go to the mailing list.

       Zsh is available from the following HTTP and anonymous FTP site.


       The up-to-date source code is available via Git from Sourceforge.  See
       https://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/ for details.  A summary of
       instructions for the archive can be found at

       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

              Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
              monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

              User discussions.

              Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative
       address for the mailing list.


       submissions to zsh-announce are automatically forwarded to zsh-users.
       All submissions to zsh-users are automatically forwarded to

       If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing
       lists, send mail to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are
       maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The mailing lists are archived; the archives can be accessed via the
       administrative addresses listed above.  There is also a hypertext
       archive, maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh.org>, available at

       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  It is regularly posted to the newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest version
       can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites, or at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.  The contact address for FAQ-related matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.

       Zsh has a web page which is located at https://www.zsh.org/.  This is
       maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>, of SunSITE Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

       A userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to complement
       the manual, with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or downright mystifying (for example, the
       word `hierographic' does not exist).  It can be viewed in its current
       state at http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.  At the time of writing,
       chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new
       completion system were essentially complete.

       The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to
       determine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take the first argument as a command to execute, rather than
              reading commands from a script or standard input.  If any
              further arguments are given, the first one is assigned to $0,
              rather than being used as a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to specify
              a script to execute.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from the standard input.  If the -s
              flag is not present and an argument is given, the first argument
              is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       If there are any remaining arguments after option processing, and
       neither of the options -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is
       taken as the file name of a script containing shell commands to be
       executed.  If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does not
       contain a directory path (i.e. there is no `/' in the name), first the
       current directory and then the command path given by the variable PATH
       are searched for the script.  If the option is not set or the file name
       contains a `/' it is used directly.

       After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as
       described above, the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional

       For further options, which are common to invocation and the set
       builtin, see zshoptions(1).

       The long option `--emulate' followed (in a separate word) by an
       emulation mode may be passed to the shell.  The emulation modes are
       those described for the emulate builtin, see zshbuiltins(1).  The
       `--emulate' option must precede any other options (which might
       otherwise be overridden), but following options are honoured, so may be
       used to modify the requested emulation mode.  Note that certain extra
       steps are taken to ensure a smooth emulation when this option is used
       compared with the emulate command within the shell: for example,
       variables that conflict with POSIX usage such as path are not defined
       within the shell.

       Options may be specified by name using the -o option.  -o acts like a
       single-letter option, but takes a following string as the option name.
       For example,

              zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

       runs the script scr, setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding
       letter `-x' and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name.  Options may be
       turned off by name by using +o instead of -o.  -o can be stacked up
       with preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x -o shwordsplit'.

       Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style,
       `--option-name'.  When this is done, `-' characters in the option name
       are permitted: they are translated into `_', and thus ignored.  So, for
       example, `zsh --sh-word-split' invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT
       option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options can be turned
       off by replacing the initial `-' with a `+'; thus `+-sh-word-split' is
       equivalent to `--no-sh-word-split'.  Unlike other option syntaxes,
       GNU-style long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so for
       example `-x-shwordsplit' is an error, rather than being treated like
       `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The special GNU-style option `--version' is handled; it sends to
       standard output the shell's version information, then exits
       successfully.  `--help' is also handled; it sends to standard output a
       list of options that can be used when invoking the shell, then exits

       Option processing may be finished, allowing following arguments that
       start with `-' or `+' to be treated as normal arguments, in two ways.
       Firstly, a lone `-' (or `+') as an argument by itself ends option
       processing.  Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be
       specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be
       stacked with preceding options (so `-x-' is equivalent to `-x --').
       Options are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is an
       error), but note the GNU-style option form discussed above, where
       `--shwordsplit' is permitted and does not end option processing.

       Except when the sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect,
       the option `-b' (or `+b') ends option processing.  `-b' is like `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be stacked after the `-b'
       and will take effect as normal.

       Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh
       respectively; more precisely, it looks at the first letter of the name
       by which it was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed to stand
       for `restricted'), and if that is `b', `s' or `k' it will emulate sh or
       ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems
       when the shell is executed by the su command), the shell will try to
       find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and
       perform emulation based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not
       special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC, argv, cdpath, fignore,
       fpath, HISTCHARS, mailpath, MANPATH, manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT,
       PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment
       variable is set on invocation, $ENV is sourced after the profile
       scripts.  The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a
       pathname.  Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution
       of startup files.

       The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh:
       and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.  Also, the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

       When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the
       letter `r' or the `-r' command line option is supplied at invocation,
       the shell becomes restricted.  Emulation mode is determined after
       stripping the letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following are
       disabled in restricted mode:

       ·      changing directories with the cd builtin

       ·      changing or unsetting the EGID, EUID, GID, HISTFILE, HISTSIZE,
              LD_PRELOAD, MODULE_PATH, module_path, PATH, path, SHELL, UID and
              USERNAME parameters

       ·      specifying command names containing /

       ·      specifying command pathnames using hash

       ·      redirecting output to files

       ·      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another

       ·      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and
              environment space

       ·      using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external

       ·      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files.
       The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of
       commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment.
       They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the
       RESTRICTED option.  This immediately enables all the restrictions
       described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup

       Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv; this cannot be overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former affects all startup files, while the second only affects global
       startup files (those shown here with an path starting with a /).  If
       one of the options is unset at any point, any subsequent startup
       file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also
       possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re-enable GLOBAL_RCS. Both RCS and
       GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
       shell, commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then
       $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile.  Then, if the shell is interactive, commands are
       read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell
       is a login shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When a login shell exits, the files $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout and then
       /etc/zlogout are read.  This happens with either an explicit exit via
       the exit or logout commands, or an implicit exit by reading end-of-file
       from the terminal.  However, if the shell terminates due to exec'ing
       another process, the logout files are not read.  These are also
       affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note also that the RCS
       option affects the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is unset when
       the shell exits, no history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being
       in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be kept as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea to put
       code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh is invoked with the `-f' option.

       Any of these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile builtin
       command (see zshbuiltins(1)).  If a compiled file exists (named for the
       original file plus the .zwc extension) and it is newer than the
       original file, the compiled file will be used instead.

       ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default is /tmp/zsh*)
       /etc/zlogout    (installation-specific - /etc is the default)

       sh(1), csh(1), tcsh(1), rc(1), bash(1), ksh(1), zshall(1),
       zshbuiltins(1), zshcalsys(1), zshcompwid(1), zshcompsys(1),
       zshcompctl(1), zshcontrib(1), zshexpn(1), zshmisc(1), zshmodules(1),
       zshoptions(1), zshparam(1), zshroadmap(1), zshtcpsys(1), zshzftpsys(1),

       IEEE Standard for information Technology - Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX) - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Inc, 1993, ISBN

zsh 5.7.1                      February 3, 2019                         ZSH(1)