zshbuiltins

ZSHBUILTINS(1)              General Commands Manual             ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Some shell builtin commands take options as described in individual
       entries; these are often referred to in the list below as `flags' to
       avoid confusion with shell options, which may also have an effect on
       the behaviour of builtin commands.  In this introductory section,
       `option' always has the meaning of an option to a command that should
       be familiar to most command line users.

       Typically, options are single letters preceded by a hyphen (-).
       Options that take an argument accept it either immediately following
       the option letter or after white space, for example `print -C3 {1..9}'
       or `print -C 3 {1..9}' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not
       the same as arguments to the command; the documentation indicates which
       is which.  Options that do not take an argument may be combined in a
       single word, for example `print -rca -- *' and `print -r -c -a -- *'
       are equivalent.

       Some shell builtin commands also take options that begin with `+'
       instead of `-'.  The list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options (together with their individual arguments, if any) must appear
       in a group before any non-option arguments; once the first non-option
       argument has been found, option processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than `echo' and precommand modifiers, even
       those that have no options, can be given the argument `--' to terminate
       option processing.  This indicates that the following words are
       non-option arguments, but is otherwise ignored.  This is useful in
       cases where arguments to the command may begin with `-'.  For
       historical reasons, most builtin commands (including `echo') also
       recognize a single `-' in a separate word for this purpose; note that
       this is less standard and use of `--' is recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the
              shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory are not read
              unless `.' appears somewhere in $path.  If a file named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled
              form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional
              parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  However, if no arguments are given, the
              positional parameters remain those of the calling context, and
              no restoring is done.

              If file was not found the return status is 127; if file was
              found but contained a syntax error the return status is 126;
              else the return status is the exit status of the last command
              executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next word to
              be checked for alias expansion.  If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command
              word on a command line is in the form `text.name', where text is
              any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string, not
              a pattern.  A trailing space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps='gv --'

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv -- *.ps'.
              As alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the
              `*.ps' will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a
              different name space from other aliases (so in the above example
              it is still possible to create an alias for the command ps) and
              the two sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases other
              than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from
              being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases and one of
              the -g, -r or -s flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead of `-', or ending the option list with a single `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The exit status is
              nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems, see the section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}RTUXdkmrtWz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              See the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for full
              details.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find the
              function definition when the function is first referenced.

              If name consists of an absolute path, the function is defined to
              load from the file given (searching as usual for dump files in
              the given location).  The name of the function is the basename
              (non-directory part) of the file.  It is normally an error if
              the function is not found in the given location; however, if the
              option -d is given, searching for the function defaults to
              $fpath.  If a function is loaded by absolute path, any functions
              loaded from it that are marked for autoload without an absolute
              path have the load path of the parent function temporarily
              prepended to $fpath.

              If the option -r or -R is given, the function is searched for
              immediately and the location is recorded internally for use when
              the function is executed; a relative path is expanded using the
              value of $PWD.  This protects against a change to $fpath after
              the call to autoload.  With -r, if the function is not found, it
              is silently left unresolved until execution; with -R, an error
              message is printed and command processing aborted immediately
              the search fails, i.e. at the autoload command rather than at
              function execution..

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function.  It causes
              the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then
              immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of
              positional parameters as arguments.  This replaces the previous
              definition of the function.  If no function definition is found,
              an error is printed and the function remains undefined and
              marked for autoloading.  If an argument is given, it is used as
              a directory (i.e. it does not include the name of the function)
              in which the function is to be found; this may be combined with
              the -d option to allow the function search to default to $fpath
              if it is not in the given location.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded
              function, but does not execute it.  The exit status is zero
              (success) if the function was not previously defined and a
              definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing
              definition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero
              (failure) if the function was already defined or when no
              definition was found.  In the latter case the function remains
              undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading
              is enabled, the function created will contain the contents of
              the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus
              giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the
              function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated as
              a pattern and all functions already marked for autoload that
              match the pattern are loaded.

              With the -t flag, turn on execution tracing; with -T, turn on
              execution tracing only for the current function, turning it off
              on entry to any called functions that do not also have tracing
              enabled.

              With the -U flag, alias expansion is suppressed when the
              function is loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh or ksh style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or
              were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting of the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt to ensure the
              shell options set during the loading or execution of the file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell is in native zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

              Some of the functions of autoload are also provided by functions
              -u or functions -U, but autoload is a more comprehensive
              interface.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If an arithmetic expression n is specified, then break n levels
              instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of
              directories contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does
              not, first attempt to change to the directory arg under the
              current directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and
              contains at least one element attempt to change to the directory
              arg under each component of cdpath in turn until successful.  If
              `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order
              so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash,
              treat its value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and changes to that directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list
              shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.
              If the POSIX_CD option is set, this form of cd is not recognised
              and will be interpreted as the first form.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array chpwd_functions are not called.
              This is useful for calls to cd that do not change the
              environment seen by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current
              directory if the given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The simple command argument is taken as an external command
              instead of a function or builtin and is executed. If the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop. If an arithmetic expression n is
              specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume at the nth
              enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack.
              Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and
              removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are
              specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing
              anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the
              stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions (see Dynamic and Static named directories in
                     zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements or patterns.
              The default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you to
              use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
              The -a option causes disable to act on regular or global
              aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r
              options causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without
              arguments all disabled hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the
              arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to
              prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash
              table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these
              patterns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the
              enable command.

              With the option -p, name ... refer to elements of the shell's
              pattern syntax as described in the section `Filename
              Generation'.  Certain elements can be disabled separately, as
              given below.

              Note that patterns not allowed by the current settings for the
              options EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are never enabled,
              regardless of the setting here.  For example, if EXTENDED_GLOB
              is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable -p
              "^"' has not been issued.  The list below indicates any option
              settings that restrict the use of the pattern.  It should be
              noted that setting SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely
              disabling patterns as certain expressions, in particular those
              involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The following patterns may be disabled; all the strings need
              quoting on the command line to prevent them from being
              interpreted immediately as patterns and the patterns are shown
              below in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The pattern character ? wherever it occurs, including
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The pattern character * wherever it occurs, including
                     recursive globbing and when preceding a parenthesis with
                     KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation in grouped patterns, case statements, or
                     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping using single parentheses.  Disabling this does
                     not disable the use of parentheses for KSH_GLOB where
                     they are introduced by a special character, nor for glob
                     qualifiers (use `setopt NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL' to disable
                     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The pattern character # wherever it occurs, both for
                     repetition of a previous pattern and for indicating
                     globbing flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no
              longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed containing information about
              how to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically be
              made running, independent of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress subsequent characters and final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

              Note that for standards compliance a double dash does not
              terminate option processing; instead, it is printed directly.
              However, a single dash does terminate option processing, so the
              first dash, possibly following options, is not printed, but
              everything following it is printed as an argument.  The single
              dash behaviour is different from other shells.  For a more
              portable way of printing text, see printf, and for a more
              controllable way of printing text within zsh, see print.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.
              If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at startup based on the shell name, see the section
              COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .  In addition to setting shell options,
              the command also restores the pristine state of pattern enables,
              as if all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then the xtrace
              option will be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the .,
              source, or eval commands is not considered to be running
              directly from the function, hence does not provoke this
              behaviour.

              If the -R switch is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding to the specified emulation
              mode, except for certain options describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause
              portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the -L switch is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS,
              LOCAL_PATTERNS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the
              effects of the emulate command and any setopt, disable -p or
              enable -p, and trap commands to be local to the immediately
              surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are
              turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is
              mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              If there is a single argument and the -l switch is given, the
              options that would be set or unset (the latter indicated with
              the prefix `no') are listed.  -l can be combined with -L or -R
              and the list will be modified in the appropriate way.  Note the
              list does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e. it
              includes all options that may in principle change, not just
              those that would actually change.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags described in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the emulation
              mode and all options are restored to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the name of
              the shell to emulate; note this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined
              within the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is
              associated thereafter with the function so that whenever the
              function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if
              present) and all options are set (and pattern disables cleared)
              before entry to the function, and the state is restored after
              exit.  If the function is called when the sticky emulation is
              already in effect, either within an `emulate shell -c'
              expression or within another function with the same sticky
              emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options
              to be altered (except due to standard processing such as the
              LOCAL_OPTIONS option).  This also applies to functions marked
              for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate set of
              options will be applied at the point the function is loaded as
              well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh
              emulation.  fno is then executed, causing options associated
              with emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fno then calls
              fni; because fni is also marked for sticky sh emulation, no
              option changes take place on entry to or exit from it.  Hence
              the option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will be
              turned on within fni and remain on return to fno.  On exit from
              fno, the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the
              state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose of executing code designed for other shells in a
              suitable environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by `emulate
                     shell -c' is identical to that provided by entry to a
                     function marked for sticky emulation as a consequence of
                     being defined in such an environment.  Hence, for
                     example, the sticky emulation is inherited by
                     subfunctions defined within functions with sticky
                     emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate
                     corresponds to different sticky emulation modes, so for
                     example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition to the
                     basic emulation also mean the sticky emulations are
                     different, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate
                     zsh -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky
                     emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled
              earlier with disable.  The default is to enable builtin
              commands.  The -a option causes enable to act on regular or
              global aliases.  The -s option causes enable to act on suffix
              aliases.  The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.
              The -r option causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without
              arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are
              taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements
              from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are
              enabled.  Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable
              builtin command.

              enable -p reenables patterns disabled with disable -p.  Note
              that it does not override globbing options; for example, `enable
              -p "~"' does not cause the pattern character ~ to be active
              unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable all
              possible patterns (so that they may be individually disabled
              with disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB
              NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the
              resulting command(s) in the current shell process.  The return
              status is the same as if the commands had been executed directly
              by the shell; if there are no args or they contain no commands
              (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is
              zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace the current shell with command rather than forking.  If
              command is a shell builtin command or a shell function, the
              shell executes it, and exits when the command is complete.

              With -c clear the environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0]
              string of the command executed (to simulate a login shell); with
              -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the command executed.  See
              the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If the option POSIX_BUILTINS is set, command is never
              interpreted as a shell builtin command or shell function.  This
              means further precommand modifiers such as builtin and noglob
              are also not interpreted within the shell.  Hence command is
              always found by searching the command path.

              If command is omitted but any redirections are specified, then
              the redirections will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by an arithmetic
              expression n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
              last command executed.  An EOF condition will also cause the
              shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the section JOBS in zshmisc(1) for some
              possibly unexpected interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the
              environment of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to
              typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist,
              it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.


       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note
              that reading and writing of history options is only performed if
              the shell is interactive.  Usually this is detected
              automatically, but it can be forced by setting the interactive
              option when starting the shell.

              The first two forms of this command select a range of events
              from first to last from the history list.  The arguments first
              and last may be specified as a number or as a string.  A
              negative number is used as an offset to the current history
              event number.  A string specifies the most recent event
              beginning with the given string.  All substitutions old=new, if
              any, are then performed on the text of the events.

              In addition to the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts to only local events (not from other shells,
                     see SHARE_HISTORY in zshoptions(1) -- note that $HISTFILE
                     is considered local when read at startup)
              -m     takes the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted)
                     and only the history events matching this pattern are
                     considered

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not
              specified, it will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.  However, if the current event has added entries to the
              history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l
              includes all new history entries since the current event began.

              When the -l flag is given, the resulting events are listed on
              standard output.  Otherwise the editor program specified by -e
              ename is invoked on a file containing these history events.  If
              -e is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if
              that is not set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if
              that is not set a builtin default, usually `vi' is used.  If
              ename is `-', no editor is invoked.  When editing is complete,
              the edited command is executed.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the events and the flag -n
              suppresses event numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format; fmt is
                     formatted with the strftime function with the zsh
                     extensions described for the %D{string} prompt format in
                     the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).
                     The resulting formatted string must be no more than 256
                     characters or will not be printed
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the
                     options above

              `fc -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also
              specified, this history list will be automatically popped when
              the current function scope is exited, which is a much better
              solution than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.
              If no arguments are specified, the history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their
              default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history file is read in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in order to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is
              destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set
              appropriately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE,
              and $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when `fc -p'
              was called.  Note that this restoration can conflict with making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local
              declarations for these variables in functions that use `fc -p'.
              The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using the
              automatic option (-a) with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc -R' reads the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the
              history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only
              those events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W,
              only those events that are new since last incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.  In any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuWz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -c oldfn newfn
       functions -M [-s] mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the -c, -x, -M
              and -W options.  For functions -u and functions -U, see
              autoload, which provides additional options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each
              leading tab for indentation, added by the shell to show
              syntactic structure, expanded to the given number num of spaces.
              num can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              The -W option turns on the option WARN_NESTED_VAR for the named
              function or functions only.  The option is turned off at the
              start of nested functions (apart from anonoymous functions)
              unless the called function also has the -W attribute.

              The -c option causes oldfn to be copied to newfn.  The copy is
              efficiently handled internally by reference counting.  If oldfn
              was marked for autoload it is first loaded and if this fails the
              copy fails.  Either function may subsequently be redefined
              without affecting the other.  A typical idiom is that oldfn is
              the name of a library shell function which is then redefined to
              call newfn, thereby installing a modified version of the
              function.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function recognised in all forms of arithmetical expressions;
              see the section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1).  By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max
              are both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a shell function of
              the same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of the
              corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the name used
              in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is
              mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in the shell function correspond to the arguments of the
              mathematical function call.  The result of the last arithmetical
              expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
              form that normally only returns a status) gives the result of
              the mathematical function.

              If the additional option -s is given to functions -M, the
              argument to the function is a single string: anything between
              the opening and matching closing parenthesis is passed to the
              function as a single argument, even if it includes commas or
              white space.  The minimum and maximum argument specifiers must
              therefore be 1 if given.  An empty argument list is passed as a
              zero-length string.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined
              functions in the same form as a definition.  With the additional
              option -m and a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional option -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
              all functions whose mathfn matches the pattern are removed.
              Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour is not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

              The following string function takes a single argument, including
              the commas, so prints 11:

                     stringfn() { (( $#1 )) }
                     functions -Ms stringfn
                     print $(( stringfn(foo,bar,rod) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins with
              a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single `-'
              is not considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a `:', that option requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of the next arg is stored in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is
              normally set to 1 upon entry to a shell function and restored
              upon exit (this is disabled by the POSIX_BUILTINS option).
              OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent
              call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly
              unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not
              stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required argument is missing.
              Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The exit status is nonzero when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash table.  Normally one
              would modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the
              command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option; without the option
              the command hash table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              A command name starting with a / is never hashed, whether by
              explicit use of the hash command or otherwise.  Such a command
              is always found by direct look up in the file system.

              Given no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f
              option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt
              immediately.  For the command hash table this hashes all the
              absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory
              hash table this adds all users' home directories.  These two
              options cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table
              matching those patterns are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the
              selected hash table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that whenever `name' is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal manner for that hash table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is
              omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only running jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory from which the
              job was started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment
              space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This
              feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with or
              without the `SIG' prefix.  If the signal being sent is not
              `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if
              it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.  For
              each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l alt will
              show if the alternative form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section
              `Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for a description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if the value of
              the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of the
              current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of
              the children.

              If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort
              immediately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if
              it fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO
                     operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the
              system.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.
              It can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer
              defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the resources configured into the shell, the shell will try to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.  As the shell does not store such resources internally,
              an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s option is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              ng     gigabytes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not
              permitted.  In this case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the
              current setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to popd that do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as described by
              printf.  With no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are
              printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the
              following differences: the escape sequence `\M-x' (or `\Mx')
              metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' (or
              `\Cx') produces a control character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the
              characters NULL and delete), a character code in octal is
              represented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is a
              synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, `\'
              escapes the following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the
                     bindkey command, see the section `Zle Builtins' in
                     zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also
                     given, arguments are printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as paths, replacing directory
                     prefixes with ~ expressions corresponding to directory
                     names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of
                     spaces.  Note: if the list of arguments is empty, print
                     -l will still output one empty line. To print a
                     possibly-empty list of arguments one per line, use print
                     -C1, as in `print -rC1 -- "$list[@]"'.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with
                     subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.
                     Again, print -rNC1 -- "$list[@]" is a canonical way to
                     print an arbitrary list as null-delimited records.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).  In combination with `-f',
                     prompt escape sequences are parsed only within
                     interpolated arguments, not within the format string.

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag is given.  The -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  Each argument to the print command is
                     treated as a single word in the history, regardless of
                     its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  In this case only a single argument is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -v name
                     Store the printed arguments as the value of the parameter
                     name.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand leading tabs on each line of output in the printed
                     string assuming a tab stop every tab-stop characters.
                     This is appropriate for formatting code that may be
                     indented with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any
                     argument to print, not just the first, are expanded, even
                     if print is using spaces to separate arguments (the
                     column count is maintained across arguments but may be
                     incorrect on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The start of the output of each print command is assumed
                     to be aligned with a tab stop.  Widths of multibyte
                     characters are handled if the option MULTIBYTE is in
                     effect.  This option is ignored if other formatting
                     options are in effect, namely column alignment or printf
                     style, or if output is to a special location such as
                     shell history or the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This is similar to -x, except that all tabs in the
                     printed string are expanded.  This is appropriate if tabs
                     in the arguments are being used to produce a table
                     format.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack,
                     separated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'
              and there are no arguments (after the removal process in the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [ -v name ] format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification.
              Formatting rules are the same as used in C. The same escape
              sequences as for echo are recognised in the format. All C
              conversion specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are
              handled. In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s'
              to cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and
              `%q' can be used to quote the argument in such a way that allows
              it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format
              specifiers, if the corresponding argument starts with a quote
              character, the numeric value of the following character is used
              as the number to print; otherwise the argument is evaluated as
              an arithmetic expression. See the section `Arithmetic
              Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic
              expressions. With `%n', the corresponding argument is taken as
              an identifier which is created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is to
              be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is
              recommended that you do not mix references of this explicit
              style with the normal style and the handling of such mixed
              styles may be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the format string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If more
              arguments are required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been
              specified as the argument.

              The -v option causes the output to be stored as the value of the
              parameter name, instead of printed. If name is an array and the
              format string is reused when consuming arguments then one array
              element will be used for each use of the format string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is
              interpreted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in
              the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the
              directory list.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

              If the option -q is not specified and the shell option
              PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will be printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is set and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.


       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in
              $IFS as separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y' if this character was `y' or `Y' and to `n'
                     otherwise.  With this flag set the return status is zero
                     only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be
                     used with a timeout (see -t); if the read times out, or
                     encounters end of file, status 2 is returned.  Input is
                     read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.
                     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
                     the first name, without word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the
                     terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to the first name, without word splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or with push-line
                     from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard
                     output.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to
                     the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array and all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for completion (specified with the -K flag to
                     compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the
                     current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the
                     whole line is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are
                     present, -l is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of the line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated by the first character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num is present, it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds, which may be a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num is not
                     present, it is taken to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.  If no input is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer with -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears the input queue before
                     reading, or within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the input
                     processing mode.  The default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read
                     -t' will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k
                     input is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is tested, so that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second
                     character.  Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is
                     not what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is
              interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is not
              called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.
              Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z
              flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.  With the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as
              typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by an arithmetic
              expression n. If n is omitted, the return status is that of the
              last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return status.  With
              zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously
              processing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as
              interrupted except that the return status of the trap is
              retained.  Note that the numeric value of the signal which
              caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the
              statement `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if
              the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).


       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional
              parameters, or declare and set an array.  If the -s option is
              given, it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before
              assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array
              name if -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending
              order.  For the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).
              Flags may be specified by name using the -o option. If no option
              name is supplied with -o, the current option states are printed:
              see the description of setopt below for more information on the
              format.  With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as
              input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed
              together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array, the given arguments will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is
              specified, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on
              whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it is not set, all
              arguments following name are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set, normal option
              processing continues at that point; only regular arguments are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond
              the options, the positional parameters are set.  If the option
              list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there are no further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of all parameters are printed on the standard output.  If the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              - args' as `set +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the
              differences from the default options for the current emulation
              (the default emulation being native zsh, shown as <Z> in
              zshoptions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the
              emulation are shown with the prefix no only if they are off,
              while other options are shown without the prefix no and only if
              they are on.  In addition to options changed from the default
              state by the user, any options activated automatically by the
              shell (for example, SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in
              the list.  The format is further modified by the option
              KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the rationale for choosing options
              with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted to protect them from filename
              expansion), and all options with names matching these patterns
              are set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of
              subsequent shell code to be aborted; this is behaviour is
              different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set is
              regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt
              is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any
              names are given then the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

              If the option -p is given arguments are instead removed (popped)
              from the end rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as `.', except that the current directory is always
              searched and is always searched first, before directories in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').  The main differences between the conditional
              expression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:  these
              commands are not handled syntactically, so for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a shell error;
              and arithmetic operators expect integer arguments rather than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic
              ambiguities in the syntax; in particular there is no distinction
              between test operators and strings that resemble them.  The
              standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of
              arguments (up to four); for five or more arguments compatibility
              cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible to use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from
              immediate evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one or more
              sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If arg is `-', then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an empty string, then the specified signals are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If arg is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
              & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
              additional features are available.  First, it is possible to
              skip the next command by setting the option ERR_EXIT; see the
              description of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to the command to be executed following the trap.  Note that
              this string is reconstructed from the internal format and may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The
              parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside
              the body of a function, then the command arg is executed after
              the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of
              execution is the exit status of the shell or the return status
              of the function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap
              statement is not executed inside the body of a function, then
              the command arg is executed when the shell terminates; the trap
              runs before any zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR and DEBUG traps are kept within subshells, while other
              traps are reset.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly
              different from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the
              latter have their own function environment (line numbers, local
              variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed as described under kill
              above.  Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it is recommended
              that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The -f option freezes the tty (i.e. terminal or terminal
              emulator), and -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no
              changes made to the tty settings by external programs will be
              honored by the shell, except for changes in the size of the
              screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to their
              previous values as soon as each command exits or is suspended.
              Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the tty is
              frozen.  Freezing the tty does not cause the current state to be
              remembered: instead, it causes future changes to the state to be
              blocked.

              Without options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or
              not.

              Note that, regardless of whether the tty is frozen or not, the
              shell needs to change the settings when the line editor starts,
              so unfreezing the tty does not guarantee settings made on the
              command line are preserved.  Strings of commands run between
              editing the command line will see a consistent tty state.  See
              also the shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the tty
              before running external commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.


       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmrtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZip [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglrux ] [ {+|-}LRZp [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              Except as noted below for control flags that change the
              behavior, a parameter is created for each name that does not
              already refer to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter
              is created for every name (even those that already exist), and
              is unset again when the function completes.  See `Local
              Parameters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply to special
              shell parameters, which retain their special attributes when
              made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to
              value.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each
              remaining name that refers to a parameter that is already set,
              the name and value of the parameter are printed in the form of
              an assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters,
              or when any attribute flags listed below are given along with
              the name.  Using `+' instead of minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the
              display to only those parameters that have the specified
              attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.

              All forms of the command handle scalar assignment.  Array
              assignment is possible if any of the reserved words declare,
              export, float, integer, local, readonly or typeset is matched
              when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed).  In this
              case the arguments are parsed as assignments, except that the
              `+=' syntax and the GLOB_ASSIGN option are not supported, and
              scalar values after = are not split further into words, even if
              expanded (regardless of the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option;
              this option is obsolete).

              Examples of the differences between command and reserved word
              parsing:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The above creates a scalar parameter svar and an array parameter
              avar as if the assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The builtin keyword causes the above to use the standard builtin
              interface to typeset in which argument parsing is performed in
              the same way as for other commands.  This example creates a
              scalar svar containing the value two and another scalar
              parameter words with no value.  An array value in this case
              would either cause an error or be treated as an obscure set of
              glob qualifiers.

              Arbitrary arguments are allowed if they take the form of
              assignments after command line expansion; however, these only
              perform scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The above sets the scalar parameter svar to the value val.
              Parentheses around the value within var would not cause array
              assignment as they will be treated as ordinary characters when
              $var is substituted.  Any non-trivial expansion in the name part
              of the assignment causes the argument to be treated in this
              fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The above syntax is valid, and has the expected effect of
              setting the three parameters to the same value, but the command
              line is parsed as a set of three normal command line arguments
              to typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible to assign
              to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note that each interface to any of the commands my be disabled
              separately.  For example, `disable -r typeset' disables the
              reserved word interface to typeset, exposing the builtin
              interface, while `disable typeset' disables the builtin.  Note
              that disabling the reserved word interface for typeset may cause
              problems with the output of `typeset -p', which assumes the
              reserved word interface is available in order to restore array
              and associative array values.

              Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's exit status on
              an assignment that involves a command substitution does not
              reflect the exit status of the command substitution.  Therefore,
              to test for an error in a command substitution, separate the
              declaration of the parameter from its initialization:

                     # WRONG
                     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

                     # RIGHT
                     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

              To initialize a parameter param to a command output and mark it
              readonly, use typeset -r param or readonly param after the
              parameter assignment statement.

              If no attribute flags are given, and either no name arguments
              are present or the flag +m is used, then each parameter name
              printed is preceded by a list of the attributes of that
              parameter (array, association, exported, float, integer,
              readonly, or undefined for autoloaded parameters not yet
              loaded).  If +m is used with attribute flags, and all those
              flags are introduced with +, the matching parameter names are
              printed but their values are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If `+' appears by itself in a separate word as the last
                     option, then the names of all parameters (functions with
                     -f) are printed, but the values (function bodies) are
                     not.  No name arguments may appear, and it is an error
                     for any other options to follow `+'.  The effect of `+'
                     is as if all attribute flags which precede it were given
                     with a `+' prefix.  For example, `typeset -U +' is
                     equivalent to `typeset +U' and displays the names of all
                     arrays having the uniqueness attribute, whereas `typeset
                     -f -U +' displays the names of all autoloadable
                     functions.  If + is the only option, then type
                     information (array, readonly, etc.) is also printed for
                     each parameter, in the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The -g (global) means that any resulting parameter will
                     not be restricted to local scope.  Note that this does
                     not necessarily mean that the parameter will be global,
                     as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
                     unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not
                     affect the parameter after creation, hence it has no
                     effect when listing existing parameters, nor does the
                     flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m
                     (see below).

              -m     If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as
                     patterns (use quoting to prevent these from being
                     interpreted as file patterns).  With no attribute flags,
                     all parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with
                     matching names are printed (the shell option
                     TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this case).

                     If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter
                     is created for every matching parameter that is not
                     already local.  Otherwise -m applies all other flags or
                     assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except when assignments are made with name=value, using
                     +m forces the matching parameters and their attributes to
                     be printed, even inside a function.  Note that -m is
                     ignored if no patterns are given, so `typeset -m'
                     displays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p [ n ]
                     If the -p option is given, parameters and values are
                     printed in the form of a typeset command with an
                     assignment, regardless of other flags and options.  Note
                     that the -H flag on parameters is respected; no value
                     will be shown for these parameters.

                     -p may be followed by an optional integer argument.
                     Currently only the value 1 is supported.  In this case
                     arrays and associative arrays are printed with newlines
                     between indented elements for readability.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     below.  Otherwise the -T option requires zero, two, or
                     three arguments to be present.  With no arguments, the
                     list of parameters created in this fashion is shown.
                     With two or three arguments, the first two are the name
                     of a scalar and of an array parameter (in that order)
                     that will be tied together in the manner of $PATH and
                     $path.  The optional third argument is a single-character
                     separator which will be used to join the elements of the
                     array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as
                     with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is
                     significant; any remaining characters are ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only one of the scalar and array parameters may be
                     assigned an initial value (the restrictions on assignment
                     forms described above also apply).

                     Both the scalar and the array may be manipulated as
                     normal.  If one is unset, the other will automatically be
                     unset too.  There is no way of untying the variables
                     without unsetting them, nor of converting the type of one
                     of them with another typeset command; +T does not work,
                     assigning an array to scalar is an error, and assigning a
                     scalar to array sets it to be a single-element array.

                     Note that both `typeset -xT ...'  and `export -T ...'
                     work, but only the scalar will be marked for export.
                     Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split
                     on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is
                     possible to apply -T to two previously tied variables but
                     with a different separator character, in which case the
                     variables remain joined as before but the separator is
                     changed.

                     When an existing scalar is tied to a new array, the value
                     of the scalar is preserved but no attribute other than
                     export will be preserved.

              Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l,
              -u) are only applied to the expanded value at the point of a
              parameter expansion expression using `$'.  They are not applied
              when a parameter is retrieved internally by the shell for any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left justify and remove leading blanks from the value
                     when the parameter is expanded.  If n is nonzero, it
                     defines the width of the field.  If n is zero, the width
                     is determined by the width of the value of the first
                     assignment.  In the case of numeric parameters, the
                     length of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
                     used to determine the width, not the value that would be
                     output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be
                     multibyte characters if the MULTIBYTE option is in
                     effect.  Note that the screen width of the character is
                     not taken into account; if this is required, use padding
                     with parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described
                     in `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
                     Note truncation can lead to unexpected results with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar to -L, except that right justification is used;
                     when the parameter is expanded, the field is left filled
                     with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not be
                     combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only
                     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for tied parameters (see -T) or
                     colon-separated special parameters like PATH or FIGNORE,
                     etc.  Note the flag takes effect on assignment, and the
                     type of the variable being assigned to is determinative;
                     for variables with shared values it is therefore
                     recommended to set the flag for all interfaces, e.g.
                     `typeset -U PATH path'.

                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.
                     Otherwise, similar to -R, except that leading zeros are
                     used for padding instead of blanks if the first non-blank
                     character is a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled: they are always eligible for padding with
                     zeroes, and the zeroes are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may be assigned to in the
                     typeset statement only if the reserved word form of
                     typeset is enabled (as it is by default).  When
                     displaying, both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other valid flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on
                     execution tracing for this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not anonymous)
                     function called from the present one, unless that
                     function also has the -t or -T flag.  The -u and -U flags
                     cause the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is loaded.  See the description of the `autoload' builtin
                     for details.

                     Note that the builtin functions provides the same basic
                     capabilities as typeset -f but gives access to a few
                     extra options; autoload gives further additional options
                     for the case typeset -fu and typeset -fU.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local
                     parameters with the same name as a special parameter,
                     though harmless for others.  A special parameter with
                     this attribute will not retain its special effect when
                     made local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function
                     containing `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local
                     parameter without the usual behaviour of PATH.
                     Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be given
                     this attribute; hence inside a function `typeset -h PATH'
                     creates an ordinary local parameter and the special PATH
                     parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible
                     to create a local parameter using `typeset +h special',
                     where the local copy of special will retain its special
                     properties regardless of having the -h attribute.  Global
                     special parameters loaded from shell modules (currently
                     those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically
                     given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the
                     value of the parameter when listing parameters; the
                     display for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag
                     had been given.  Use of the parameter is in other
                     respects normal, and the option does not apply if the
                     parameter is specified by name, or by pattern with the -m
                     option.  This is on by default for the parameters in the
                     zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for
                     non-special parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base, otherwise it is
                     determined by the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the
                     number of significant figures to display; the default is
                     ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it
                     defines the number of digits to display after the decimal
                     point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that if name
                     is a special parameter, the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

                     If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, the readonly
                     attribute is more restrictive: unset variables can be
                     marked readonly and cannot then be set; furthermore, the
                     readonly attribute cannot be removed from any variable.

                     It is still possible to change other attributes of the
                     variable though, some of which like -U or -Z would affect
                     the value. More generally, the readonly attribute should
                     not be relied on as a security mechanism.

                     Note that in zsh (like in pdksh but unlike most other
                     shells) it is still possible to create a local variable
                     of the same name as this is considered a different
                     variable (though this variable, too, can be marked
                     readonly). Special variables that have been made readonly
                     retain their value and readonly attribute when made
                     local.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has a different meaning when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the environment of
                     subsequently executed commands.  If the option
                     GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this implies the option -g, unless
                     +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter
                     is not made local to the enclosing function.  This is for
                     compatibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or one of the values `unlimited', which
              removes the limit on the resource, or `hard', which uses the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are printed.  When more than one resource value is printed, the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort
              immediately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if
              it fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported on all systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum real time priority.  On some systems where this
                     is not available, such as NetBSD, this has the same
                     effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by integer in the form `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used to set
              the limits for resources known to the shell which do not
              correspond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by
              number in the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits
              compiled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or write
              the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted,
              the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed
              as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the
              permissions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not
              denied) to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes aliases.  This command works the same as unhash -a,
              except that the -a option removes all regular or global aliases,
              or with -s all suffix aliases: in this case no name arguments
              may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and -s without
              -a (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note
              that the meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.  The
              default is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global aliases; note
              when removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before being passed to the
              command.  The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d
              options causes unhash to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (should be
              quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.
              If the -h flag is given and the shell has appropriate
              privileges, the hard resource limit for each resource is
              removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if
              the -s flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local
              even if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by using subscript syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob) to protect the
              subscript from filename generation.

              If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with matching names are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of the
              pattern.

              The -v flag specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob
              patterns), and all options with names matching these patterns
              are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given
              then all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.  If job represents an unknown job or process
              ID, a warning is printed (unless the POSIX_BUILTINS option is
              set) and the exit status is 127.

              It is possible to wait for recent processes (specified by
              process ID, not by job) that were running in the background even
              if the process has exited.  Typically the process ID will be
              recorded by capturing the value of the variable $! immediately
              after the process has been started.  There is a limit on the
              number of process IDs remembered by the shell; this is given by
              the value of the system configuration parameter CHILD_MAX.  When
              this limit is reached, older process IDs are discarded, least
              recently started processes first.

              Note there is no protection against the process ID wrapping,
              i.e. if the wait is not executed soon enough there is a chance
              the process waited for is the wrong one.  A conflict implies
              both process IDs have been generated by the shell, as other
              processes are not recorded, and that the user is potentially
              interested in both, so this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              If name is not an alias, built-in command, external command,
              shell function, hashed command, or a reserved word, the exit
              status shall be non-zero, and -- if -v, -c, or -w was passed --
              a message will be written to standard output.  (This is
              different from other shells that write that message to standard
              error.)

              whence is most useful when name is only the last path component
              of a command, i.e. does not include a `/'; in particular,
              pattern matching only succeeds if just the non-directory
              component of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word is one of
                     alias, builtin, command, function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according as name corresponds to an alias, a
                     built-in command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
                     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally only the first occurrence is
                     printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (pattern characters
                     should be quoted), and the information is displayed for
                     each command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

              -S     As -s, but if the pathname had to be resolved by
                     following multiple symlinks, the intermediate steps are
                     printed, too.  The symlink resolved at each step might be
                     anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand tabs when outputting shell functions using the -c
                     option.  This has the same effect as the -x option to the
                     functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin command can be used to compile functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a file, and to examine
              files containing the compiled form.  This allows faster
              autoloading of functions and sourcing of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a
              compiled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output
              file has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same
              directory as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file
              instead of the normal function file when the function is
              autoloaded; see the section `Autoloading Functions' in
              zshmisc(1) for a description of how autoloaded functions are
              searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end in .zwc, this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions are
              called `digest' files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently defined in the shell, not
              those marked for autoloading.  Undefined functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the
              definition files for those functions, if found, are compiled
              into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
              functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the
              additional functions defined in the file, and any other
              initialization code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a'
              captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              Note the second form cannot be used for compiling functions that
              include redirections as part of the definition rather than
              within the body of the function; for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.  It is possible to use the first form of zcompile to
              compile autoloadable functions that include the full function
              definition instead of just the body of the function.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines an existing
              compiled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the
              original files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of
              output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file
              and how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by
              mapping it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and
              the return status is set to zero if definitions for all names
              were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition
              for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell's memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined, will remain mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the
                     compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
                     take precedence over any -k or -z options specified to
                     the autoload builtin. If neither of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as determined by the
                     setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the
                     compiled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the
                     compiled format, one for big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ -s ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary
              modules are printed.  The -L option causes this list to be in
              the form of a series of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -is ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If
                     zmodload detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid
                     module name or circular dependency list, the current code
                     block is aborted.  If it is available, the module is
                     loaded if necessary, while if it is not available,
                     non-zero status is silently returned.  The option -i is
                     accepted for compatibility but has no effect.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way a
                     command is, using $module_path instead of $path.
                     However, the path search is performed even when the
                     module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There
                     is no way to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports features (see below), zmodload
                     tries to enable all features when loading a module.  If
                     the module was successfully loaded but not all features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     If the option -s is given, no error is printed if the
                     module was not available (though other errors indicating
                     a problem with the module are printed).  The return
                     status indicates if the module was loaded.  This is
                     appropriate if the caller considers the module optional.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given that was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file
                     system.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module
                     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The
                     module will not be loaded if its boot function fails.
                     Similarly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup
                     function runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload -F allows more selective control over the
                     features provided by modules.  With no options apart from
                     -F, the module named module is loaded, if it was not
                     already loaded, and the list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such
                     features will remain disabled.  The return status is zero
                     if all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load,
                     and 2 if some features could not be set (for example, a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The standard features are builtins, conditions,
                     parameters and math functions; these are indicated by the
                     prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix condition), `p:' and
                     `f:', respectively, followed by the name that the
                     corresponding feature would have in the shell.  For
                     example, `b:strftime' indicates a builtin named strftime
                     and p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter named
                     EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other (`abstract')
                     features of its own as indicated by its documentation;
                     these have no prefix.

                     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are
                     listed.  With -l alone, a list of features together with
                     their states is shown, one feature per line.  With -L
                     alone, a zmodload -F command that would cause enabled
                     features of the module to be turned on is shown.  With
                     -lL, a zmodload -F command that would cause all the
                     features to be set to their current state is shown.  If
                     one of these combinations is given with the option -P
                     param then the parameter param is set to an array of
                     features, either features together with their state or
                     (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list of all enabled features for all modules providing
                     features is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.
                     If -l is also given, the state of both enabled and
                     disabled features is output in that form.

                     A set of features may be provided together with -l or -L
                     and a module name; in that case only the state of those
                     features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by
                     + or - but the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command first tests that the module is
                     loaded; if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the
                     module is loaded, the list of features given as an
                     argument is examined.  Any feature given with no prefix
                     is simply tested to see if the module provides it; any
                     feature given with a prefix + or - is tested to see if is
                     provided and in the given state.  If the tests on all
                     features in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else
                     status 1.

                     With -m, each entry in the given list of features is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of
                     features provided by the module.  An initial + or - must
                     be given explicitly.  This may not be combined with the
                     -a option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a, the given list of features is marked for
                     autoload from the specified module, which may not yet be
                     loaded.  An optional + may appear before the feature
                     name.  If the feature is prefixed with -, any existing
                     autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may be used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features; when the module is loaded only the requested
                     feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit
                     `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is issued.  It is not an
                     error to request an autoload for a feature of a module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When the module is loaded each autoload is checked
                     against the features actually provided by the module; if
                     the feature is not provided the autoload request is
                     deleted.  A warning message is output; if the module is
                     being loaded to provide a different feature, and that
                     autoload is successful, there is no effect on the status
                     of the current command.  If the module is already loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P
                     options for listing and testing the existence of
                     autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored if -L
                     is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no module name lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described above can
                     be autoloaded; other features require the module to be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first
                     argument.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that
                     module are listed.  With -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only one argument is given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines
                     the specified builtins.  When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in the first argument is
                     loaded and all its features are enabled (for selective
                     control of features use `zmodload -F -a' as described
                     above).  If only the name is given, one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is already defined or
                     autoloaded, but not if another builtin of the same name
                     is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
                     listed, with the module name (if different) shown in
                     parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only
                     possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is already removed (or never
                     existed).

                     Autoload requests are retained if the module is
                     subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub
                     builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the conditions
                     defined by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if the -L option is
                     given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded
                     conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options, but makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if the -A option is also given, module aliases
                     corresponding to loaded modules are also shown.  If
                     arguments are provided, nothing is printed; the return
                     status is set to zero if all strings given as arguments
                     are names of loaded modules and to one if at least on
                     string is not the name of a loaded module.  This can be
                     used to test for the availability of things implemented
                     by modules.  In this case, any aliases are automatically
                     resolved and the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the module modalias is ever subsequently requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not
                     given, show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are given, list all defined module aliases.  When
                     listing, if the -L flag was also given, list the
                     definition as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely
                     independent of whether the name resolved is actually
                     loaded as a module: while the alias exists, loading and
                     unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and does not affect
                     the connection between the alias and the resolved name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
                     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the
                     first resolved name is itself an alias) are valid so long
                     as these are not circular.  As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these remain if the alias is
                     removed.  It is valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use the module name as an
                     alias as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command anywhere module names are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were
              linked into the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make
              available the builtins and other things defined by modules
              (unless the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is
              true even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of
              modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                ZSHBUILTINS(1)