ZSHCONTRIB(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHCONTRIB(1)

       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh

       The Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by
       the user community.  These are not inherently a part of the shell, and
       some may not be available in every zsh installation.  The most
       significant of these are documented here.  For documentation on other
       contributed items such as shell functions, look for comments in the
       function source files.

   Accessing On-Line Help
       The key sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help
       widget (see zshzle(1)).  This invokes the run-help command with the
       command word from the current input line as its argument.  By default,
       run-help is an alias for the man command, so this often fails when the
       command word is a shell builtin or a user-defined function.  By
       redefining the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help
       provided by the shell.

       The helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution,
       is a Perl program that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce
       a separate help file for each shell builtin and for many other shell
       features as well.  The autoloadable run-help function, found in
       Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other
       tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       Help files are installed by default to a subdirectory of /usr/share/zsh
       or /usr/local/share/zsh.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a
       directory where the individual command help files will reside.  For
       example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If you unpacked the zsh
       distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              perl ~/zsh-5.8/Util/helpfiles ~/zsh_help

       The HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files.
       When unset, it uses the default installation path.  To use your own set
       of help files, set this to the appropriate path in one of your startup


       To use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the
       following to your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       Note that in order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file
       must be in one of the directories named in your fpath array (see
       zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case if you have a standard
       zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help to an
       appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your
       zsh installation to track the latest developments, you may find that
       function digests compiled with the zcompile builtin are frequently out
       of date with respect to the function source files.  This is not usually
       a problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.
       Also, if a digest file is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh
       won't check whether any of its source files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc, can be
       used to keep function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p arg ... [ -- arg ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them
              if at least one of the original files is newer than the compiled
              file.  This works only if the names stored in the compiled files
              are full paths or are relative to the directory that contains
              the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a
              directory containing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If no
              arguments are given, the directories and *.zwc files in fpath
              are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return
              status of zero (true) is set if there are files that need to be
              re-compiled and non-zero (false) otherwise.  The -q option
              quiets the chatty output that describes what zrecompile is

              Without the -t option, the return status is zero if all files
              that needed re-compilation could be compiled and non-zero if
              compilation for at least one of the files failed.

              If the -p option is given, the args are interpreted as one or
              more sets of arguments for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist
              or if it is older than ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be
              marked for reading instead of mapping. The same is done for
              ~/.zcompdump and ~/.zcompdump.zwc, but this compiled file is
              marked for mapping. The last line re-creates the file
              ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the files matching the given pattern is
              newer than it.

              Without the -p option, zrecompile does not create function
              digests that do not already exist, nor does it add new functions
              to the digest.

       The following shell loop is an example of a method for creating
       function digests for all functions in your fpath, assuming that you
       have write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh
       installation fpath; you may need to use different options for your
       personal function directories.

       Once the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to
       them, you can keep them up to date by running zrecompile with no

   Keyboard Definition
       The large number of possible combinations of keyboards, workstations,
       terminals, emulators, and window systems makes it impossible for zsh to
       have built-in key bindings for every situation.  The zkbd utility,
       found in Functions/Misc, can help you quickly create key bindings for
       your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-5.8/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if
       the default it offers is correct, just press return.  It then asks you
       to press a number of different keys to determine characteristics of
       your keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds anything out of
       the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an
       associative array named key, written to a file in the subdirectory
       .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR directory.  The name of the
       file is composed from the TERM, VENDOR and OSTYPE parameters, joined by

       You may read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with
       the `source' or `.' commands, then reference the key parameter in
       bindkey commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be
       in one of the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).
       This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh
       installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an appropriate

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell,
       particularly if you are using a beta version of zsh or a development
       release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the problem
       to one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but sometimes one of the
       zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order to track
       the problem down.

       The script named reporter, found in the Util directory of the
       distribution, is provided for this purpose.  (It is also possible to
       autoload reporter, but reporter is not installed in fpath by default.)
       This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state, in the form of
       another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.' command
       and redirect the output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-5.8/Util/reporter > zsh.report

       You should check the zsh.report file for any sensitive information such
       as passwords and delete them by hand before sending the script to the
       developers.  Also, as the output can be voluminous, it's best to wait
       for the developers to ask for this information before sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset of the shell state.
       This is sometimes useful for creating startup files for the first time.
       Most of the output from reporter is far more detailed than usually is
       necessary for a startup file, but the aliases, options, and zstyles
       states may be useful because they include only changes from the
       defaults.  The bindings state may be useful if you have created any of
       your own keymaps, because reporter arranges to dump the keymap creation
       commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As is usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with
       reporter, you should edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.
       Note that if you're using the new completion system, you should not
       dump the functions state to your startup files with reporter; use the
       compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print to standard output the indicated subset of the current
              shell state.  The state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output old-style compctl commands.  New completion is
                     covered by functions and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands
                     for any environment variables.
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With the exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any
       prefix, even a single letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the
       same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook function
              Several functions are special to the shell, as described in the
              section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS, see zshmisc(1), in that they are
              automatically called at specific points during shell execution.
              Each has an associated array consisting of names of functions to
              be called at the same point; these are so-called `hook
              functions'.  The shell function add-zsh-hook provides a simple
              way of adding or removing functions from the array.

              hook is one of chpwd, periodic, precmd, preexec, zshaddhistory,
              zshexit, or zsh_directory_name, the special functions in
              question.  Note that zsh_directory_name is called in a different
              way from the other functions, but may still be manipulated as a

              function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options
              are given this will be added to the array of functions to be
              executed in the given context.  Functions are invoked in the
              order they were added.

              If the option -L is given, the current values for the hook
              arrays are listed with typeset.

              If the option -d is given, the function is removed from the
              array of functions to be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern
              and any matching names of functions are removed from the array
              of functions to be executed.

              The options -U, -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload
              for function.  For functions contributed with zsh, the options
              -Uz are appropriate.

       add-zle-hook-widget [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook widgetname
              Several widget names are special to the line editor, as
              described in the section Special Widgets, see zshzle(1), in that
              they are automatically called at specific points during editing.
              Unlike function hooks, these do not use a predefined array of
              other names to call at the same point; the shell function
              add-zle-hook-widget maintains a similar array and arranges for
              the special widget to invoke those additional widgets.

              hook is one of isearch-exit, isearch-update, line-pre-redraw,
              line-init, line-finish, history-line-set, or keymap-select,
              corresponding to each of the special widgets zle-isearch-exit,
              etc.  The special widget names are also accepted as the hook

              widgetname is the name of a ZLE widget.  If no options are given
              this is added to the array of widgets to be invoked in the given
              hook context.  Widgets are invoked in the order they were added,
                     zle widgetname -Nw -- "$@"

              Note that this means that the `WIDGET' special parameter tracks
              the widgetname when the widget function is called, rather than
              tracking the name of the corresponding special hook widget.

              If the option -d is given, the widgetname is removed from the
              array of widgets to be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the widgetname is treated as a
              pattern and any matching names of widgets are removed from the

              If widgetname does not name an existing widget when added to the
              array, it is assumed that a shell function also named widgetname
              is meant to provide the implementation of the widget.  This name
              is therefore marked for autoloading, and the options -U, -z and
              -k are passed as arguments to autoload as with add-zsh-hook.
              The widget is also created with `zle -N widgetname' to cause the
              corresponding function to be loaded the first time the hook is

              The arrays of widgetname are currently maintained in zstyle
              contexts, one for each hook context, with a style of `widgets'.
              If the -L option is given, this set of styles is listed with
              `zstyle -L'.  This implementation may change, and the special
              widgets that refer to the styles are created only if
              add-zle-hook-widget is called to add at least one widget, so if
              this function is used for any hooks, then all hooks should be
              managed only via this function.

       The function cdr allows you to change the working directory to a
       previous working directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is
       similar in concept to the directory stack controlled by the pushd, popd
       and dirs builtins, but is more configurable, and as it stores all
       entries in files it is maintained across sessions and (by default)
       between terminal emulators in the current session.  Duplicates are
       automatically removed, so that the list reflects the single most recent
       use of each directory.

       Note that the pushd directory stack is not actually modified or used by
       cdr unless you configure it to do so as described in the configuration
       section below.

       The system works by means of a hook function that is called every time
       the directory changes.  To install the system, autoload the required
       functions and use the add-zsh-hook function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which
       command you use, the directory to which you change will be remembered
       in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The argument to cdr is a number N corresponding to the Nth most
       recently changed-to directory.  1 is the immediately preceding
       directory; the current directory is remembered but is not offered as a
       destination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may refer
       to a directory changed to in another window; you can avoid this by
       having per-terminal files for storing directory as described for the
       recent-dirs-file style below.

       If you set the recent-dirs-default style described below cdr will
       behave the same as cd if given a non-numeric argument, or more than one
       argument.  The recent directory list is updated just the same however
       you change directory.

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar to pushd's
       behaviour of swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion for the argument to cdr is available if compinit has been
       run; menu selection is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow you to cycle through recent directories; the order is
       preserved, so the first choice is the most recent directory before the
       current one.  The verbose style is also recommended to ensure the
       directory is shown; this style is on by default so no action is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists the numbers and the corresponding directories in
              abbreviated form (i.e. with ~ substitution reapplied), one per
              line.  The directories here are not quoted (this would only be
              an issue if a directory name contained a newline).  This is used
              by the completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply to the current set of directories.
              Nothing is printed and the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows you to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The
              list can be edited to any extent you like; no sanity checking is
              performed.  Completion is available.  No quoting is necessary
              (except for newlines, where I have in any case no sympathy);
              directories are in unabbreviated from and contain an absolute
              path, i.e. they start with /.  Usually the first entry should be
              left as the current directory.

       -p 'pattern'
              Prunes any items in the directory list that match the given
              extended glob pattern; the pattern needs to be quoted from
              immediate expansion on the command line.  The pattern is matched
              against each completely expanded file name in the list; the full
              string must match, so wildcards at the end (e.g. '*removeme*')
              are needed to remove entries with a given substring.

              If output is to a terminal, then the function will print the new
              list after pruning and prompt for confirmation by the user.
              This output and confirmation step can be skipped by using -P
              instead of -p.

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be
       familiar from completion; if not, see the description of the zstyle
       command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for setting styles should be
       ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of the context is extended in future,
       for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets the value of the recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the
       style name is specific enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the
       completion system and so has the usual completion system context
       (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is needed), though again '*'
       should be fine in practice.

              If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index,
              and either there is more than one argument or the argument is
              not an integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy
              to use only one command for directory changing.  Completion
              recognises this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The file where the list of directories is saved.  The default is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs, i.e. this is in your home
              directory unless you have set the variable ZDOTDIR to point
              somewhere else.  Directory names are saved in $'...' quoted
              form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to the
              shell as an argument.

              The value of this style may be an array.  In this case, the
              first file in the list will always be used for saving
              directories while any other files are left untouched.  When
              reading the recent directory list, if there are fewer than the
              maximum number of entries in the first file, the contents of
              later files in the array will be appended with duplicates
              removed from the list shown.  The contents of the two files are
              not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file are
              shown first.  The special value + can appear in the list to
              indicate the default file should be read at that point.  This
              allows effects like the following:

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent directories are read from a file numbered according to
              the terminal.  If there are insufficient entries the list is
              supplemented from the default file.

              It is possible to use zstyle -e to make the directory
              configurable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or a
              directory under it, then use a special file for saving recent
              directories, else use the default.

              Used by completion.  If recent-dirs-default is true, then
              setting this to true causes the actual directory, rather than
              its index, to be inserted on the command line; this has the same
              effect as using the corresponding index, but makes the history
              clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this setting, if part
              of an argument was already typed, normal directory completion
              rather than recent directory completion is done; this is because
              recent directory completion is expected to be done by cycling
              through entries menu fashion.

              If the value of the style is always, then only recent
              directories will be completed; in that case, use the cd command
              when you want to complete other directories.

              If the value is fallback, recent directories will be tried
              first, then normal directory completion is performed if recent
              directory completion failed to find a match.

              Finally, if the value is both then both sets of completions are
              presented; the usual tag mechanism can be used to distinguish
              results, with recent directories tagged as recent-dirs.  Note
              that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated with
              directory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this
              is zero or negative there is no maximum.  The default is 20.
              Note this includes the current directory, which isn't offered,
              so the highest number of directories you will be offered is one
              less than the maximum.

              This style is an array determining what directories should (or
              should not) be added to the recent list.  Elements of the array
              can include:

              parent Prune parents (more accurately, ancestors) from the
                     recent list.  If present, changing directly down by any
                     number of directories causes the current directory to be
                     overwritten.  For example, changing from ~pws to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir causes ~pws not to be left on the
                     recent directory stack.  This only applies to direct
                     changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on
                     the list are not pruned.  For example, changing from
                     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir does not cause
                     ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives a zsh pattern for directories that should not be
                     added to the recent list (if not already there).  This
                     element can be repeated to add different patterns.  For
                     example, 'pattern:/tmp(|/*)' stops /tmp or its
                     descendants from being added.  The EXTENDED_GLOB option
                     is always turned on for these patterns.

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the
              directory, so the directory is saved on the directory stack.  As
              the directory stack is completely separate from the list of
              files saved by the mechanism used in this file there is no
              obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It is possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic
       directory name syntax by using the supplied function
       zsh_directory_name_cdr a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent directory other
       than $PWD, and so on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This section is for the curious or confused; most users will not need
       to know this information.

       Recent directories are saved to a file immediately and hence are
       preserved across sessions.  Note currently no file locking is applied:
       the list is updated immediately on interactive commands and nowhere
       else (unlike history), and it is assumed you are only going to change
       directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts,
       but in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is
       changing to a different set of directories behind your back.

       To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the
       command line, either directly or indirectly through shell function
       calls (but not through subshells, evals, traps, completion functions
       and the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd -q or pushd -q
       to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible
       at the command line.  See the contents of the function
       chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.

       The dynamic directory naming system is described in the subsection
       Dynamic named directories of the section Filename Expansion in expn(1).
       In this, a reference to ~[...] is expanded by a function found by the
       hooks mechanism.

       The contributed function zsh_directory_name_generic provides a system
       allowing the user to refer to directories with only a limited amount of
       new code.  It supports all three of the standard interfaces for
       directory naming: converting from a name to a directory, converting in
       the reverse direction to find a short name, and completion of names.

       The main feature of this function is a path-like syntax, combining
       abbreviations at multiple levels separated by ":".  As an example,
       ~[g:p:s] might specify:
       g      The top level directory for your git area.  This first component
              has to match, or the function will return indicating another
              directory name hook function should be tried.

       p      The name of a project within your git area.

       s      The source area within that project.  This allows you to
              collapse references to long hierarchies to a very compact form,
              particularly if the hierarchies are similar across different
              areas of the disk.

       Name components may be completed: if a description is shown at the top
       of the list of completions, it includes the path to which previous
       components expand, while the description for an individual completion
       shows the path segment it would add.  No additional configuration is
       needed for this as the completion system is aware of the dynamic
       directory name mechanism.

       To use the function, first define a wrapper function for your specific
       case.  We'll assume it's to be autoloaded.  This can have any name but
       we'll refer to it as zdn_mywrapper.  This wrapper function will define
       various variables and then call this function with the same arguments
       that the wrapper function gets.  This configuration is described below.

       Then arrange for the wrapper to be run as a zsh_directory_name hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_diretory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       The wrapper function should define a local associative array zdn_top.
       Alternatively, this can be set with a style called mapping.  The
       context for the style is :zdn:wrapper-name where wrapper-name is the
       function calling zsh_directory_name_generic; for example:

              zstyle :zdn:zdn_mywrapper: mapping zdn_mywrapper_top

       The keys in this associative array correspond to the first component of
       the name.  The values are matching directories.  They may have an
       optional suffix with a slash followed by a colon and the name of a
       variable in the same format to give the next component.  (The slash
       before the colon is to disambiguate the case where a colon is needed in
       the path for a drive.  There is otherwise no syntax for escaping this,
       so path components whose names start with a colon are not supported.)
       A special component :default: specifies a variable in the form /:var
       (the path section is ignored and so is usually empty) that will be used
       for the next component if no variable is given for the path.  Variables
       referred to within zdn_top have the same format as zdn_top itself, but
       contain relative paths.

       For example,

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

       This specifies the behaviour of a directory referred to as ~[g:...]  or
       ~[ga:...] or ~[gs:...].  Later path components are optional; in that
       case ~[g] expands to ~/git, and so on.  gs expands to
       /scratch/$USER/git and uses the associative array second2 to match the
       second component; g and ga use the associative array second1 to match
       the second component.

       When expanding a name to a directory, if the first component is not g
       or ga or gs, it is not an error; the function simply returns 1 so that
       a later hook function can be tried.  However, matching the first
       component commits the function, so if a later component does not match,
       an error is printed (though this still does not stop later hooks from
       being executed).

       For components after the first, a relative path is expected, but note
       that multiple levels may still appear.  Here is an example of second1:

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

       The path as found from zdn_top is extended with the matching directory,
       so ~[g:p] becomes ~/git/myproject.  The slash between is added
       automatically (it's not possible to have a later component modify the
       name of a directory already matched).  Only os specifies a variable for
       a third component, and there's no :default:, so it's an error to use a
       name like ~[g:p:x] or ~[ga:s:y] because there's nowhere to look up the
       x or y.

       The associative arrays need to be visible within this function; the
       generic function therefore uses internal variable names beginning _zdn_
       in order to avoid clashes.  Note that the variable reply needs to be
       passed back to the shell, so should not be local in the calling

       The function does not test whether directories assembled by component
       actually exist; this allows the system to work across automounted file
       systems.  The error from the command trying to use a non-existent
       directory should be sufficient to indicate the problem.

   Complete example
       Here is a full fictitious but usable autoloadable definition of the
       example function defined by the code above.  So ~[gs:p:s] expands to
       /scratch/$USER/git/myscratchproject/top/srcdir (with $USER also

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

              local -A second2=(
                p   myscratchproject
                s   somescratchproject

              local -A third=(
                s   top/srcdir
                d   top/documentation

              # autoload not needed if you did this at initialisation...
              autoload -Uz zsh_directory_name_generic
              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@

       It is also possible to use global associative arrays, suitably named,
       and set the style for the context of your wrapper function to refer to
       this.  Then your set up code would contain the following:

              typeset -A zdn_mywrapper_top=(...)
              # ... and so on for other associative arrays ...
              zstyle ':zdn:zdn_mywrapper:' mapping zdn_mywrapper_top
              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       and the function zdn_mywrapper would contain only the following:

              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@"

       In a lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information
       from version control systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to
       be able to provide it to the user; possibly in the user's prompt. So
       that you can instantly tell which branch you are currently on, for

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which
       they are referred to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There is also support for the patch management system quilt
       (https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/quilt). See Quilt Support below
       for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any
       specific $psvar entries to be available.

       To get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do the
       following (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to
       call vcs_info from your precmd function. Once that is done you need a
       single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like
       this, you will need to have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You may not want all of these because there is no point in running the
       code to detect systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable
       some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these commands, you will
       see the backends listed in the disable style (or backends not in the
       enable style - if you used that) marked as disabled by a hash sign.
       That means the detection of these systems is skipped completely. No
       wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion,
              hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr, cdv, mtn, svn, cvs, svk, tla, p4 or
              fossil.  This is followed by `.quilt-quilt-mode' in Quilt mode
              (see Quilt Support for details) and by `+hook-name' while hooks
              are active (see Hooks in vcs_info for details).

              Currently, hooks in quilt mode don't add the `.quilt-quilt-mode'
              information.  This may change in the future.

              is a freely configurable string, assignable by the user as the
              first argument to vcs_info (see its description below).

              is the name of a repository in which you want a style to match.
              So, if you want a setting specific to /usr/src/zsh, with that
              being a CVS checkout, you can set repo-root-name to zsh to make
              it so.

       There are three special values for vcs-string: The first is named
       -init-, that is in effect as long as there was no decision what VCS
       backend to use. The second is -preinit-; it is used before vcs_info is
       run, when initializing the data exporting variables. The third special
       value is formats and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The initial value of repo-root-name is -all- and it is replaced with
       the actual name, as soon as it is known. Only use this part of the
       context for defining the formats, actionformats or branchformat styles,
       as it is guaranteed that repo-root-name is set up correctly for these
       only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all
       user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is
              most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special action going on in
              your current repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles
              above, not only by a branch name but also by a revision number.
              This style lets you modify how that string should look.

              These "formats" are set when we didn't detect a version control
              system for the current directory or vcs_info was disabled. This
              is useful if you want vcs_info to completely take over the
              generation of your prompt. You would do something like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg uses both a hash and a revision number to reference a
              specific changeset in a repository. With this style you can
              format the revision string (see branchformat) to include either
              or both. It's only useful when get-revision is true. Note, the
              full 40-character revision id is not available (except when
              using the use-simple option) because executing hg more than once
              per prompt is too slow; you may customize this behavior using

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info
              will set.

       enable A list of backends you want to use. Checked in the -init-
              context. If this list contains an item called NONE no backend is
              used at all and vcs_info will do nothing. If this list contains
              ALL, vcs_info will use all known backends. Only with ALL in
              enable will the disable style have any effect. ALL and NONE are
              case insensitive.

              A list of VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for repositories
              (checked in the -init- context, too). Only used if enable
              contains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a pattern
              matches, vcs_info will be disabled. This style is checked in the
              :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in which you
              do not want vcs_info to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "${(b)HOME}/.zsh(|/*)"

              If enabled, the quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS
              is active in a given directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              When quilt itself is called in quilt support, the value of this
              style is used as the command name.

              If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u format escapes to
              show when the working directory has uncommitted changes. The
              strings displayed by these escapes can be controlled via the
              stagedstr and unstagedstr styles. The only backends that
              currently support this option are git, hg, and bzr (the latter
              two only support unstaged).

              For this style to be evaluated with the hg backend, the
              get-revision style needs to be set and the use-simple style
              needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the former is not.

              With the bzr backend, lightweight checkouts only honor this
              style if the use-server style is set.

              Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially
              expensive (read: they may be slow, depending on how big the
              current repository is).  Therefore, it is disabled by default.

              This style is like check-for-changes, but it never checks the
              worktree files, only the metadata in the .${vcs} dir.
              Therefore, this style initializes only the %c escape (with
              stagedstr) but not the %u escape.  This style is faster than

              In the git backend, this style checks for changes in the index.
              Other backends do not currently implement this style.

              This style is disabled by default.

              This string will be used in the %c escape if there are staged
              changes in the repository.

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there are unstaged
              changes in the repository.

              This style causes vcs_info to use the supplied string as the
              command to use as the VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in
              ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the
              used binary name is the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn is
              used in an svn repository).

              The repo-root-name part in the context is always the default
              -all- when this style is looked up.

              For example, this style can be used to use binaries from
              non-default installation directories. Assume, git is installed
              in /usr/bin but your sysadmin installed a newer version in
              /usr/local/bin. Instead of changing the order of your $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should
              contact the Perforce server to find out if a directory is
              managed by Perforce.  This is the only reliable way of doing
              this, but runs the risk of a delay if the server name cannot be
              found.  If the server (more specifically, the host:port pair
              describing the server) cannot be contacted, its name is put into
              the associative array vcs_info_p4_dead_servers and is not
              contacted again during the session until it is removed by hand.
              If you do not set this style, the p4 backend is only usable if
              you have set the environment variable P4CONFIG to a file name
              and have corresponding files in the root directories of each
              Perforce client.  See comments in the function
              VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

              The Bazaar backend (bzr) uses this to permit contacting the
              server about lightweight checkouts, see the check-for-changes

              If there are two different ways of gathering information, you
              can select the simpler one by setting this style to true; the
              default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially
              a lot slower but might be more accurate in all possible cases.
              This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case of hg
              it will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the binary
              dirstate cache file; this method will not return the local
              revision number.

              If set to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure out the
              revision of a repository's work tree (currently for the git and
              hg backends, where this kind of information is not always
              vital). For git, the hash value of the currently checked out
              commit is available via the %i expansion. With hg, the local
              revision number and the corresponding global hash are available
              via %i.

       get-mq If set to true, the hg backend will look for a Mercurial Queue
              (mq) patch directory. Information will be available via the `%m'

              If set to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current
              bookmarks. They will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              The default is to generate a comma-separated list of all
              bookmark names that refer to the currently checked out revision.
              If a bookmark is active, its name is suffixed an asterisk and
              placed first in the list.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string from vcs_info
              includes prompt escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable debugging output to track possible problems. Currently
              this style is only used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines hook-function names. See Hooks in
              vcs_info below for details.

              This pair of styles format the patch information used by the %m
              expando in formats and actionformats for the git and hg
              backends.  The value is subject to certain %-expansions
              described below.  The expanded value is made available in the
              global backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[patches]} (also if a
              set-patch-format hook is used).

              This boolean style controls whether a backend should attempt to
              gather a list of unapplied patches (for example with Mercurial
              Queue patches).

              Used by the quilt and hg backends.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES
              backend dependent
              backend dependent

       In normal formats and actionformats the following replacements are

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the
              hgrevformat style may be used to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes
              in the repository.
       %u     The string from the unstagedstr style if there are unstaged
              changes in the repository.
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A subdirectory within a repository. If $PWD is
              /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is beer/tasty.
       %m     A "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to
              decide what this replacement expands to.

              The hg and git backends use this expando to display patch
              information.  hg sources patch information from the mq
              extensions; git from in-progress rebase and cherry-pick
              operations and from the stgit extension.  The patch-format and
              nopatch-format styles control the generated string.  The former
              is used when at least one patch from the patch queue has been
              applied, and the latter otherwise.

              The hg backend displays bookmark information in this expando (in
              addition to mq information).  See the get-mq and get-bookmarks
              styles.  Both of these styles may be enabled at the same time.
              If both are enabled, both resulting strings will be shown
              separated by a semicolon (that cannot currently be customized).

              The quilt `standalone' backend sets this expando to the same
              value as the %Q expando.

       %Q     Quilt series information.  When quilt is used (either in `addon'
              mode or as a `standalone' backend), this expando is set to quilt
              series' patch-format string.  The set-patch-format hook and
              nopatch-format style are honoured.

              See Quilt Support below for details.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch; may be overridden by the
              applied-string hook.
       %u     The number of unapplied patches; may be overridden by the
              unapplied-string hook.
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches (%a = %n + %c).
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats
       no replacements are performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which
       expands %b itself, use %%b. That will cause the vcs_info expansion to
       replace %%b with %b, so that zsh's prompt expansion mechanism can
       handle it. Similarly, to hand down %b from branchformat, use %%%%b.
       Sorry for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily
       we do not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to
       be done for those.

       When one of the gen-applied-string, gen-unapplied-string, and
       set-patch-format hooks is defined, applying %-escaping
       (`foo=${foo//'%'/%%}') to the interpolated values for use in the prompt
       is the responsibility of those hooks (jointly); when neither of those
       hooks is defined, vcs_info handles escaping by itself.  We regret this
       coupling, but it was required for backwards compatibility.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt is not a version control system, therefore this is not
       implemented as a backend. It can help keeping track of a series of
       patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they want to use on top
       of software packages (which is tightly integrated into the package
       build process - the Debian project does this for a large number of
       packages). Quilt can also help individual developers keep track of
       their own patches on top of real version control systems.

       The vcs_info integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by
       having two slightly different modes of operation: `addon' mode and
       `standalone' mode).

       Quilt integration is off by default; to enable it, set the use-quilt
       style, and add %Q to your formats or actionformats style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' use-quilt true

       Styles looked up from the Quilt support code include
       `.quilt-quilt-mode' in the vcs-string part of the context, where
       quilt-mode is either addon or standalone.  Example:

       For `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a
       real version control system controlling the directory. If that is the
       case, a directory that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That
       directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES' environment variable.
       If that variable exists its value is used, otherwise the value
       `patches' is assumed. The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be overwritten
       using the `quilt-patches' style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep
       the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the time via the post-quilt

       When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active.
       To gather more information, vcs_info looks for a directory called
       `.pc'; Quilt uses that directory to track its current state. If this
       directory does not exist we know that quilt has not done anything to
       the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If patches are applied, vcs_info will try to find out which. If you
       want to know which patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to
       activate the get-unapplied style in the appropriate context.

       vcs_info allows for very detailed control over how the gathered
       information is presented (see the Configuration and Hooks in vcs_info
       sections), all of which are documented below. Note there are a number
       of other patch tracking systems that work on top of a certain version
       control system (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration
       for systems like that are generally configured the same way as the
       quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is
       available as a simple format replacement (%Q to be precise), which can
       be used in formats and actionformats; see below for details).

       If, on the other hand, the support code is working in `standalone'
       mode, vcs_info will pretend as if quilt were an actual version control
       system. That means that the version control system identifier (which
       otherwise would be something like `svn' or `cvs') will be set to
       `-quilt-'. This has implications on the used style context where this
       identifier is the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper
       value for the "repository's" root directory and the string containing
       the information about quilt's state will be available as the `misc'
       replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode).

       What is left to discuss is how `standalone' mode is detected. The
       detection itself is a series of searches for directories. You can have
       this detection enabled all the time in every directory that is not
       otherwise under version control. If you know there is only a limited
       set of trees where you would like vcs_info to try and look for Quilt in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call to
       vcs_info, there are a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially, `standalone' mode detection is controlled by a style
       called `quilt-standalone'. It is a string style and its value can have
       different effects. The simplest values are: `always' to run detection
       every time vcs_info is run, and `never' to turn the detection off

       If the value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted
       differently. If the value is the name of a scalar variable the value of
       that variable is checked and that value is used in the same
       `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an array, the elements of that
       array are used as directory names under which you want the detection to
       be active.

       If quilt-standalone is an associative array, the keys are taken as
       directory names under which you want the detection to be active, but
       only if the corresponding value is the string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of a
       function, the function is called without arguments and the return value
       decides whether detection should be active. A `0' return value is true;
       a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note, if there is both a function and a variable by the name of
       quilt-standalone, the function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The main function, that runs all backends and assembles all data
              into ${vcs_info_msg_*_}. This is the function you want to call
              from precmd if you want to include up-to-date information in
              your prompt (see Variable Description below).  If an argument is
              given, that string will be used instead of default in the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically registers a number of functions to a given hook. The
              hook needs to be given as the first argument; what follows is a
              list of hook-function names to register to the hook. The `+vi-'
              prefix needs to be left out here. See Hooks in vcs_info below
              for details.

              Remove hook-functions from a given hook. The hook needs to be
              given as the first non-option argument; what follows is a list
              of hook-function names to un-register from the hook. If `-a' is
              used as the first argument, all occurrences of the functions are
              unregistered. Otherwise only the last occurrence is removed (if
              a function was registered to a hook more than once). The `+vi-'
              prefix needs to be left out here.  See Hooks in vcs_info below
              for details.

              Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes into account
              the value of the use-prompt-escapes style in
              ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'. It also only prints
              max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints a list of all supported version control systems. Useful
              to find out possible contexts (and which of them are enabled) or
              values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With
              this function, you can add support for new VCSs without
              restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where N is an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables
              are the storage for the informational message the last vcs_info
              call has assembled. These are strongly connected to the formats,
              actionformats and nvcsformats styles described above. Those
              styles are lists. The first member of that list gets expanded
              into ${vcs_info_msg_0_}, the second into ${vcs_info_msg_1_} and
              the Nth into ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. (See the max-exports style

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code
       can communicate with the code that called it and through that, change
       the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you need to list them in the hooks
       style in the appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This registers functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order
       to avoid namespace problems, all registered function names are
       prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions called for the `foo'
       hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If you would like to register a function to a hook regardless of the
       current context, you may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a
       function that was added like that, the vcs_info_hookdel function can be

       If something seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in
       the proper context and the hook-calling code will print what it tried
       to execute and whether the function in question existed.

       When you register more than one function to a hook, all functions are
       executed one after another until one function returns non-zero or until
       all functions have been called. Context-sensitive hook functions are
       executed before statically registered ones (the ones added by

       You may pass data between functions via an associative array,
       user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The return value that the hooks system will return to the
              caller. The default is an integer `zero'. If and how a changed
              ret value changes the execution of the caller depends on the
              specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for bidirectional
              communication from the caller to hook functions. The used keys
              depend on the specific hook.

              The active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change
              this variable should make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the
              enable/disable style are used. Available in all hooks except

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this
              directory is determined. It can be used to deactivate vcs_info
              temporarily if necessary. When ret is set to 1, vcs_info aborts
              and does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything as
              if no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is
              generated; the get-revision and get-bookmarks styles must be

              This hook gets the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that
              vcs_info collected from `hg'.

              If a bookmark is active, the key ${hook_com[hg-active-bookmark]}
              is set to its name.  The key is otherwise unset.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be used in the %m escape in
              formats and actionformats and will be available in the global
              backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase or merge), and hg
              (with mq) backends and in quilt support when the applied-string
              is generated; the use-quilt zstyle must be true for quilt (the
              mq and stgit backends are active by default).

              This hook gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in the opposite order, which means that the
              first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[applied-string]} will be available as %p in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.  This hook is, in
              concert with set-patch-format, responsible for %-escaping that
              value for use in the prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase), and hg (with
              mq) backend and in quilt support when the unapplied-string is
              generated; the get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in order, which means that the first argument
              is the patch next-in-line to be applied and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[unapplied-string]} will be available as %u in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.  This hook is, in
              concert with set-patch-format, responsible for %-escaping that
              value for use in the prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              Called in the hg backend when guards-string is generated; the
              get-mq style must be true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used in the %g escape in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This hooks is called when no version control system was

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called as soon as the backend has finished collecting

              The `hook_com' keys available are as for the set-message hook.

              Called after the quilt support is done. The following
              information is passed as arguments to the hook: 1. the
              quilt-support mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2. the directory
              that contains the patch series; 3. the directory that holds
              quilt's status information (the `.pc' directory) or the string
              "-nopc-" if that directory wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called before `branchformat' is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `branch' and `revision'.
              They are set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and
              any change will be used directly when the actual replacement is

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will be used unchanged as the `%b'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called before a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.  They
              are set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any
              change will be used directly when the actual replacement is

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[rev-replace]} will be used unchanged as the `%i'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              This hook is used when vcs_info's quilt functionality is active
              in "addon" mode (quilt used on top of a real version control
              system). It is activated right before any quilt specific action
              is taken.

              Setting the `ret' variable in this hook to a non-zero value
              avoids any quilt specific actions from being run at all.

              This hook is used to control some of the possible expansions in
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles with patch queue systems
              such as quilt, mqueue and the like.

              This hook is used in the git, hg and quilt backends.

              The hook allows the control of the %p (${hook_com[applied]}) and
              %u (${hook_com[unapplied]}) expansion in all backends that use
              the hook. With the mercurial backend, the %g
              (${hook_com[guards]}) expansion is controllable in addition to

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in
              ${hook_com[patch-replace]} will be used unchanged instead of an
              expanded format from patch-format or nopatch-format.

              This hook is, in concert with the gen-applied-string or
              gen-unapplied-string hooks if they are defined, responsible for
              %-escaping the final patch-format value for use in the prompt.
              (See the Oddities section.)

              Called each time before a `vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.  It
              takes two arguments; the first being the `N' in the message
              variable name, the second is the currently configured formats or

              There are a number of `hook_com' keys, that are used here:
              `action', `branch', `base', `base-name', `subdir', `staged',
              `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and one `miscN' entry for
              each backend-specific data field (N starting at zero). They are
              set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change
              will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each
              configured formats or actionformats), each of the `hook_com'
              keys mentioned above (except for the miscN entries) has an
              `_orig' counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your
              liking you can still get the original value in the next run.
              Changing the `_orig' values is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[message]}
              will be used unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If all of this sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples
       section below and also in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file in the Zsh
       source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All %x expansion in all sorts of formats (formats, actionformats,
       branchformat, you name it) are done using the `zformat' builtin from
       the `zsh/zutil' module. That means you can do everything with these %x
       items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want something that
       is really long to have a fixed width, like a hash in a mercurial
       branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character
       hash to its 12 leading characters. The form is actually `%min.maxx'.
       More is possible.  See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in
       zshmodules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If you do use use-simple, please report if it does

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \
                     branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if
       you want to use the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way, you can even define different formats for output via
       vcs_info_lastmsg in the ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace
       the string `svn' by `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a function when populating the
       message variables with the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual
       function yet. To see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable
       the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That should give you an idea what is going on. Specifically, the
       function that we are looking for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the
       `+vi-' prefix. So, everything is in order, just as documented. When you
       are done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had
       registered our function in a less generic context. If we do it only in
       the `svn' backend's context, we don't need to test which the active
       backend is:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create
       a customised bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks' function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the function's positional parameters.
                  local s="${(Mj:,:)@:#sh/*}"
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal that we want to use the string we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are
       available in the examples file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the
       Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.

       You should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Prompts
       directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
       the string `prompt_' except for the special function`promptinit'.  You
       also need the `colors' and `add-zsh-hook' functions from
       Functions/Misc.  All these functions may already be installed on your
       system; if not, you will need to find them and copy them.  The
       directory should appear as one of the elements of the fpath array (this
       should already be the case if they were installed), and at least the
       function promptinit should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.
       Finally, to initialize the use of the system you need to call the
       promptinit function.  The following code in your .zshrc will arrange
       for this; assume the functions are stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use the prompt command to select your preferred theme.  This command
       may be added to your .zshrc following the call to promptinit in order
       to start zsh with a theme already selected.

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set or examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme
              argument, the theme with that name is set as the current theme.
              The available themes are determined at run time; use the -l
              option to see a list.  The special theme `random' selects at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In some cases the theme may be modified by one or more
              arguments, which should be given after the theme name.  See the
              help for each theme for descriptions of these arguments.

              Options are:

              -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no
                     theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the prompt
                     function if no theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the
              prompt function to install that theme.  This function may define
              other functions as necessary to maintain the prompt, including
              functions used to preview the prompt or provide help for its
              use.  You should not normally call a theme's setup function

   Utility Themes
       prompt off
              The theme `off' sets all the prompt variables to minimal values
              with no special effects.

       prompt default
              The theme `default' sets all prompt variables to the same state
              as if an interactive zsh was started with no initialization

       prompt restore
              The special theme `restore' erases all theme settings and sets
              prompt variables to their state before the first time the
              `prompt' function was run, provided each theme has properly
              defined its cleanup (see below).

              Note that you can undo `prompt off' and `prompt default' with
              `prompt restore', but a second restore does not undo the first.

   Writing Themes
       The first step for adding your own theme is to choose a name for it,
       and create a file `prompt_name_setup' in a directory in your fpath,
       such as ~/myfns in the example above.  The file should at minimum
       contain assignments for the prompt variables that your theme wishes to
       modify.  By convention, themes use PS1, PS2, RPS1, etc., rather than
       the longer PROMPT and RPROMPT.

       The file is autoloaded as a function in the current shell context, so
       it may contain any necessary commands to customize your theme,
       including defining additional functions.  To make some complex tasks
       easier, your setup function may also do any of the following:

       Assign prompt_opts
              The array prompt_opts may be assigned any of "bang", "cr",
              "percent", "sp", and/or "subst" as values.  The corresponding
              setopts (promptbang, etc.) are turned on, all other
              prompt-related options are turned off.  The prompt_opts array
              preserves setopts even beyond the scope of localoptions, should
              your function need that.

       Modify precmd and preexec
              Use of add-zsh-hook is recommended.  The precmd and preexec
              hooks are automatically adjusted if the prompt theme changes or
              is disabled.

       Declare cleanup
              If your function makes any other changes that should be undone
              when the theme is disabled, your setup function may call
              prompt_cleanup command
       where command should be suitably quoted.  If your theme is ever
       disabled or replaced by another, command is executed with eval.  You
       may declare more than one such cleanup hook.

       Define preview
              Define or autoload a function prompt_name_preview to display a
              simulated version of your prompt.  A simple default previewer is
              defined by promptinit for themes that do not define their own.
              This preview function is called by `prompt -p'.

       Provide help
              Define or autoload a function prompt_name_help to display
              documentation or help text for your theme.  This help function
              is called by `prompt -h'.

       These functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1))
       which can be bound to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them,
       your .zshrc should contain lines of the form

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function
       with a key sequence.  Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If you are looking for functions to implement moving over and
              editing words in the manner of bash, where only alphanumeric
              characters are considered word characters, you can use the
              functions described in the next section.  The following is

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       delete-whole-word-match, select-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The first eight `-match' functions are drop-in replacements for
              the builtin widgets without the suffix.  By default they behave
              in a similar way.  However, by the use of styles and the
              function select-word-style, the way words are matched can be
              altered. select-word-match is intended to be used as a text
              object in vi mode but with custom word styles. For comparison,
              the widgets described in zshzle(1) under Text Objects use fixed
              definitions of words, compatible with the vim editor.

              The simplest way of configuring the functions is to use
              select-word-style, which can either be called as a normal
              function with the appropriate argument, or invoked as a
              user-defined widget that will prompt for the first character of
              the word style to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the
              first eight -match functions will automatically replace the
              builtin versions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

              The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first
              character is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As in normal shell operation:  word characters are
                     alphanumeric characters plus any characters present in
                     the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words are complete shell command arguments, possibly
                     including complete quoted strings, or any tokens special
                     to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as

              All but `default' can be input as an upper case character, which
              has the same effect but with subword matching turned on.  In
              this case, words with upper case characters are treated
              specially: each separate run of upper case characters, or an
              upper case character followed by any number of other characters,
              is considered a word.  The style subword-range can supply an
              alternative character range to the default `[:upper:]'; the
              value of the style is treated as the contents of a `[...]'
              pattern (note that the outer brackets should not be supplied,
              only those surrounding named ranges).

              More control can be obtained using the zstyle command, as
              described in zshmodules(1).  Each style is looked up in the
              context :zle:widget where widget is the name of the user-defined
              widget, not the name of the function implementing it, so in the
              case of the definitions supplied by select-word-style the
              appropriate contexts are :zle:forward-word, and so on.  The
              function select-word-style itself always defines styles for the
              context `:zle:*' which can be overridden by more specific
              (longer) patterns as well as explicit contexts.

              The style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may have
              the following values.

              normal Use the standard shell rules, i.e. alphanumerics and
                     $WORDCHARS, unless overridden by the styles word-chars or

                     Similar to normal, but only the specified characters, and
                     not also alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The negation of specified.  The given characters are
                     those which will not be considered part of a word.

              shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for
                     generating shell command arguments.  In addition, special
                     tokens which are never command arguments such as `()' are
                     also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The first three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS, but the
              value in the parameter can be overridden by the style
              word-chars, which works in exactly the same way as $WORDCHARS.
              In addition, the style word-class uses character class syntax to
              group characters and takes precedence over word-chars if both
              are set.  The word-class style does not include the surrounding
              brackets of the character class; for example, `-:[:alnum:]' is a
              valid word-class to include all alphanumerics plus the
              characters `-' and `:'.  Be careful including `]', `^' and `-'
              as these are special inside character classes.

              word-style may also have `-subword' appended to its value to
              turn on subword matching, as described above.

              The style skip-chars is mostly useful for transpose-words and
              similar functions.  If set, it gives a count of characters
              starting at the cursor position which will not be considered
              part of the word and are treated as space, regardless of what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has been set, and transpose-words-match is called with the
              cursor on the X of fooXbar, where X can be any character, then
              the resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style
              word-context to an array of pairs of entries.  Each pair of
              entries consists of a pattern and a subcontext.  The shell
              argument the cursor is on is matched against each pattern in
              turn until one matches; if it does, the context is extended by a
              colon and the corresponding subcontext.  Note that the test is
              made against the original word on the line, with no stripping of
              quotes.  Special handling is done between words: the current
              context is examined and if it contains the string between the
              word is set to a single space; else if it is contains the string
              back, the word before the cursor is considered, else the word
              after cursor is considered. Some examples are given below.

              The style skip-whitespace-first is only used with the
              forward-word widget.  If it is set to true, then forward-word
              skips any non-word-characters, followed by any
              non-word-characters: this is similar to the behaviour of other
              word-orientated widgets, and also that used by other editors,
              however it differs from the standard zsh behaviour.  When using
              select-word-style the widget is set in the context :zle:* to
              true if the word style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be
              overridden by setting it in the more specific context

              It is possible to create widgets with specific behaviour by
              defining a new widget implemented by the appropriate generic
              function, then setting a style for the context of the specific
              widget.  For example, the following defines a widget
              backward-kill-space-word using backward-kill-word-match, the
              generic widget implementing backward-kill-word behaviour, and
              ensures that the new widget always implements space-delimited

                     zle -N backward-kill-space-word backward-kill-word-match
                     zstyle :zle:backward-kill-space-word word-style space

              The widget backward-kill-space-word can now be bound to a key.

              Here are some further examples of use of the styles, actually
              taken from the simplified interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e. only
              alphanumerics are word characters; equivalent to setting the
              parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given context.

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word `kill' in
              the name.  Neither of the styles word-chars nor word-class is
              used in this case.

              Here are some examples of use of the word-context style to
              extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context \
                            "*/*" filename "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This provides two different ways of using transpose-words
              depending on whether the cursor is on whitespace between words
              or on a filename, here any word containing a /.  On whitespace,
              complete arguments as defined by standard shell rules will be
              transposed.  In a filename, only alphanumerics will be
              transposed.  Elsewhere, words will be transposed using the
              default style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The word matching and all the handling of zstyle settings is
              actually implemented by the function match-words-by-style.  This
              can be used to create new user-defined widgets.  The calling
              function should set the local parameter curcontext to
              :zle:widget, create the local parameter matched_words and call
              match-words-by-style with no arguments.  On return,
              matched_words will be set to an array with the elements: (1) the
              start of the line (2) the word before the cursor (3) any
              non-word characters between that word and the cursor (4) any
              non-word character at the cursor position plus any remaining
              non-word characters before the next word, including all
              characters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or
              following the cursor (6) any non-word characters following that
              word (7) the remainder of the line.  Any of the elements may be
              an empty string; the calling function should test for this to
              decide whether it can perform its function.

              If the variable matched_words is defined by the caller to
              match-words-by-style as an associative array (local -A
              matched_words), then the seven values given above should be
              retrieved from it as elements named start, word-before-cursor,
              ws-before-cursor, ws-after-cursor, word-after-cursor,
              ws-after-word, and end.  In addition the element is-word-start
              is 1 if the cursor is on the start of a word or subword, or on
              white space before it (the cases can be distinguished by testing
              the ws-after-cursor element) and 0 otherwise.  This form is
              recommended for future compatibility.

              It is possible to pass options with arguments to
              match-words-by-style to override the use of styles.  The options
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to
              extract the command argument around the cursor.

              The word-context style is implemented by the function
              match-word-context.  This should not usually need to be called

              The bracketed-paste widget (see subsection Miscellaneous in
              zshzle(1)) inserts pasted text literally into the editor buffer
              rather than interpret it as keystrokes.  This disables some
              common usages where the self-insert widget is replaced in order
              to accomplish some extra processing.  An example is the
              contributed url-quote-magic widget described below.

              The bracketed-paste-magic widget is meant to replace
              bracketed-paste with a wrapper that re-enables these self-insert
              actions, and other actions as selected by zstyles.  Therefore
              this widget is installed with

                     autoload -Uz bracketed-paste-magic
                     zle -N bracketed-paste bracketed-paste-magic

              Other than enabling some widget processing,
              bracketed-paste-magic attempts to replicate bracketed-paste as
              faithfully as possible.

              The following zstyles may be set to control processing of pasted
              text.  All are looked up in the context

                     A list of patterns matching widget names that should be
                     activated during the paste.  All other key sequences are
                     processed as self-insert-unmeta.  The default is `self-*'
                     so any user-defined widgets named with that prefix are
                     active along with the builtin self-insert.

                     If this style is not set (explicitly deleted) or set to
                     an empty value, no widgets are active and the pasted text
                     is inserted literally.  If the value includes
                     `undefined-key', any unknown sequences are discarded from
                     the pasted text.

                     The inverse of active-widgets, a list of key sequences
                     that always use self-insert-unmeta even when bound to an
                     active widget.  Note that this is a list of literal key
                     sequences, not patterns.

                     A list of function names, called in widget context (but
                     not as widgets).  The functions are called in order until
                     one of them returns a non-zero status.  The parameter
                     `PASTED' contains the initial state of the pasted text.
                     All other ZLE parameters such as `BUFFER' have their
                     normal values and side-effects, and full history is
                     available, so for example paste-init functions may move
                     words from BUFFER into PASTED to make those words visible
                     to the active-widgets.

                     A non-zero return from a paste-init function does not
                     prevent the paste itself from proceeding.

                     Loading bracketed-paste-magic defines
                     backward-extend-paste, a helper function for use in

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-init \

                     When a paste would insert into the middle of a word or
                     append text to a word already on the line,
                     backward-extend-paste moves the prefix from LBUFFER into
                     PASTED so that the active-widgets see the full word so
                     far.  This may be useful with url-quote-magic.

                     Another list of function names called in order until one
                     returns non-zero.  These functions are called after the
                     pasted text has been processed by the active-widgets, but
                     before it is inserted into `BUFFER'.  ZLE parameters have
                     their normal values and side-effects.

                     A non-zero return from a paste-finish function does not
                     prevent the paste itself from proceeding.

                     Loading bracketed-paste-magic also defines quote-paste, a
                     helper function for use in paste-finish.

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-finish \
                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

                     When the pasted text is inserted into BUFFER, it is
                     quoted per the quote-style value.  To forcibly turn off
                     the built-in numeric prefix quoting of bracketed-paste,

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

              Important: During active-widgets processing of the paste (after
              paste-init and before paste-finish), BUFFER starts empty and
              history is restricted, so cursor motions, etc., may not pass
              outside of the pasted content.  Text assigned to BUFFER by the
              active widgets is copied back into PASTED before paste-finish.

              This widget works like a combination of insert-last-word and
              copy-prev-shell-word.  Repeated invocations of the widget
              retrieve earlier words on the relevant history line.  With a
              numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N
              may be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a
              previous history line, repeated invocations will replace that
              word with earlier words from the same line.

              Otherwise, the widget applies to words on the line currently
              being edited.  The widget style can be set to the name of
              another widget that should be called to retrieve words.  This
              widget must accept the same three arguments as insert-last-word.

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the
              new function based completion system may know about multiple
              places in this string where characters are missing or differ
              from at least one of the possible matches.  It will then place
              the cursor on the position it considers to be the most
              interesting one, i.e. the one where one can disambiguate between
              as many matches as possible with as little typing as possible.

              This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved to the other
              interesting spots.  It can be invoked repeatedly to cycle
              between all positions reported by the completion system.

              This is another function which works like the -match functions
              described immediately above, i.e. using styles to decide the
              word boundaries.  However, it is not a replacement for any
              existing function.

              The basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.
              There is no numeric argument handling; only the single word
              around the cursor is considered.  If the widget contains the
              string kill, the removed text will be placed in the cutbuffer
              for future yanking.  This can be obtained by defining
              kill-whole-word-match as follows:

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These widgets are similar to the builtin functions
              up-line-or-search and down-line-or-search:  if in a multiline
              buffer they move up or down within the buffer, otherwise they
              search for a history line matching the start of the current
              line.  In this case, however, they search for a line which
              matches the current line up to the current cursor position, in
              the manner of history-beginning-search-backward and -forward,
              rather than the first word on the line.

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              Expand the file name under the cursor to an absolute path,
              resolving symbolic links.  Where possible, the initial path
              segment is turned into a named directory or reference to a
              user's home directory.

              This function implements the widgets
              history-beginning-search-backward-end and
              history-beginning-search-forward-end.  These commands work by
              first calling the corresponding builtin widget (see `History
              Control' in zshzle(1)) and then moving the cursor to the end of
              the line.  The original cursor position is remembered and
              restored before calling the builtin widget a second time, so
              that the same search is repeated to look farther through the

              Although you autoload only one function, the commands to use it
              are slightly different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This function implements yet another form of history searching.
              The text before the cursor is used to select lines from the
              history, as for history-beginning-search-backward except that
              all matches are shown in a numbered menu.  Typing the
              appropriate digits inserts the full history line.  Note that
              leading zeroes must be typed (they are only shown when necessary
              for removing ambiguity).  The entire history is searched; there
              is no distinction between forwards and backwards.

              With a numeric argument, the search is not anchored to the start
              of the line; the string typed by the use may appear anywhere in
              the line in the history.

              If the widget name contains `-end' the cursor is moved to the
              end of the line inserted.  If the widget name contains `-space'
              any space in the text typed is treated as a wildcard and can
              match anything (hence a leading space is equivalent to giving a
              numeric argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The function history-pattern-search implements widgets which
              prompt for a pattern with which to search the history backwards
              or forwards.  The pattern is in the usual zsh format, however
              the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to the start
              of the line, and the last character may be $ to anchor the
              search to the end of the line.  If the search was not anchored
              to the end of the line the cursor is positioned just after the
              pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those in
              the example immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on
              or to the left of an integer causes that integer to be
              incremented by one.  With a numeric argument, the number is
              incremented by the amount of the argument (decremented if the
              numeric argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may
              be set to change the default increment to something other than

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting
              this command, a list of completion choices can be shown after
              every character you type, which you can delete with ^H or DEL.
              Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns you to
              normal editing (that is, the command line is not immediately
              executed).  You can hit TAB to do normal completion, ^G to abort
              back to the state when you started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear
              on the keyboard to be inserted into the command line.  The
              command is followed by two keys corresponding to ASCII
              characters (there is no prompt).  For accented characters, the
              two keys are a base character followed by a code for the accent,
              while for other special characters the two characters together
              form a mnemonic for the character to be inserted.  The
              two-character codes are a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see
              for example http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1345.html).

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two characters
              which replace one or both of the characters read from the
              keyboard; if both characters are supplied, no input is read.
              For example, insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget
              to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.  This has the
              advantages over use of a literal character that it is more

              For best results zsh should have been built with support for
              multibyte characters (configured with --enable-multibyte);
              however, the function works for the limited range of characters
              available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The character is converted into the local representation and
              inserted into the command line at the cursor position.  (The
              conversion is done within the shell, using whatever facilities
              the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the character
              and its code are previewed in the status line

              The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the
              character (together with a newline) to standard output.  Input
              is still read from keystrokes.

              See insert-unicode-char for an alternative way of inserting
              Unicode characters using their hexadecimal character number.

              The set of accented characters is reasonably complete up to
              Unicode character U+0180, the set of special characters less so.
              However, it is very sporadic from that point.  Adding new
              characters is easy, however; see the function
              define-composed-chars.  Please send any additions to

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first
              are as follows.  Note that not every character can take every
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that
                     character is present on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot,
                     or in the case of L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however there are currently no underlined
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.  (A little forward facing hook at the bottom
                     right of the character.)
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek and
              Hebrew alphabets are available; consult RFC 1345 for the
              appropriate sequences.  In addition, a set of two letter codes
              not in RFC 1345 are available for the double-width characters
              corresponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by
              preceding the character with ^, for example ^A for a
              double-width A.

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9
                     rather than 6) rather than their grammatical use.  (For
                     example, a "right" low double quote is used to open
                     quotations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth
                     note), semiquavers (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural
                     sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This function allows you type a file pattern, and see the
              results of the expansion at each step.  When you hit return, all
              expansions are inserted into the command line.

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When first executed, the user inputs a set of hexadecimal
              digits.  This is terminated with another call to
              insert-unicode-char.  The digits are then turned into the
              corresponding Unicode character.  For example, if the widget is
              bound to ^XU, the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L
              (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters using
              a two-character mnemonic.

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
                        [ -S statepm | -R statepm | [ -l lbufvar ] [ -r
       rbufvar ] ]
                        [ -n ] [ start end ]
              Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region between
              the cursor and the mark, which may be in either order.  The
              region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may be used as a widget or called as a function
              from a user-defined widget; by default, the text outside the
              editable area remains visible.  A recursive-edit is performed
              and the original widening status is then restored.  Various
              options and arguments are available when it is called as a

              The options -p pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace
              the text before and after the display for the duration of the
              function; either or both may be an empty string.

              If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be
              inserted if there is text before or after the region
              respectively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of
              the cursor and mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other
              options while saving the original state in the parameter with
              name statepm, while the option -R statepm is used to restore the
              state from the parameter; note in both cases the name of the
              parameter is required.  In the second case, other options and
              arguments are irrelevant.  When this method is used, no
              recursive-edit is performed; the calling widget should call this
              function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the
              command line or pass control to the user via `zle
              recursive-edit', then call this function with the option -R.
              The argument statepm must be a suitable name for an ordinary
              parameter, except that parameters beginning with the prefix
              _ntr_ are reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically
              the parameter will be local to the calling function.

              The options -l lbufvar and -r rbufvar may be used to specify
              parameters where the widget will store the resulting text from
              the operation.  The parameter lbufvar will contain LBUFFER and
              rbufvar will contain RBUFFER.  Neither of these two options may
              be used with -S or -R.

              narrow-to-region-invisible is a simple widget which calls
              narrow-to-region with arguments which replace any text outside
              the region with `...'.  It does not take any arguments.

              The display is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle
              command which would usually cause the line to be accepted or
              aborted.  Hence an additional such command is required to accept
              or abort the current line.

              The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was
              accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This set of functions implements predictive typing using history
              search.  After predict-on, typing characters causes the editor
              to look backward in the history for the first line beginning
              with what you have typed so far.  After predict-off, editing
              returns to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't
              even need to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match
              something in the history, adding a key performs standard
              completion, and then inserts itself if no completions were
              found.  However, editing in the middle of a line is liable to
              confuse prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is needed for
              this), you should be able to type TAB at almost any point to
              advance the cursor to the next ``interesting'' character
              position (usually the end of the current word, but sometimes
              somewhere in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as
              the entire line is what you want, you can accept with return,
              without needing to move the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional
              widget functions:

                     Replaces the backward-delete-char widget.  You do not
                     need to bind this yourself.
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert
                     widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although you autoload only the predict-on function, it is
              necessary to create a keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This is most useful when called as a function from inside a
              widget, but will work correctly as a widget in its own right.
              It prompts for a value below the current command line; a value
              may be input using all of the standard zle operations (and not
              merely the restricted set available when executing, for example,
              execute-named-cmd).  The value is then returned to the calling
              function in the parameter $REPLY and the editing buffer restored
              to its previous state.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break (typically ^G), the function returns status 1 and $REPLY
              is not set.

              If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `? ' is used.  If two arguments are supplied,
              they are the prompt and the initial value of $LBUFFER, and if a
              third argument is given it is the initial value of $RBUFFER.
              This provides a default value and starting cursor placement.
              Upon return the entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One option is available: `-k num' specifies that num characters
              are to be read instead of a whole line.  The line editor is not
              invoked recursively in this case, so depending on the terminal
              settings the input may not be visible, and only the input keys
              are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike
              the read builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The name is a slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own
              minibuffer is not used.  Hence it is still possible to call
              executed-named-cmd and similar functions while reading a value.

       replace-argument, replace-argument-edit
              The function replace-argument can be used to replace a command
              line argument in the current command line or, if the current
              command line is empty, in the last command line executed (the
              new command line is not executed).  Arguments are as delimited
              by standard shell syntax,

              If a numeric argument is given, that specifies the argument to
              be replaced.  0 means the command name, as in history expansion.
              A negative numeric argument counts backward from the last word.

              If no numeric argument is given, the current argument is
              replaced; this is the last argument if the previous history line
              is being used.

              The function prompts for a replacement argument.

              If the widget contains the string edit, for example is defined

                     zle -N replace-argument-edit replace-argument

              then the function presents the current value of the argument for
              editing, otherwise the editing buffer for the replacement is
              initially empty.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The function replace-string implements three widgets.  If
              defined under the same name as the function, it prompts for two
              strings; the first (source) string will be replaced by the
              second everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If the widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by
              defining the widget using the command `zle -N replace-pattern
              replace-string', then the matching is performed using zsh
              patterns.  All zsh extended globbing patterns can be used in the
              source string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern
              does not need to match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers
              have any effect.  In addition, the replacement string can
              contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a `&'
              in the replacement string will be replaced with the matched
              source string, and a backquoted digit `\N' will be replaced by
              the Nth parenthesised expression matched.  The form `\{N}' may
              be used to protect the digit from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word `regex' (or `regexp'),
              then the matching is performed using regular expressions,
              respecting the setting of the option RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the
              description of the function regexp-replace below).  The special
              replacement facilities described above for pattern matching are

              By default the previous source or replacement string will not be
              offered for editing.  However, this feature can be activated by
              setting the style edit-previous in the context :zle:widget (for
              example, :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a positive
              numeric argument forces the previous values to be offered, a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The function replace-string-again can be used to repeat the
              previous replacement; no prompting is done.  As with
              replace-string, if the name of the widget contains the word
              `pattern' or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is
              performed, else a literal string replacement.  Note that the
              previous source and replacement text are the same whether
              pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In addition, replace-string shows the previous replacement above
              the prompt, so long as there was one during the current session;
              if the source string is empty, that replacement will be repeated
              without the widget prompting for a replacement string.

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and invoking replace-pattern with the source string `f(?)n' and
              the replacement string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The range of the replacement string can be limited by using the
              narrow-to-region-invisible widget.  One limitation of the
              current version is that undo will cycle through changes to the
              replacement and source strings before undoing the replacement

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called
              as a function from a widget or as a widget of its own, and
              interactively reads input from the keyboard.  However, the input
              being typed is concealed and a string of asterisks (`*') is
              shown instead.  The value is saved in the parameter $INVISIBLE
              to which a reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the
              restored cursor position.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break (typically ^G) or another escape from editing such as
              push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the original buffer is
              restored unchanged.

              If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If
              a second and third argument are supplied they are used to begin
              and end the reference to $INVISIBLE that is inserted into the
              buffer.  The default is to open with ${, then INVISIBLE, and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric argument, or when passed command line arguments
              in a call from another widget, it behaves like insert-last-word,
              except that words in comments are ignored when
              INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

              Otherwise, the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous
              command is found and inserted.  The default definition of
              ``interesting'' is that the word contains at least one
              alphabetic character, slash, or backslash.  This definition may
              be overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to
              look up the style is the widget name, so usually the context is
              :insert-last-word.  However, you can bind this function to
              different widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous style is
              set to a true value, the search continues upward through the
              history.  When auto-previous is unset or false (the default),
              the widget must be invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier
              history lines.

              Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are
              lines within the current on-screen buffer, not history lines.
              The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose the current line with the previous line and move the
              cursor to the start of the next line.  Repeating this (which can
              be done by providing a positive numeric argument) has the effect
              of moving the line above the cursor down by a number of lines.

              With a negative numeric argument, requires two lines above the
              cursor.  These two lines are transposed and the cursor moved to
              the start of the previous line.  Using a numeric argument less
              than -1 has the effect of moving the line above the cursor up by
              minus that number of lines.

              This widget replaces the built-in self-insert to make it easier
              to type URLs as command line arguments.  As you type, the input
              character is analyzed and, if it may need quoting, the current
              word is checked for a URI scheme.  If one is found and the
              current word is not already in quotes, a backslash is inserted
              before the input character.

              Styles to control quoting behavior:

                     This style is looked up in the context
                     `:url-quote-magic:scheme' (where scheme is that of the
                     current URL, e.g. "ftp").  The value is a string listing
                     the characters to be treated as globbing metacharacters
                     when appearing in a URL using that scheme.  The default
                     is to quote all zsh extended globbing characters,
                     excluding '<' and '>' but including braces (as in brace
                     expansion).  See also url-seps.

                     Like url-metas, but lists characters that should be
                     considered command separators, redirections, history
                     references, etc.  The default is to quote the standard
                     set of shell separators, excluding those that overlap
                     with the extended globbing characters, but including '<'
                     and '>' and the first character of $histchars.

                     This style is looked up in the context
                     `:url-quote-magic'.  The values form a list of command
                     names that are expected to do their own globbing on the
                     URL string.  This implies that they are aliased to use
                     the `noglob' modifier.  When the first word on the line
                     matches one of the values and the URL refers to a local
                     file (see url-local-schema), only the url-seps characters
                     are quoted; the url-metas are left alone, allowing them
                     to affect command-line parsing, completion, etc.  The
                     default values are a literal `noglob' plus (when the
                     zsh/parameter module is available) any commands aliased
                     to the helper function `urlglobber' or its alias

                     This style is always looked up in the context
                     `:urlglobber', even though it is used by both
                     url-quote-magic and urlglobber.  The values form a list
                     of URI schema that should be treated as referring to
                     local files by their real local path names, as opposed to
                     files which are specified relative to a
                     web-server-defined document root.  The defaults are "ftp"
                     and "file".

                     Like url-local-schema, but lists all other URI schema
                     upon which urlglobber and url-quote-magic should act.  If
                     the URI on the command line does not have a scheme
                     appearing either in this list or in url-local-schema, it
                     is not magically quoted.  The default values are "http",
                     "https", and "ftp".  When a scheme appears both here and
                     in url-local-schema, it is quoted differently depending
                     on whether the command name appears in url-globbers.

              Loading url-quote-magic also defines a helper function
              `urlglobber' and aliases `globurl' to `noglob urlglobber'.  This
              function takes a local URL apart, attempts to pattern-match the
              local file portion of the URL path, and then puts the results
              back into URL format again.

              This function reads a movement command from the keyboard and
              then prompts for an external command. The part of the buffer
              covered by the movement is piped to the external command and
              then replaced by the command's output. If the movement command
              is bound to vi-pipe, the current line is used.

              The function serves as an example for reading a vi movement
              command from within a user-defined widget.

              This function is a drop-in replacement for the builtin widget
              which-command.  It has enhanced behaviour, in that it correctly
              detects whether or not the command word needs to be expanded as
              an alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word from the
              expanded alias until it reaches the command that will be

              The style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this
              may be set to an array to give the command and options that will
              be used to investigate the command word found.  The default is
              whence -c.

              This function is useful together with the zcalc function
              described in the section Mathematical Functions.  It should be
              bound to a key representing a binary operator such as `+', `-',
              `*' or `/'.  When running in zcalc, if the key occurs at the
              start of the line or immediately following an open parenthesis,
              the text "ans " is inserted before the representation of the key
              itself.  This allows easy use of the answer from the previous
              calculation in the current line.  The text to be inserted before
              the symbol typed can be modified by setting the variable

              Hence, for example, typing `+12' followed by return adds 12 to
              the previous result.

              If zcalc is in RPN mode (-r option) the effect of this binding
              is automatically suppressed as operators alone on a line are

              When not in zcalc, the key simply inserts the symbol itself.

   Utility Functions
       These functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They should be
       loaded with `autoload -U function' and called as indicated from
       user-defined widgets.

              This function splits the line currently being edited into shell
              arguments and whitespace.  The result is stored in the array
              reply.  The array contains all the parts of the line in order,
              starting with any whitespace before the first argument, and
              finishing with any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence
              (so long as the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is
              given by odd indices in the array and arguments by even indices.
              Note that no stripping of quotes is done; joining together all
              the elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce the
              original line.

              The parameter REPLY is set to the index of the word in reply
              which contains the character after the cursor, where the first
              element has index 1.  The parameter REPLY2 is set to the index
              of the character under the cursor in that word, where the first
              character has index 1.

              Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made local to the
              enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described below, for
              an example of how to call this function.

       modify-current-argument [ expr-using-$ARG | func ]
              This function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined
              widgets to modify the command line argument under the cursor (or
              immediately to the left of the cursor if the cursor is between

              The argument can be an expression which when evaluated operates
              on the shell parameter ARG, which will have been set to the
              command line argument under the cursor.  The expression should
              be suitably quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

              Alternatively, if the argument does not contain the string ARG,
              it is assumed to be a shell function, to which the current
              command line argument is passed as the only argument.  The
              function should set the variable REPLY to the new value for the
              command line argument.  If the function returns non-zero status,
              so does the calling function.

              For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code
              converts the characters in the argument under the cursor into
              all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The following strips any quoting from the current word (whether
              backslashes or one of the styles of quotes), and replaces it
              with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

              The following performs directory expansion on the command line
              argument and replaces it by the absolute path:

                     expand-dir() {
                     modify-current-argument expand-dir

              In practice the function expand-dir would probably not be
              defined within the widget where modify-current-argument is

       The behavior of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the
       use of the zstyle mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with
       the completion system pass along their context to any completions that
       they invoke.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its
              value should be a pattern, and all keys matching this pattern
              will cause the widget to stop incremental completion without the
              key having any further effect. Like all styles used directly by
              incremental-complete-word, this style is looked up using the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set
              up their top-level context name before calling completion.  This
              allows one to define different sets of completer functions for
              normal completion and for these widgets.  For example, to use
              completion, approximation and correction for normal completion,
              completion and correction for incremental completion and only
              completion for prediction one could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction,
              because they may be automatically invoked as you type.  The
              _list and _menu completers should never be used with prediction.
              The _approximate, _correct, _expand, and _match completers may
              be used, but be aware that they may change characters anywhere
              in the word behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully
              that the result is what you intended.

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context
              `:predict', to decide where to place the cursor after completion
              has been tried.  Values are:

                     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished,
                     but only if it is after a character equal to the one just
                     inserted by the user.  If it is after another character,
                     this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the
                     character just inserted, where n is the number of times
                     that character appeared in the word before completion was
                     attempted.  In short, this has the effect of leaving the
                     cursor after the character just typed even if the
                     completion code found out that no other characters need
                     to be inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor
              at the position where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style says
              if the matches should be listed on every key press (if they fit
              on the screen).  Use the context prefix

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the
              completion should be shown even if there is only one possible
              completion.  This is done if the value of this style is the
              string always.  In this case the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word to provide a
              pattern (using full EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an
              interesting word.  The context is the name of the widget to
              which smart-insert-last-word is bound (see above).  The default
              behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two
              characters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The incremental-complete-word widget shows the value of this
              style in the status line during incremental completion.  The
              string value may contain any of the following substrings in the
              manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced by the name of the completer function that
                     generated the matches (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list
                     of matches is too long to fit on the screen and with an
                     empty string otherwise.  If the list style is `false' or
                     not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced by `-no match-', `-no prefix-', or an empty
                     string if there is no completion matching the word on the
                     line, if the matches have no common prefix different from
                     the word on the line, or if there is such a common
                     prefix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there
                     is any, and if it is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value is treated similarly to the one for the break-keys style
              (and uses the same context: `:incremental').  However, in this
              case all keys matching the pattern given as its value will stop
              incremental completion and will then execute their usual

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, predictive typing is automatically toggled off in
              situations where it is unlikely to be useful, such as when
              editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a
              line and then deleting a character.  The default is to leave
              prediction turned on until an explicit call to predict-off.

              This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, these widgets display a message below the prompt when
              the predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful in
              combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display
              these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions
              that use zle to call other widgets, this style can sometimes be
              used to override the widget which is called.  The context for
              this style is the name of the calling widget (not the name of
              the calling function, because one function may be bound to
              multiple widget names).

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget or function to
              determine whether the widget style is used.

       Two functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling
       in a form that should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name is an
              arbitrary string and is only used by the throw and catch
              functions.  An exception is for the most part treated the same
              as a shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the
              shell to abort all processing in a function or script and to
              return to the top level in an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The function catch returns status zero if an exception was
              thrown and the pattern exception-pattern matches its name.
              Otherwise it returns status 1.  exception-pattern is a standard
              shell pattern, respecting the current setting of the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent
              the argument to the function from matching filenames, so
              patterns may be used unquoted.  Note that as exceptions are not
              fundamentally different from other shell errors it is possible
              to catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception
              name.  The shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name of
              the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by
              calling the throw function again once an exception has been

       The functions are designed to be used together with the always
       construct described in zshmisc(1).  This is important as only this
       construct provides the required support for exceptions.  A typical
       example is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may
       be thrown by code deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However, note
       that it must be thrown inside the current shell, not in a subshell
       forked for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct, or some
       form of command or process substitution.

       The system internally uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the
       name of the exception between throwing and catching.  One drawback of
       this scheme is that if the exception is not handled the variable
       EXCEPTION remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the name of
       an exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset
       EXCEPTION at the start of the outermost layer of any code that uses
       exception handling will eliminate this problem.

       Three functions are available to provide handling of files recognised
       by extension, for example to dispatch a file text.ps when executed as a
       command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [ -l ] command argument ...
              These two functions use the files ~/.mime.types and
              /etc/mime.types, which associate types and extensions, as well
              as ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which associate types and
              the programs that handle them.  These are provided on many
              systems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To enable the system, the function zsh-mime-setup should be
              autoloaded and run.  This allows files with extensions to be
              treated as executable; such files be completed by the function
              completion system.  The function zsh-mime-handler should not
              need to be called by the user.

              The system works by setting up suffix aliases with `alias -s'.
              Suffix aliases already installed by the user will not be

              For suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will
              also automatically be handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled
              if handling for the suffix pdf is defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated calls to zsh-mime-setup do not override the existing
              mapping between suffixes and executable files unless the option
              -f is given.  Note, however, that this does not override
              existing suffix aliases assigned to handlers other than

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -l lists the existing
              mappings without altering them.  Suffixes to list (which may
              contain pattern characters that should be quoted from immediate
              interpretation on the command line) may be given as additional
              arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output
              to be shown during the setup operation.

              The system respects the mailcap flags needsterminal and
              copiousoutput, see mailcap(4).

              The functions use the following styles, which are defined with
              the zstyle builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should be
              defined before zsh-mime-setup is run.  The contexts used all
              start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.  It
              is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended
              to style patterns in case the system is extended in future.
              Some examples are given below.

              For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the
              context includes the suffix it will be looked up starting with
              the longest possible suffix until a match for the style is
              found.  For example, if .pdf.gz produces a match for the
              handler, that will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will
              be used.  Note that, owing to the way suffix aliases work, it is
              always required that there be a handler for the shortest
              possible suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only be handled
              if .gz is also handled (though not necessarily in the same way).
              Alternatively, if no handling for .gz on its own is needed,
              simply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to the initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not be
              handled on its own, but may be in combination with other

                     If this boolean style is true, the mailcap handler for
                     the context in question is run using the eval builtin
                     instead of by starting a new sh process.  This is more
                     efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases where
                     the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

              disown If this boolean style is true, mailcap handlers started
                     in the background will be disowned, i.e. not subject to
                     job control within the parent shell.  Such handlers
                     nearly always produce their own windows, so the only
                     likely harmful side effect of setting the style is that
                     it becomes harder to kill jobs from within the shell.

                     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against
                     files passed for execution with a handler program.  If
                     the file matches the pattern, the entire command line is
                     executed in its current form, with no handler.  This is
                     useful for files which might have suffixes but
                     nonetheless be executable in their own right.  If the
                     style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used; hence
                     executable files are executed directly and not passed to
                     a handler, and the option AUTO_CD may be used to change
                     to directories that happen to have MIME suffixes.

                     This style is useful in combination with execute-as-is.
                     It is set to an array of patterns corresponding to full
                     paths to files that should never be treated as
                     executable, even if the file passed to the MIME handler
                     matches execute-as-is.  This is useful for file systems
                     that don't handle execute permission or that contain
                     executables from another operating system.  For example,
                     if /mnt/windows is a Windows mount, then

                            zstyle ':mime:*' execute-never '/mnt/windows/*'

                     will ensure that any files found in that area will be
                     executed as MIME types even if they are executable.  As
                     this example shows, the complete file name is matched
                     against the pattern, regardless of how the file was
                     passed to the handler.  The file is resolved to a full
                     path using the :P modifier described in the subsection
                     Modifiers in zshexpn(1); this means that symbolic links
                     are resolved where possible, so that links into other
                     file systems behave in the correct fashion.

                     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same
                     context.  Set to an array of directories that are used
                     for searching for the file to be handled; the default is
                     the command path given by the special parameter path.
                     The shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is set,
                     the appropriate path will be searched even if the name of
                     the file to be handled as it appears on the command line
                     contains a `/'.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If set, allows files whose names do not contain absolute
                     paths to be searched for in the command path or the path
                     specified by the file-path style.  If the file is not
                     found in the path, it is looked for locally (whether or
                     not the current directory is in the path); if it is not
                     found locally, the handler will abort unless the
                     handle-nonexistent style is set.  Files found in the path
                     are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.  The
                     full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the
                     style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for
                     the handler style, and the format is as for the flags in

                     By default, arguments that don't correspond to files are
                     not passed to the MIME handler in order to prevent it
                     from intercepting commands found in the path that happen
                     to have suffixes.  This style may be set to an array of
                     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed
                     to the handler even if they don't exist.  If it is not
                     explicitly set it defaults to [[:alpha:]]#:/* which
                     allows URLs to be passed to the MIME handler even though
                     they don't exist in that format in the file system.  The
                     full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the
                     style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given by
                     the context as :mime:.suffix:, and the format of the
                     handler is exactly that in mailcap.  Note in particular
                     the `.' and trailing colon to distinguish this use of the
                     context.  This overrides any handler specified by the
                     mailcap files.  If the handler requires a terminal, the
                     flags style should be set to include the word
                     needsterminal, or if the output is to be displayed
                     through a pager (but not if the handler is itself a
                     pager), it should include copiousoutput.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mailcap and
                     /etc/mailcap to be read during setup, replacing the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The
                     context is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by
                     the default files.

                     This style is used to resolve multiple mailcap entries
                     for the same MIME type.  It consists of an array of the
                     following elements, in descending order of priority;
                     later entries will be used if earlier entries are unable
                     to resolve the entries being compared.  If none of the
                     tests resolve the entries, the first entry encountered is

                     files  The order of files (entries in the mailcap style)
                            read.  Earlier files are preferred.  (Note this
                            does not resolve entries in the same file.)

                            The priority flag from the mailcap entry.  The
                            priority is an integer from 0 to 9 with the
                            default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is
                            used to resolve entries.

                     place  Later entries are preferred; as the entries are
                            strictly ordered, this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during initialisation,
                     the context is always :mime:, with no discrimination by

                     This style is used when the keyword flags is encountered
                     in the list of tests specified by the mailcap-priorities
                     style.  It should be set to a list of patterns, each of
                     which is tested against the flags specified in the
                     mailcap entry (in other words, the sets of assignments
                     found with some entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier
                     patterns in the list are preferred to later ones, and
                     matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mime.types and
                     /etc/mime.types to be read during setup, replacing the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The
                     context is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by
                     the default files.

                     If this boolean style is set, the handler for the given
                     context is always run in the foreground, even if the
                     flags provided in the mailcap entry suggest it need not
                     be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle
                     suffixes where the copiousoutput flag is set.  The
                     context is as for handler, i.e. :mime:.suffix: for
                     handling a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When zsh-mime-setup is subsequently run, it will look for
              mailcap entries in the two files given.  Files of suffix .txt
              will be handled by running `less file.txt'.  The flag
              needsterminal is set to show that this program must run attached
              to a terminal.

              As there are several steps to dispatching a command, the
              following should be checked if attempting to execute a file by
              extension .ext does not have the expected effect.

              The command `alias -s ext' should show `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.
              If it shows something else, another suffix alias was already
              installed and was not overwritten.  If it shows nothing, no
              handler was installed:  this is most likely because no handler
              was found in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext
              files.  In that case, appropriate handling should be added to
              ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file is
              not opened correctly, either the handler defined for the type is
              incorrect, or the flags associated with it are in appropriate.
              Running zsh-mime-setup -l will show the handler and, if there
              are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the file
              (suitably quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program
              listed lists and can be run in the way shown.  Also check that
              the flags needsterminal or copiousoutput are set if the handler
              needs to be run under a terminal; the second flag is used if the
              output should be sent to a pager.  An example of a suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running `zsh-mime-handler -l command line' prints the command
              line that would be executed, simplified to remove the effect of
              any flags, and quoted so that the output can be run as a
              complete zsh command line.  This is used by the completion
              system to decide how to complete after a file handled by

              This function is separate from the two MIME functions described
              above and can be assigned directly to a suffix:

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web
              browser.  It may be run as either a function or a shell script.
              The status 255 is returned if no browser could be started.

              Various styles are available to customize the choice of

                     The value of the style is an array giving preferences in
                     decreasing order for the type of browser to use.  The
                     values of elements may be

                            Use a GUI browser that is already running when an
                            X Window display is available.  The browsers
                            listed in the x-browsers style are tried in order
                            until one is found; if it is, the file will be
                            displayed in that browser, so the user may need to
                            check whether it has appeared.  If no running
                            browser is found, one is not started.  Browsers
                            other than Firefox, Opera and Konqueror are
                            assumed to understand the Mozilla syntax for
                            opening a URL remotely.

                     x      Start a new GUI browser when an X Window display
                            is available.  Search for the availability of one
                            of the browsers listed in the x-browsers style and
                            start the first one that is found.  No check is
                            made for an already running browser.

                     tty    Start a terminal-based browser.  Search for the
                            availability of one of the browsers listed in the
                            tty-browsers style and start the first one that is

                     If the style is not set the default running x tty is

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to
                     use when running under the X Window System.  The array
                     consists of the command name under which to start the
                     browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
                     may be extended in future, so appending `*' is
                     recommended).  For example,

                            zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies that pick-web-browser should first look for a
                     running instance of Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in that
                     order, and if it fails to find any should attempt to
                     start Opera.  The default is firefox mozilla netscape
                     opera konqueror.

                     An array similar to x-browsers, except that it gives
                     browsers to use when no X Window display is available.
                     The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If it is set this style is used to pick the command used
                     to open a page for a browser.  The context is
                     :mime:browser:new:$browser: to start a new browser or
                     :mime:browser:running:$browser: to open a URL in a
                     browser already running on the current X display, where
                     $browser is the value matched in the x-browsers or
                     tty-browsers style.  The escape sequence %b in the
                     style's value will be replaced by the browser, while %u
                     will be replaced by the URL.  If the style is not set,
                     the default for all new instances is equivalent to %b %u
                     and the defaults for using running browsers are
                     equivalent to the values kfmclient openURL %u for
                     Konqueror, firefox -new-tab %u for Firefox, opera
                     -newpage %u for Opera, and %b -remote "openUrl(%u)" for
                     all others.

       zcalc [ -erf ] [ expression ... ]
              A reasonably powerful calculator based on zsh's arithmetic
              evaluation facility.  The syntax is similar to that of formulae
              in most programming languages; see the section `Arithmetic
              Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for details.

              Non-programmers should note that, as in many other programming
              languages, expressions involving only integers (whether
              constants without a `.', variables containing such constants as
              strings, or variables declared to be integers) are by default
              evaluated using integer arithmetic, which is not how an ordinary
              desk calculator operates.  To force floating point operation,
              pass the option -f; see further notes below.

              If the file ~/.zcalcrc exists it will be sourced inside the
              function once it is set up and about to process the command
              line.  This can be used, for example, to set shell options;
              emulate -L zsh and setopt extendedglob are in effect at this
              point.  Any failure to source the file if it exists is treated
              as fatal.  As with other initialisation files, the directory
              $ZDOTDIR is used instead of $HOME if it is set.

              The mathematical library zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if it is
              available; see the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in
              zshmodules(1).  The mathematical functions correspond to the raw
              system libraries, so trigonometric functions are evaluated using
              radians, and so on.

              Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows
              a number, which corresponds to a positional parameter where the
              result of that calculation is stored.  For example, the result
              of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> ' is available as
              $4.  The last value calculated is available as ans.  Full
              command line editing, including the history of previous
              calculations, is available; the history is saved in the file
              ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type `:q' on
              its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              A line ending with a single backslash is treated in the same
              fashion as it is in command line editing:  the backslash is
              removed, the function prompts for more input (the prompt is
              preceded by `...' to indicate this), and the lines are combined
              into one to get the final result.  In addition, if the input so
              far contains more open than close parentheses zcalc will prompt
              for more input.

              If arguments are given to zcalc on start up, they are used to
              prime the first few positional parameters.  A visual indication
              of this is given when the calculator starts.

              The constants PI (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...) are provided.
              Parameter assignment is possible, but note that all parameters
              will be put into the global namespace unless the :local special
              command is used.  The function creates local variables whose
              names start with _, so users should avoid doing so.  The
              variables ans (the last answer) and stack (the stack in RPN
              mode) may be referred to directly; stack is an array but
              elements of it are numeric.  Various other special variables are
              used locally with their standard meaning, for example
              compcontext, match, mbegin, mend, psvar.

              The output base can be initialised by passing the option
              `-#base', for example `zcalc -#16' (the `#' may have to be
              quoted, depending on the globbing options set).

              If the option `-e' is set, the function runs non-interactively:
              the arguments are treated as expressions to be evaluated as if
              entered interactively line by line.

              If the option `-f' is set, all numbers are treated as floating
              point, hence for example the expression `3/4' evaluates to 0.75
              rather than 0.  Options must appear in separate words.

              If the option `-r' is set, RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) mode is
              entered.  This has various additional properties:
              Stack  Evaluated values are maintained in a stack; this is
                     contained in an array named stack with the most recent
                     value in ${stack[1]}.

              Operators and functions
                     If the line entered matches an operator (+, -, *, /, **,
                     ^, | or &) or a function supplied by the zsh/mathfunc
                     library, the bottom element or elements of the stack are
                     popped to use as the argument or arguments.  The higher
                     elements of stack (least recent) are used as earlier
                     arguments.  The result is then pushed into ${stack[1]}.

                     Other expressions are evaluated normally, printed, and
                     added to the stack as numeric values.  The syntax within
                     expressions on a single line is normal shell arithmetic
                     (not RPN).

              Stack listing
                     If an integer follows the option -r with no space, then
                     on every evaluation that many elements of the stack,
                     where available, are printed instead of just the most
                     recent result.  Hence, for example, zcalc -r4 shows
                     $stack[4] to $stack[1] each time results are printed.

              Duplication: =
                     The pseudo-operator = causes the most recent element of
                     the stack to be duplicated onto the stack.

              pop    The pseudo-function pop causes the most recent element of
                     the stack to be popped.  A `>' on its own has the same

              >ident The expression > followed (with no space) by a shell
                     identifier causes the most recent element of the stack to
                     be popped and assigned to the variable with that name.
                     The variable is local to the zcalc function.

              <ident The expression < followed (with no space) by a shell
                     identifier causes the value of the variable with that
                     name to be pushed onto the stack.  ident may be an
                     integer, in which case the previous result with that
                     number (as shown before the > in the standard zcalc
                     prompt) is put on the stack.

              Exchange: xy
                     The pseudo-function xy causes the most recent two
                     elements of the stack to be exchanged.  `<>' has the same

              The prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which
              undergoes standard prompt expansion.  The index of the current
              entry is stored locally in the first element of the array psvar,
              which can be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.  The default
              prompt is `%1v> '.

              The variable ZCALC_ACTIVE is set within the function and can be
              tested by nested functions; it has the value rpn if RPN mode is
              active, else 1.

              A few special commands are available; these are introduced by a
              colon.  For backward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for
              certain commands.  Completion is available if compinit has been

              The output precision may be specified within zcalc by special
              commands familiar from many calculators.
              :norm  The default output format.  It corresponds to the printf
                     %g specification.  Typically this shows six decimal

              :sci digits
                     Scientific notation, corresponding to the printf %g
                     output format with the precision given by digits.  This
                     produces either fixed point or exponential notation
                     depending on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf %f
                     output format with the precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf %E
                     output format with the precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw output:  this is the default form of the output from
                     a math evaluation.  This may show more precision than the
                     number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute line... as a normal shell command line.  Note
                     that it is executed in the context of the function, i.e.
                     with local variables.  Space is optional after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare variables local to the function.  Other variables
                     may be used, too, but they will be taken from or put into
                     the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define a mathematical function or (with no body) delete
                     it.  :function may be abbreviated to :func or simply :f.
                     The name may contain the same characters as a shell
                     function name.  The function is defined using
                     zmathfuncdef, see below.

                     Note that zcalc takes care of all quoting.  Hence for

                            :f cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.  Functions
                     so defined, or indeed any functions defined directly or
                     indirectly using functions -M, are available to execute
                     by typing only the name on the line in RPN mode; this
                     pops the appropriate number of arguments off the stack to
                     pass to the function, i.e. 1 in the case of the example
                     cube function.  If there are optional arguments only the
                     mandatory arguments are supplied by this means.

                     This is not a special command, rather part of normal
                     arithmetic syntax; however, when this form appears on a
                     line by itself the default output radix is set to base.
                     Use, for example, `[#16]' to display hexadecimal output
                     preceded by an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just
                     to display the raw number in the given base.  Bases
                     themselves are always specified in decimal. `[#]'
                     restores the normal output format.  Note that setting an
                     output base suppresses floating point output; use `[#]'
                     to return to normal operation.

              $var   Print out the value of var literally; does not affect the
                     calculation.  To use the value of var, omit the leading

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       min(arg, ...)
       max(arg, ...)
       sum(arg, ...)
              The function zmathfunc defines the three mathematical functions
              min, max, and sum.  The functions min and max take one or more
              arguments.  The function sum takes zero or more arguments.
              Arguments can be of different types (ints and floats).

              Not to be confused with the zsh/mathfunc module, described in
              the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With two arguments, define a mathematical function named
              mathfunc which can be used in any form of arithmetic evaluation.
              body is a mathematical expression to implement the function.  It
              may contain references to position parameters $1, $2, ...  to
              refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...  to refer
              to optional parameters.  Note that the forms must be strictly
              adhered to for the function to calculate the correct number of
              arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell function named
              zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to refer
              to the shell function directly.  Any existing function of the
              same name is silently replaced.

              With one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as
              well as the shell function implementation.

              With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form
              suitable for restoring the definition.  The functions have not
              necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.

       The zsh/newuser module comes with a function to aid in configuring
       shell options for new users.  If the module is installed, this function
       can also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's default
       behaviour, namely running the function for a new user logging in
       without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The function presents the user with various options for
              customizing their initialization scripts.  Currently only
              ~/.zshrc is handled.  $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc is used instead if the
              parameter ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for the user to
              configure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any of the
              files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc, or .zlogin in the appropriate
              directory.  The option -f is required in order to force the
              function to continue.  Note this may happen even if .zshrc
              itself does not exist.

              As currently configured, the function will exit immediately if
              the user has root privileges; this behaviour cannot be

              Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be
              self-explanatory.  Menus are present allowing the user to alter
              the value of options and parameters.  Suggestions for
              improvements are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save
              the new file or not; changes are not irreversible until this
              point.  However, the script is careful to restrict changes to
              the file only to a group marked by the lines `# Lines configured
              by zsh-newuser-install' and `# End of lines configured by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is
              saved to a file with the suffix .zni appended.

              If the function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user
              to ensure that the changes made will take effect.  For example,
              if control usually returns early from the existing .zshrc the
              lines will not be executed; or a later initialization file may
              override options or parameters, and so on.  The function itself
              does not attempt to detect any such conflicts.

       There are a large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc
       directory of the zsh distribution.  Most are very simple and do not
       require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

       colors This function initializes several associative arrays to map
              color names to (and from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal
              codes.  These are used by the prompt theme system (see above).
              You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The eight base colors are: black, red, green, yellow, blue,
              magenta, cyan, and white.  Each of these has codes for
              foreground and background.  In addition there are seven
              intensity attributes: bold, faint, standout, underline, blink,
              reverse, and conceal.  Finally, there are seven codes used to
              negate attributes: none (reset all attributes to the defaults),
              normal (neither bold nor faint), no-standout, no-underline,
              no-blink, no-reverse, and no-conceal.

              Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and
                     integer codes to the color names.  The eight base names
                     map to the foreground color codes, as do names prefixed
                     with `fg-', such as `fg-red'.  Names prefixed with `bg-',
                     such as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The
                     reverse mapping from code to color yields base name for
                     foreground codes and the bg- form for backgrounds.

                     Although it is a misnomer to call them `colors', these
                     arrays also map the other fourteen attributes from names
                     to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape
                     sequences that set the corresponding foreground text
                     properties.  The fg sequences change the color without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape
                     sequences that set the corresponding background
                     properties.  The bg sequences change the color without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

              In addition, the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color
              are set to the ANSI terminal escapes that turn off all
              attributes and turn on bold intensity, respectively.

       fned [ -x num ] name
              Same as zed -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh
              distribution, but can be created by linking zed to the name fned
              in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings
              having the format of a zsh version number; that is, a string of
              numbers and text with segments separated by dots or dashes.  If
              the present string is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.
              Segments are paired left-to-right in the two strings with
              leading non-number parts ignored.  If one string has fewer
              segments than the other, the missing segments are considered

              This is useful in startup files to set options and other state
              that are not available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This wrapper function for the nslookup command requires the
              zsh/zpty module (see zshmodules(1)).  It behaves exactly like
              the standard nslookup except that it provides customizable
              prompts (including a right-side prompt) and completion of
              nslookup commands, host names, etc. (if you use the
              function-based completion system).  Completion styles may be set
              with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use regular expressions to perform a global search and replace
              operation on a variable.  POSIX extended regular expressions are
              used, unless the option RE_MATCH_PCRE has been set, in which
              case Perl-compatible regular expressions are used (this requires
              the shell to be linked against the pcre library).

              var is the name of the variable containing the string to be
              matched.  The variable will be modified directly by the
              function.  The variables MATCH, MBEGIN, MEND, match, mbegin,
              mend should be avoided as these are used by the regular
              expression code.

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace is the replacement text.  This can contain parameter,
              command and arithmetic expressions which will be replaced:  in
              particular, a reference to $MATCH will be replaced by the text
              matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE
              widget, in place of the default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line
              Help' above for setup instructions.

              In the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path,
              it is first reduced to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a file named cmd in the
              directory named by the HELPDIR parameter.  If no file is found,
              an assistant function, alias, or command named run-help-cmd is
              sought.  If found, the assistant is executed with the rest of
              the current command line (everything after the command name cmd)
              as its arguments.  When neither file nor assistant is found, the
              external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in the Functions/Misc
              directory.  These must be autoloaded, or placed as executable
              scripts in your search path, in order to be found and used by

                     Assistant functions for the git, ip, openssl, p4, sudo,
                     svk, and svn, commands.

       tetris Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because
              it lacked a Tetris game.  This function was written to refute
              this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To start a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.
              Whatever command line you were editing disappears temporarily,
              and your keymap is also temporarily replaced by the Tetris
              control keys.  The previous editor state is restored when you
              quit the game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the
              tetris widget will continue where you left off.  If you lost, it
              will start a new game.

              This is a port of the above to zcurses.  The input handling is
              improved a bit so that moving a block sideways doesn't
              automatically advance a timestep, and the graphics use unicode
              block graphics.

              This version does not save the game state between invocations,
              and is not invoked as a widget, but rather as:

                     autoload -U tetriscurses

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This function has a similar purpose to GNU xargs.  Instead of
              reading lines of arguments from the standard input, it takes
              them from the command line.  This is useful because zsh,
              especially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a
              command line for a shell function that is longer than can be
              accepted by an external command.

              The option list represents options of the zargs command itself,
              which are the same as those of xargs.  The input list is the
              collection of strings (often file names) that become the
              arguments of the command, analogous to the standard input of
              xargs.  Finally, the arg list consists of those arguments
              (usually options) that are passed to the command each time it
              runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the input list in
              each run.  If no command is provided, then no arg list may be
              provided, and in that event the default command is `print' with
              arguments `-r --'.

              For example, to get a long ls listing of all non-hidden plain
              files in the current directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -ld --

              The first and third occurrences of `--' are used to mark the end
              of options for zargs and ls respectively to guard against
              filenames starting with `-', while the second is used to
              separate the list of files from the command to run (`ls -ld

              The first `--' would also be needed if there was a chance the
              list might be empty as in:

                     zargs -r -- ./*.back(#qN) -- rm -f

              In the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e
              option may be used to change the end-of-inputs marker.  Note
              that this does not change the end-of-options marker.  For
              example, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -ld --

              This is a good choice in that example because no plain file can
              be named `..', but the best end-marker depends on the

              The options -i, -I, -l, -L, and -n differ slightly from their
              usage in xargs.  There are no input lines for zargs to count, so
              -l and -L count through the input list, and -n counts the number
              of arguments passed to each execution of command, including any
              arg list.  Also, any time -i or -I is used, each input is
              processed separately as if by `-L 1'.

              For details of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) (but note
              the difference in function between zargs and xargs) or run zargs
              with the --help option.

       zed [ -f [ -x num ] ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only one name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given,
              the name is taken to be that of a function; if the function is
              marked for autoloading, zed searches for it in the fpath and
              loads it.  Note that functions edited this way are installed
              into the current shell, but not written back to the autoload
              file.  In this case the -x option specifies that leading tabs
              indenting the function according to syntax should be converted
              into the given number of spaces; `-x 2' is consistent with the
              layout of functions distributed with the shell.

              Without -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which
              need not exist; it is created on write, if necessary.

              While editing, the function sets the main keymap to zed and the
              vi command keymap to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied from the
              existing main and vicmd keymaps if they do not exist the first
              time zed is run.  They can be used to provide special key
              bindings used only in zed.

              If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a
              line break and `^X^W' to accept the edit in the zed keymap, and
              binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The bindings alone can be installed by running `zed -b'.  This
              is suitable for putting into a startup file.  Note that, if
              rerun, this will overwrite the existing zed and zed-vicmd

              Completion is available, and styles may be set with the context
              prefix `:completion:zed'.

              A zle widget zed-set-file-name is available.  This can be called
              by name from within zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' (note,
              however, that because of zed's rebindings you will have to type
              ^j at the end instead of the return key), or can be bound to a
              key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has
              been run.  When the widget is called, it prompts for a new name
              for the file being edited.  When zed exits the file will be
              written under that name and the original file will be left
              alone.  The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap
              zed-normal-keymap, which is linked from the main keymap in
              effect at the time zed initialised its bindings.  (This is to
              make the return key operate normally.)  The result is that if
              the main keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This
              is not a concern for most users.

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not
              appear in the zsh distribution, but can be created by linking
              zmv to the names zcp and zln in some directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -{p|P} program ] [ -o optstring ]
           srcpat dest
              Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern srcpat to
              corresponding files having names of the form given by dest,
              where srcpat contains parentheses surrounding patterns which
              will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames `foo.lis' to `foo.txt', `my.old.stuff.lis' to
              `my.old.stuff.txt', and so on.

              The pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any
              file whose name is not changed by the substitution is simply
              ignored.  Any error (a substitution resulted in an empty string,
              two substitutions gave the same result, the destination was an
              existing regular file and -f was not given) causes the entire
              function to abort without doing anything.

              In addition to pattern replacement, the variable $f can be
              referrred to in the second (replacement) argument.  This makes
              it possible to use variable substitution to alter the argument;
              see examples below.


              -f     Force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently
                     passed down to the mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of
                     implementations (but you can use -o-f to do that).
              -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed and ask the
                     user whether to execute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it,
                     anything else will skip it.  Note that you just need to
                     type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so
                     this has no effect.
              -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless
                     you are actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described
                     above, and implicitly add parentheses for referring to
              -W     Just like -w, with the addition of turning wildcards in
                     the replacement pattern into sequential ${1} .. ${N}
              -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name
                     of the function.
              -p program
                     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does,
                     it should at least understand the form `program --
                     oldname newname' where oldname and newname are filenames
                     generated by zmv.  program will be split into words, so
                     might be e.g. the name of an archive tool plus a copy or
                     rename subcommand.
              -P program
                     As -p program, except that program does not accept a
                     following -- to indicate the end of options.  In this
                     case filenames must already be in a sane form for the
                     program in question.
              -o optstring
                     The optstring is split into words and passed down
                     verbatim to the cp, ln or mv command called to perform
                     the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in
              the name, replace every space by an underscore and display the
              commands executed.

                     zmv -v '* *' '${f// /_}'

              This does exactly the same by referring to the file name stored
              in $f.

              For more complete examples and other implementation details, see
              the zmv source file, usually located in one of the directories
              named in your fpath, or in Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This makes defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+'
              as a special token that allows you to append a context name to
              the previously used context name.  Like this:

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                            +':baz'     style2 value2 \
                            +':frob'    style3 value3

              This defines style1 with value1 for the context :foo:bar as
              usual, but it also defines style2 with value2 for the context
              :foo:bar:baz and style3 with value3 for :foo:bar:frob.  Any
              subcontext may be the empty string to re-use the first context

              The zed function sets this style in context `:completion:zed:*'
              to turn off completion when TAB is typed at the beginning of a
              line.  You may override this by setting your own value for this
              context and style.

       pager  The nslookup function looks up this style in the context
              `:nslookup' to determine the program used to display output that
              does not fit on a single screen.

              The nslookup function looks up this style in the context
              `:nslookup' to set the prompt and the right-side prompt,
              respectively.  The usual expansions for the PS1 and RPS1
              parameters may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in

zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                 ZSHCONTRIB(1)