ZSHMODULES(1)               General Commands Manual              ZSHMODULES(1)

       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules

       Some optional parts of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked in to the shell at
       build time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked at runtime
       with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability
              (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed for the shell function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              Builtins for managing associative array parameters tied to GDBM

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Interface to locale information.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical

              Map colours to the nearest colour in the available palette.

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Builtins for managing private-scoped parameters in function

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution facility within the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.

       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The
       -h option causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get the extended attribute attribute from the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the
              attribute is set on that parameter instead of being printed to

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set the extended attribute attribute on the specified filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List the extended attributes currently set on the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the list
              of attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If the attribute
       or list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get
       them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.

       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6)
       capability sets.  If the operating system does not support this
       interface, the builtins defined by this module will do nothing.  The
       builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process capability sets to the specified
              capabilities, otherwise display the shell's current

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It sets the capability sets on each specified filename to the
              specified capabilities.

       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the
              specified tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY special
              parameters are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if
              successful, and non-zero on error.

              The target of clone should be an unused terminal, such as an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

                     xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;
                             while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

              Some words of explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some other
              session ("session" meant as a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              ·      the job control signals will go to the
                     sh-started-by-xterm process group (that's why we disable
                     INT QUIT and TSTP with trap; otherwise the while loop
                     could get suspended or killed)

              ·      the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the
                     job control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z)
                     will not work.

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result in two
              processes reading simultaneously from the same terminal, with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful as a shell built-in replacement for

       The zsh/compctl module makes available two builtin commands. compctl,
       is the old, deprecated way to control completions for ZLE.  See
       zshcompctl(1).  The other builtin command, compcall can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist module is loaded or linked into the shell, completion
       lists will be colored.  Note, however, that complist will not
       automatically be loaded if it is not linked in:  on systems with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The parameters ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS describe how matches are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case all the default values given below will be used.  The format of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the ls command: a colon-separated list of specifications of the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following strings, most of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying something other than a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the special value target,
              symbolic links are dereferenced and the target file used to
              determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined for fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for files with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the character indicating the file type  printed after
              filenames if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart from these strings, the name may also be an asterisk (`*')
       followed by any string. The value given for such a string will be used
       for all files whose name ends with the string.  The name may also be an
       equals sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option will
       be turned on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string are matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the
       leading equal sign take precedence over the values defined for file
       types, which in turn take precedence over the form with the leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts of the displayed
       strings to be colored differently.  For this, the pattern has to use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of the strings that are to be colored differently.  In this case the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the sub-patterns in parentheses.  For example, the specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which are at least
       two characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.
       If this is given, the value will be used only for matches in groups
       whose names are matched by the pattern given in the parentheses.  For
       example, `(g*)m*=43' highlights all matches beginning with `m' in
       groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in the parameter value until the first one matches which is then used.
       Patterns may be matched against completions, descriptions (possibly
       with spaces appended for padding), or lines consisting of a completion
       followed by a description.  For consistent coloring it may be necessary
       to use more than one pattern or a pattern with backreferences.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the value for
       the file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then the value
       of ec if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and can be used on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors function from
       the contribution can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes for ANSI terminals (see the section `Other Functions' in
       zshcontrib(1)).  For example, after loading colors, one could use
       `$color[red]' to get the code for foreground color red and
       `$color[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the system controls them itself.
       Instead, the list-colors style should be used (see the section
       `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may contain escapes
       of the form `%x'.  It supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}' used also in shell
       prompts as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the total number
       of lines in the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p' or `%P' is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In each of these cases the form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list, stopping after the first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a keypress after temporarily switching to the
       listscroll keymap.  Some of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes the key
       as usual.  Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound to undefined-key is looked up in the keymap currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The zsh/complist module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be used if the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can be invoked directly by the widget menu-select
       defined by this module.  This is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives the minimum number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu completion be started, either directly from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU
       being set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the
       MENUSELECT parameter should not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters described above).  Instead, the menu style
       should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After menu selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the first screenful is
       shown.  The matches to insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using the value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout mode on a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as for the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If there are more matches than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will be shown below the matches.  It
       supports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark is placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The MENUSCROLL parameter can be used to specify how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if it
       is set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines to
       scroll and if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT parameters, neither
       MENUPROMPT nor MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based completion system.  Instead, the select-prompt and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden matches are either matches for which the
       completion function which added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or they are matches which duplicate a string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that are
       not displayed).  In the list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is possible to select them.  To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches of the first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around using the zle
       movement functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at
       the same time, the list will scroll up and down when crossing the top
       or bottom line.  The following zle functions have special meaning
       during menu selection.  Note that the following always perform the same
       task within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced by user
       defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept the current match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept the currently inserted match and continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries completion with menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous level, every other key
              leaves menu selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into the command line as in normal editing mode but without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion widgets make the longest unambiguous string be
              inserted in the command line and undo and backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches in the list of completions
              displayed; in this mode, accept-line only leaves incremental
              search, going back to the normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not listed leaves menu selection and executes that function.  It is
       possible to make widgets in the above list do the same by using the
       form of the widget with a `.' in front.  For example, the widget
       `.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting
       the entire command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked up in the keymap currently selected.  This is used to ensure
       that the most important keys used during selection (namely the cursor
       keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can be modified directly using the bindkey builtin
       command (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by
       some of the completion functions in the completion system based on
       shell functions (see zshcompsys(1) ).  Except for compquote these
       builtin commands are very specialised and thus not very interesting
       when writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these builtin
       commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments function to do the argument and
              command line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i to
              do the parsing and initialize some internal state and various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the matches and to get the strings to add as matches with their
              options.  On the first call one of the options -i or -I should
              be supplied as the first argument.  In the first case, display
              strings without the descriptions will be generated, in the
              second case, the string used to separate the matches from their
              descriptions must be given as the second argument and the
              descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All other arguments are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once compdescribe has been called with either the -i or the -I
              option, it can be repeatedly called with the -g option and the
              names of four parameters as its arguments.  This will step
              through the different sets of matches and store the value of
              compstate[list] in the first scalar, the options for compadd in
              the second array, the matches in the third array, and the
              strings to be displayed in the completion listing in the fourth
              array.  The arrays may then be directly given to compadd to
              register the matches with the completion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use, including
              the paths already handled and trying to optimize the patterns
              with respect to the prefix and suffix from the line and the
              match specification currently used.  The -i option does the
              directory tests for the ignore-parents style and the -r option
              tests if a component for some of the matches are equal to the
              string on the line and removes all other matches if that is

              Used by the _tags function to implement the internals of the
              group-order style.  This only takes its arguments as names of
              completion groups and creates the groups for it (all six types:
              sorted and unsorted, both without removing duplicates, with
              removing all duplicates and with removing consecutive

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have to
              add the matches using the -Q option to compadd and perform
              quoting themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character
              of the all_quotes key of the compstate special association and
              using the q flag for parameter expansions, one can use this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters and the values of these parameters are quoted as
              needed for the innermost quoting level.  If the -p option is
              given, quoting is done as if there is some prefix before the
              values of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not
              be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command and various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ [+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ [+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | [+|-]lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | [+|-]motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
       zcurses resize height width [ endwin | nosave | endwin_nosave ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All uses of this command should be
              bracketed by `zcurses init' to initialise use of curses, and
              `zcurses end' to end it; omitting `zcurses end' can cause the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The subcommand addwin creates a window with nlines lines and
              ncols columns.  Its upper left corner will be placed at row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and refers to the name of a window that is not currently
              assigned.  Note in particular the curses convention that
              vertical values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from an ordinary new window in that the memory of the window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of
              subwindows are relative to the screen, not the parent, as with
              other windows.

              Use the subcommand delwin to delete a window created with
              addwin.  Note that end does not implicitly delete windows, and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The window corresponding to the full visible screen is called
              stdscr; it always exists after `zcurses init' and cannot be
              delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window targetwin; this is
              necessary to make any pending changes (such as characters you
              have prepared for output with char) visible on the screen.
              refresh without an argument causes the screen to be cleared and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen is updated
              once at the end.

              The subcommand touch marks the targetwins listed as changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position in targetwin to
              new coordinates new_y and new_x.  Note that the subcommand
              string (but not the subcommand char) advances the cursor
              position over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no more than one) of three options may be specified.  With the
              option redraw, in addition the next refresh of targetwin will
              cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the option
              eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor
              line.  With the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of
              the window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:
              -      The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top
                     left of targetwin
              -      The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on
                     the screen
              -      The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and strings are achieved by char and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the border is not subsequently handled specially:  in other
              words, the border is simply a set of characters output at the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The subcommand attr will set targetwin's attributes or
              foreground/background color pair for any successive character
              output.  Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by a
              + to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse,
              standout, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col')
              sets the foreground and background color for character output.
              The color default is sometimes available (in particular if the
              library is ncurses), specifying the foreground or background
              color with which the terminal started.  The color pair
              default/default is always available. To use more than the 8
              named colors (red, green, etc.) construct the fg_col/bg_col
              pairs where fg_col and bg_col are decimal integers, e.g 128/200.
              The maximum color value is 254 if the terminal supports 256

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the window.  Its usual use is to set the background initially,
              but it will overwrite the attributes of any characters at the
              time when it is called.  In addition to the arguments allowed
              with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to be shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses this cannot be a multibyte character (use of ASCII
              characters only is recommended).  As the specified set of
              attributes override the existing background, turning attributes
              off in the arguments is not useful, though this does not cause
              an error.

              The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or
              disable scrolling of a window when the cursor would otherwise
              move below the window due to typing or output.  It can also be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or down the given number of lines without changing the current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction relative to the window).  In the second case, if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The subcommand input reads a single character from the window
              without echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character is
              assigned to the parameter param, else it is assigned to the
              parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in
              `keypad' mode.  In this mode special keys such as function keys
              and arrow keys return the name of the key in the parameter
              kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the curses.h or
              ncurses.h with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the
              description of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys
              cause a value to be set in param as before.  On a successful
              return only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string;
              the other is set to an empty string.

              If mparam is also supplied, input attempts to handle mouse
              input.  This is only available with the ncurses library; mouse
              handling can be detected by checking for the exit status of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed or released with a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an array consisting of the
              following elements:
              -      An identifier to discriminate different input devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the full screen, as three elements in that order (i.e.
                     the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x coordinate).
                     The z coordinate is only available for a few unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will be just one.  An event consists of PRESSED,
                     followed immediately (in the same element) by the number
                     of the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal
              window; most terminal emulators handle some mouse events
              themselves.  Note that the ncurses manual implies that using
              input both with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure the use of the
              mouse.  There is no window argument; mouse options are global.
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments returns status 0 if mouse
              handling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible
              arguments (which may be combined on the same command line) are
              as follows.  delay num sets the maximum delay in milliseconds
              between press and release events to be considered as a click;
              the value 0 disables click resolution, and the default is one
              sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the
              default) or - turns on or off reporting of mouse motion in
              addition to clicks, presses and releases, which are always
              reported.  However, it appears reports for mouse motion are not
              currently implemented.

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input from
              targetwin.  If intval is negative, `zcurses input' waits
              indefinitely for a character to be typed; this is the default.
              If intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there
              is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1
              is returned.  If intval is positive, `zcurses input' waits
              intval milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end of
              that period returns status 1.

              The subcommand querychar queries the character at the current
              cursor position.  The return values are stored in the array
              named param if supplied, else in the array reply.  The first
              value is the character (which may be a multibyte character if
              the system supports them); the second is the color pair in the
              usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color is not supported.
              Any attributes other than color that apply to the character, as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              The subcommand resize resizes stdscr and all windows to given
              dimensions (windows that stick out from the new dimensions are
              resized down). The underlying curses extension (resize_term
              call) can be unavailable. To verify, zeroes can be used for
              height and width. If the result of the subcommand is 0,
              resize_term is available (2 otherwise). Tests show that resizing
              can be normally accomplished by calling zcurses end and zcurses
              refresh. The resize subcommand is provided for versatility.
              Multiple system configurations have been checked and zcurses end
              and zcurses refresh are still needed for correct terminal state
              after resize. To invoke them with resize, use endwin argument.
              Using nosave argument will cause new terminal state to not be
              saved internally by zcurses. This is also provided for
              versatility and should normally be not needed.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of colors the terminal
              supports.  This value is initialised by the curses library and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of color pairs
              fg_col/bg_col that may be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
              note this limit applies to all color pairs that have been used
              whether or not they are currently active.  This value is
              initialised by the curses library and is not available until the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly array.  The attributes supported by zsh/curses;
              available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by zsh/curses; available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The values that may be returned in the second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are defined internally by curses.  Not all function keys are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e. all windows
              that have been created with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format [ epochtime [ nanoseconds ] ]
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date in the format specified.  With no epochtime, the
              current system date/time is used; optionally, epochtime may be
              used to specify the number of seconds since the epoch, and
              nanoseconds may additionally be used to specify the number of
              nanoseconds past the second (otherwise that number is assumed to
              be 0).  See strftime(3) for details.  The zsh extensions
              described in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in
              zshmisc(1) are also available.

              -q     Run quietly; suppress printing of all error messages
                     described below.  Errors for invalid epochtime values are
                     always printed.

              -r     With the option -r (reverse), use format to parse the
                     input string timestring and output the number of seconds
                     since the epoch at which the time occurred.  The parsing
                     is implemented by the system function strptime; see
                     strptime(3).  This means that zsh format extensions are
                     not available, but for reverse lookup they are not

                     In most implementations of strftime any timezone in the
                     timestring is ignored and the local timezone declared by
                     the TZ environment variable is used; other parameters are
                     set to zero if not present.

                     If timestring does not match format the command returns
                     status 1 and prints an error message.  If timestring
                     matches format but not all characters in timestring were
                     used, the conversion succeeds but also prints an error

                     If either of the system functions strptime or mktime is
                     not available, status 2 is returned and an error message
                     is printed.

              -s scalar
                     Assign the date string (or epoch time in seconds if -r is
                     given) to scalar instead of printing it.

              Note that depending on the system's declared integral time type,
              strftime may produce incorrect results for epoch times greater
              than 2147483647 which corresponds to 2038-01-19 03:14:07 +0000.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available several parameters; all are

              A floating point value representing the number of seconds since
              the epoch.  The notional accuracy is to nanoseconds if the
              clock_gettime call is available and to microseconds otherwise,
              but in practice the range of double precision floating point and
              shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An integer value representing the number of seconds since the

              An array value containing the number of seconds since the epoch
              in the first element and the remainder of the time since the
              epoch in nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure the two
              elements are consistent the array should be copied or otherwise
              referenced as a single substitution before the values are used.
              The following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do

       The zsh/db/gdbm module is used to create "tied" associative arrays that
       interface to database files.  If the GDBM interface is not available,
       the builtins defined by this module will report an error.  This module
       is also intended as a prototype for creating additional database
       interfaces, so the ztie builtin may move to a more generic module in
       the future.

       The builtins in this module are:

       ztie -d db/gdbm -f filename [ -r ] arrayname
              Open the GDBM database identified by filename and, if
              successful, create the associative array arrayname linked to the
              file.  To create a local tied array, the parameter must first be
              declared, so commands similar to the following would be executed
              inside a function scope:

                     local -A sampledb
                     ztie -d db/gdbm -f sample.gdbm sampledb

              The -r option opens the database file for reading only, creating
              a parameter with the readonly attribute.  Without this option,
              using `ztie' on a file for which the user does not have write
              permission is an error.  If writable, the database is opened
              synchronously so fields changed in arrayname are immediately
              written to filename.

              Changes to the file modes filename after it has been opened do
              not alter the state of arrayname, but `typeset -r arrayname'
              works as expected.

       zuntie [ -u ] arrayname ...
              Close the GDBM database associated with each arrayname and then
              unset the parameter.  The -u option forces an unset of
              parameters made readonly with `ztie -r'.

              This happens automatically if the parameter is explicitly unset
              or its local scope (function) ends.  Note that a readonly
              parameter may not be explicitly unset, so the only way to unset
              a global parameter created with `ztie -r' is to use `zuntie -u'.

       zgdbmpath parametername
              Put path to database file assigned to parametername into REPLY

              Array holding names of all tied parameters.

       The fields of an associative array tied to GDBM are neither cached nor
       otherwise stored in memory, they are read from or written to the
       database on each reference.  Thus, for example, the values in a
       readonly array may be changed by a second writer of the same database

       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read a character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor
              position up to and including the next (or, with repeat count n,
              the nth) instance of that character.  Negative repeat counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This behaves like delete-to-char, except that the final
              occurrence of the character itself is not deleted.

       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a

       The zsh/files module makes available some common commands for file
       manipulation as builtins; these commands are probably not needed for
       many normal situations but can be useful in emergency recovery
       situations with constrained resources.  The commands do not implement
       all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and loaded
       automatically.  Using the features capability of zmodload will let you
       load only those names you want.  Note that it's possible to load only
       the builtins with zsh-specific names using the following command:

              zmodload -m -F zsh/files b:zf_\*

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent to chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chmod [ -Rs ] mode filename ...
              Changes mode of files specified.

              The specified mode must be in octal.

              The -R option causes chmod to recursively descend into
              directories, changing the mode of all files in the directory
              after changing the mode of the directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension to chmod functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security problems
              involving a chmod being tricked into affecting files other than
              the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
              that (for example) ``chmod 600 /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't
              accidentally chmod /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link
              to /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive chmod of a deep directory tree
              can't end up recursively chmoding /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user; change group to user's primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there is
              a `.' then the separator is `.', otherwise there is no

              Each of user and group may be either a username (or group name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric username
              (or group name).

              If the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The -R option causes chown to recursively descend into
              directories, changing the ownership of all files in the
              directory after changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security problems
              involving a chown being tricked into affecting files other than
              the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
              that (for example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't
              accidentally chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link
              to /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree
              can't end up recursively chowning /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified directory that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally, ln will not attempt to create hard links to
              directories.  This check can be overridden using the -d option.
              Typically only the super-user can actually succeed in creating
              hard links to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic
              links in any case.

              By default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i
              option causes the user to be queried about replacing existing
              files.  The -f option causes existing files to be silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The -h and -n options are identical and both exist for
              compatibility; either one indicates that if the target is a
              symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is
              used in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points
              to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If
              this option is used with multiple filenames and the target is a
              symbolic link pointing to a directory then the result is an

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p option, non-existing parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used to specify (in octal) a set of file permissions for the
              created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to the specified destination.  In the second form, each of the
              filenames is taken in turn, and moved to a pathname in the
              specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing any file
              that the user cannot write to, but writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about replacing any existing files.  The -f option causes any
              existing files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f
              takes precedence.

              Note that this mv will not move files across devices.
              Historical versions of mv, when actual renaming is impossible,
              fall back on copying and removing files; if this behaviour is
              desired, use cp and rm manually.  This may change in a future

       rm [ -dfiRrs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories (except with the -R or
              -r options).  The -d option causes rm to try removing
              directories with unlink (see unlink(2)), the same method used
              for files.  Typically only the super-user can actually succeed
              in unlinking directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over
              -R and -r.

              By default, the user will be queried before removing any file
              that the user cannot write to, but writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about removing any files.  The -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying, and suppresses all error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The -R and -r options cause rm to recursively descend into
              directories, deleting all files in the directory before removing
              the directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The -s option is a zsh extension to rm functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid common security
              problems involving a root-run rm being tricked into removing
              files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
              symbolic links, so that (for example) ``rm /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be
              a link to /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive removal of a deep directory
              tree can't end up recursively removing /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the same name (see sync(2)), which
              flushes dirty buffers to disk.  It might return before the I/O
              has actually been completed.

       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps langinfo elements to their

              Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

              NOEXPR, CRNCYSTR, ABDAY_{1..7}, DAY_{1..7}, ABMON_{1..12},
              MON_{1..12}, T_FMT_AMPM, AM_STR, PM_STR, ERA, ERA_D_FMT,
              ERA_D_T_FMT, ERA_T_FMT, ALT_DIGITS

       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the names of files; the
              resulting value is the content of the file.  The value is
              treated identically to any other text coming from a parameter.
              The value may also be assigned to, in which case the file in
              question is written (whether or not it originally existed); or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected, editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files in the current directory, and the values are empty (to
              save a huge overhead in memory).  Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the
              same effect as the glob operator *(D), since files beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such as rm ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A file may conveniently be read into an array as one line per
              element with the form `array=("${(f@)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
              double quotes and the `@' are necessary to prevent empty lines
              from being removed.  Note that if the file ends with a newline,
              the shell will split on the final newline, generating an
              additional empty field; this can be suppressed by using

       Although reading and writing of the file in question is efficiently
       handled, zsh's internal memory management may be arbitrarily baroque;
       however, mapfile is usually very much more efficient than anything
       involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole contents of the
       file will always reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular, this means handling of sufficiently long files (greater
       than the machine's swap space, or than the range of the pointer type)
       will be incorrect.

       No errors are printed or flagged for non-existent, unreadable, or
       unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism is too low in the shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It is unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet
       allow the user to specify the name of the shell parameter to be given
       the special behaviour.

       The zsh/mathfunc module provides standard mathematical functions for
       use when evaluating mathematical formulae.  The syntax agrees with
       normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most functions take floating point arguments and return a floating
       point value.  However, any necessary conversions from or to integer
       type will be performed automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan
       with a second argument and the abs, int and float functions, all
       functions behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C
       function, except that any arguments out of range for the function in
       question will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The following functions take a single floating point argument: acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1, fabs, floor, gamma, j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, log2,
       logb, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function can
       optionally take a second argument, in which case it behaves like the C
       function atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point
       argument, but returns an integer.

       The function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which
       is the C variable of the same name, as described in gamma(3).  Note
       that it is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or
       lgamma.  Note also that `signgam()' and `signgam' are distinct

       The functions min, max, and sum are defined not in this module but in
       the zmathfunc autoloadable function, described in the section
       `Mathematical Functions' in zshcontrib(1).

       The following functions take two floating point arguments: copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point
       second argument: jn, yn.

       The following take a floating point first argument and an integer
       second argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it
       returns the absolute value of either a floating point number or an
       integer.  The functions float and int convert their arguments into a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed is initialised
       by three calls to the rand(3) function --- this produces the same
       random numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name of a scalar parameter
       where the current random number seed will be stored.  On the first
       call, the value must contain at least twelve hexadecimal digits (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent
       calls to rand48(param) will then maintain the seed in the parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The random number sequences for different parameters are completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming $seed does not exist, it will be initialised by the first
       call.  In the second call, the default seed is initialised; note,
       however, that because of the properties of rand() there is a
       correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third
       call returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in the first
       call, unaffected by the intervening rand48().

       The zsh/nearcolor module replaces colours specified as hex triplets
       with the nearest colour in the 88 or 256 colour palettes that are
       widely used by terminal emulators.  By default, 24-bit true colour
       escape codes are generated when colours are specified using hex
       triplets.  These are not supported by all terminals.  The purpose of
       this module is to make it easier to define colour preferences in a form
       that can work across a range of terminal emulators.

       Aside from the default colour, the ANSI standard for terminal escape
       codes provides for eight colours. The bright attribute brings this to
       sixteen. These basic colours are commonly used in terminal applications
       due to being widely supported. Expanded 88 and 256 colour palettes are
       also common and, while the first sixteen colours vary somewhat between
       terminals and configurations, these add a generally consistent and
       predictable set of colours.

       In order to use the zsh/nearcolor module, it only needs to be loaded.
       Thereafter, whenever a colour is specified using a hex triplet, it will
       be compared against each of the available colours and the closest will
       be selected. The first sixteen colours are never matched in this
       process due to being unpredictable.

       It isn't possible to reliably detect support for true colour in the
       terminal emulator. It is therefore recommended to be selective in
       loading the zsh/nearcolor module. For example, the following checks the
       COLORTERM environment variable:

              [[ $COLORTERM = *(24bit|truecolor)* ]] || zmodload zsh/nearcolor

       Note that some terminals accept the true color escape codes but map
       them internally to a more limited palette in a similar manner to the
       zsh/nearcolor module.

       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have been executed.  If
       the module is not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if
       it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any of the start-up files .zshenv,
       .zprofile, .zshrc or .zlogin exist in the directory given by the
       environment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that is
       not set.  The test is not performed and the module halts processing if
       the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file newuser first in a sitewide directory, usually the parent
       directory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the
       module searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of
       the functions directory containing version-specific functions.  (These
       directories can be configured when zsh is built using the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir and --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to
       configure, respectively; the defaults are prefix/share/zsh and
       prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as
       a start-up file.  The file is expected to contain code to install
       start-up files for the user, however any valid shell code will be

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible to achieve exactly the same effect as the
       zsh/newuser module by adding code to /etc/zshenv.  The module exists
       simply to allow the shell to make arrangements for new users without
       the need for intervention by package maintainers and system

       The script supplied with the module invokes the shell function
       zsh-newuser-install.  This may be invoked directly by the user even if
       the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the module
       is not installed the function will not be installed either.  The
       function is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in

       The zsh/parameter module gives access to some of the internal hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that can be set and unset using the setopt and unsetopt
              builtins. The value of each key is either the string on if the
              option is currently set, or the string off if the option is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting the option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are
              the names of external commands, the values are the pathnames of
              the files that would be executed when the command would be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key
              as in `unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given
              key from the command hash table.

              This associative array maps names of enabled functions to their
              definitions. Setting a key in it is like defining a function
              with the name given by the key and the body given by the value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This readonly associative array maps names of enabled functions
              to the name of the file containing the source of the function.

              For an autoloaded function that has already been loaded, or
              marked for autoload with an absolute path, or that has had its
              path resolved with `functions -r', this is the file found for
              autoloading, resolved to an absolute path.

              For a function defined within the body of a script or sourced
              file, this is the name of that file.  In this case, this is the
              exact path originally used to that file, which may be a relative

              For any other function, including any defined at an interactive
              prompt or an autoload function whose path has not yet been
              resolved, this is the empty string.  However, the hash element
              is reported as defined just so long as the function is present:
              the keys to this hash are the same as those to $functions.

              Like functions_source but for disabled functions.

              This associative array gives information about the builtin
              commands currently enabled. The keys are the names of the
              builtin commands and the values are either `undefined' for
              builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module
              if invoked or `defined' for builtin commands that are already

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This array contains the enabled pattern characters.

              Like patchars but for disabled pattern characters.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The keys in this associative array are the names of the
              parameters currently defined. The values are strings describing
              the type of the parameter, in the same format used by the t
              parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in
              this array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The keys
              are the names of the modules loaded, registered to be
              autoloaded, or aliased. The value says which state the named
              module is in and is one of the strings `loaded', `autoloaded',
              or `alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that the output of the dirs builtin command includes one more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This associative array maps history event numbers to the full
              history lines.  Although it is presented as an associative
              array, the array of all values (${history[@]}) is guaranteed to
              be returned in order from most recent to oldest history event,
              that is, by decreasing history event number.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.
              These also appear in most to least recent order.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the directories from
              which the job was started (which may not be the current
              directory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually valid job
              numbers, and these are the values output with, for example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job references may be used when
              looking up a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the
              current job.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the
              command lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs currently known. The keys are the job numbers and the
              values are strings of the form `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.
              The job-state gives the state the whole job is currently in, one
              of `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the
              current job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This
              is followed by one `:pid=state' for every process in the job.
              The pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes
              the state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of named directories to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This associative array maps names of system groups of which the
              current user is a member to the corresponding group identifiers.
              The contents are the same as the groups output by the id

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding
              file names for the point where the current function, sourced
              file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was called.  The
              array is of the same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace,
              but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This array contains the file names and line numbers of the
              points where the functions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO
              is set) eval commands currently being executed were defined.
              The line number is the line where the `function name' or `name
              ()' started.  In the case of an autoloaded function  the line
              number is reported as zero.  The format of each element is

              For functions autoloaded from a file in native zsh format, where
              only the body of the function occurs in the file, or for files
              that have been executed by the source or `.' builtins, the trace
              information is shown as filename:0, since the entire file is the
              definition.  The source file name is resolved to an absolute
              path when the function is loaded or the path to it otherwise

              Most users will be interested in the information in the
              funcfiletrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions, sourced files,
              and (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands. currently being
              executed. The first element is the name of the function using
              the parameter.

              The standard shell array zsh_eval_context can be used to
              determine the type of shell construct being executed at each
              depth: note, however, that is in the opposite order, with the
              most recent item last, and it is more detailed, for example
              including an entry for toplevel, the main shell code being
              executed either interactively or from a script, which is not
              present in $funcstack.

              This array contains the names and line numbers of the callers
              corresponding to the functions currently being executed.  The
              format of each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown
              for sourced files; the caller is the point where the source or
              `.' command was executed.

       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile a case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m will compile a
              multi-line pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines within
              the pattern.  Option -x will compile an extended pattern,
              wherein whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches the previously-compiled

              Upon successful match, if the expression captures substrings
              within parentheses, pcre_match will set the array match to those
              substrings, unless the -a option is given, in which case it will
              set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will be set to
              the entire matched portion of the string, unless the -v option
              is given, in which case the variable var will be set.  No
              variables are altered if there is no successful match.  A -n
              option starts searching for a match from the byte offset
              position in string.  If the -b option is given, the variable
              ZPCRE_OP will be set to an offset pair string, representing the
              byte offset positions of the entire matched portion within the
              string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45" indicates that
              the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte
              offset 44.  Here, byte offset position 45 is the position
              directly after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the byte
              position isn't necessarily the same as the character position
              when UTF-8 characters are involved.  Consequently, the byte
              offset positions are only to be relied on in the context of
              using them for subsequent searches on string, using an offset
              position as an argument to the -n option.  This is mostly used
              to implement the "find all non-overlapping matches"

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:

       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

                     [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] &&
                     print text variable contains only "d's".

              If the REMATCH_PCRE option is set, the =~ operator is equivalent
              to -pcre-match, and the NO_CASE_MATCH option may be used.  Note
              that NO_CASE_MATCH never applies to the pcre_match builtin,
              instead use the -i switch of pcre_compile.

       The zsh/param/private module is used to create parameters whose scope
       is limited to the current function body, and not to other functions
       called by the current function.

       This module provides a single autoloaded builtin:

       private [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              The private builtin accepts all the same options and arguments
              as local (zshbuiltins(1)) except for the `-T' option.  Tied
              parameters may not be made private.

              If used at the top level (outside a function scope), private
              creates a normal parameter in the same manner as declare or
              typeset.  A warning about this is printed if WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
              is set (zshoptions(1)).  Used inside a function scope, private
              creates a local parameter similar to one declared with local,
              except having special properties noted below.

              Special parameters which expose or manipulate internal shell
              state, such as ARGC, argv, COLUMNS, LINES, UID, EUID, IFS,
              PROMPT, RANDOM, SECONDS, etc., cannot be made private unless the
              `-h' option is used to hide the special meaning of the
              parameter.  This may change in the future.

       As with other typeset equivalents, private is both a builtin and a
       reserved word, so arrays may be assigned with parenthesized word list
       name=(value...) syntax.  However, the reserved word `private' is not
       available until zsh/param/private is loaded, so care must be taken with
       order of execution and parsing for function definitions which use
       private.  To compensate for this, the module also adds the option `-P'
       to the `local' builtin to declare private parameters.

       For example, this construction fails if zsh/param/private has not yet
       been loaded when `bad_declaration' is defined:
              bad_declaration() {
                zmodload zsh/param/private
                private array=( one two three )

       This construction works because local is already a keyword, and the
       module is loaded before the statement is executed:
              good_declaration() {
                zmodload zsh/param/private
                local -P array=( one two three )

       The following is usable in scripts but may have trouble with autoload:
              zmodload zsh/param/private
              iffy_declaration() {
                private array=( one two three )

       The private builtin may always be used with scalar assignments and for
       declarations without assignments.

       Parameters declared with private have the following properties:

       ·      Within the function body where it is declared, the parameter
              behaves as a local, except as noted above for tied or special

       ·      The type of a parameter declared private cannot be changed in
              the scope where it was declared, even if the parameter is unset.
              Thus an array cannot be assigned to a private scalar, etc.

       ·      Within any other function called by the declaring function, the
              private parameter does NOT hide other parameters of the same
              name, so for example a global parameter of the same name is
              visible and may be assigned or unset.  This includes calls to
              anonymous functions, although that may also change in the

       ·      An exported private remains in the environment of inner scopes
              but appears unset for the current shell in those scopes.
              Generally, exporting private parameters should be avoided.

       Note that this differs from the static scope defined by compiled
       languages derived from C, in that the a new call to the same function
       creates a new scope, i.e., the parameter is still associated with the
       call stack rather than with the function definition.  It differs from
       ksh `typeset -S' because the syntax used to define the function has no
       bearing on whether the parameter scope is respected.

       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:

       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX extended regular expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be placed in the MATCH variable.  If there are any capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain those.  If the match is not successful, then the
              variables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically load this module as needed and will invoke the
              -regex-match operator.

              If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set
              instead of MATCH and match.

       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time may be specified in either absolute or relative time, and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number of seconds
              indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is
              useful in combination with the features in the zsh/datetime
              module, see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of scheduled commands.  If
              the scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in time
              order, so the numbering can change when entries are added or

              Commands are executed either immediately before a prompt, or
              while the shell's line editor is waiting for input.  In the
              latter case it is useful to be able to produce output that does
              not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the option
              -o causes the shell to clear the command line before the event
              and redraw it afterwards.  This should be used with any
              scheduled event that produces visible output to the terminal; it
              is not needed, for example, with output that updates a terminal
              emulator's title bar.

              To effect changes to the editor buffer when an event executes,
              use the `zle' command with no arguments to test whether the
              editor is active, and if it is, then use `zle widget' to access
              the editor via the named widget.

              The sched builtin is not made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A readonly array corresponding to the events scheduled by the
              sched builtin.  The indices of the array correspond to the
              numbers shown when sched is run with no arguments (provided that
              the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array
              consists of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see
              the section `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using
              this number), followed by a colon, followed by any options
              (which may be empty but will be preceded by a `-' otherwise),
              followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The sched builtin should be used for manipulating the events.
              Note that this will have an immediate effect on the contents of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.

       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that connection.  Currently, only stream connections are

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

              File descriptors can be closed with normal shell syntax when no
              longer needed, for example:

                     exec {REPLY}>&-

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that listener.  The file descriptor remains open in
              subshells and forked external executables.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket -a will accept an incoming connection to the socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.
              The file descriptor remains open in subshells and forked
              external executables.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If -t is specified, zsocket will return if no incoming
              connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two
       possible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ]
             [ +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The command acts as a front end to the stat system call (see
              stat(2)).  The same command is provided with two names; as the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that only the zstat form of the command is used.  This can be
              arranged by loading the module with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If the stat call fails, the appropriate system error message
              printed and status 1 is returned.  The fields of struct stat
              give information about the files provided as arguments to the
              command.  In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file on this device (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.  With the -s option, this will be returned
                     as a string corresponding to the first column in the
                     display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the owner of the file.  With the -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The group ID of the file.  With the -s option, this is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful for special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The last access, modification and inode change times of
                     the file, respectively, as the number of seconds since
                     midnight GMT on 1st January, 1970.  With the -s option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L option is in effect,
                     this contains the name of the file linked to, otherwise
                     it is empty.  Note that if this element is selected
                     (``zstat +link'') then the -L option is automatically

              A particular element may be selected by including its name
              preceded by a `+' in the option list; only one element is
              allowed.  The element may be shortened to any unique set of
              leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be shown for
              all files.


              -A array
                     Instead of displaying the results on standard output,
                     assign them to an array, one struct stat element per
                     array element for each file in order.  In this case
                     neither the name of the element nor the name of the files
                     appears in array unless the -t or -n options were given,
                     respectively.  If -t is given, the element name appears
                     as a prefix to the appropriate array element; if -n is
                     given, the file name appears as a separate array element
                     preceding all the others.  Other formatting options are

              -H hash
                     Similar to -A, but instead assign the values to hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is provided then the name of the file is included in the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use the file on file descriptor fd instead of named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the
                     formatting of the time elements.  The format string
                     supports all of the zsh extensions described in the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     -s option is implied.

              -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List the names of the type elements (to standard output
                     or an array as appropriate) and return immediately;
                     arguments, and options other than -A, are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.  In this case, if the file is a link, information
                     about the link itself rather than the target file is
                     returned.  This option is required to make the link
                     element useful.  It's important to note that this is the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these are only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more useful for human consumption than the default of
                     decimal.  A leading zero will be printed in this case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the -s format); the string data appears in parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print mode, uid, gid and the three time elements as
                     strings instead of numbers.  In each case the format is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always show the type names for the elements of struct
                     stat.  Usually these are only shown when output is to
                     standard output and no individual element has been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.

       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may be used.  The set of names is the same as the contents of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed in front of the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0 indicates the message was successfully
              printed (although it may not be useful if the error number was
              out of the system's range), a return status of 1 indicates an
              error in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysopen [ -arw ] [ -m permissions ] [ -o options ]
               -u fd file
              This command opens a file. The -r, -w and -a flags indicate
              whether the file should be opened for reading, writing and
              appending, respectively. The -m option allows the initial
              permissions to use when creating a file to be specified in octal
              form.  The file descriptor is specified with -u. Either an
              explicit file descriptor in the range 0 to 9 can be specified or
              a variable name can be given to which the file descriptor number
              will be assigned.

              The -o option allows various system specific options to be
              specified as a comma-separated list. The following is a list of
              possible options. Note that, depending on the system, some may
              not be available.
                     mark file to be closed when other programs are executed
                     (else the file descriptor remains open in subshells and
                     forked external executables)

              creat  create file if it does not exist

              excl   create file, error if it already exists

                     suppress updating of the file atime

                     fail if file is a symbolic link

              sync   request that writes wait until data has been physically

              trunc  truncate file to size 0

              To close the file, use one of the following:

                     exec {fd}<&-
                     exec {fd}>&-

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
               [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform a single system read from file descriptor infd, or zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is
              not given, however the command returns as soon as any number of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll system call if available, otherwise the select system call
              if available.

              If outfd is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes
              just read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails, because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error during an interrupt, the bytes read but not written are
              stored in the parameter named by param if supplied (no default
              is used in this case), and the number of bytes read but not
              written is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that is
              supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the full
              number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              so that shell interrupts are transparent to the caller.  Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At least one byte of data was successfully read and, if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There was an error in the parameters to the command.
                     This is the only error for which a message is printed to
                     standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling the input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data were successfully read, but there was an error
                     writing them to outfd.  The parameter ERRNO gives the

              4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually indicates end of file.  The parameters are set
                     according to the usual rules; no write to outfd is

       sysseek [ -u fd ] [ -w start|end|current ] offset
              The current file position at which future reads and writes will
              take place is adjusted to the specified byte offset. The offset
              is evaluated as a math expression. The -u option allows the file
              descriptor to be specified. By default the offset is specified
              relative to the start or the file but, with the -w option, it is
              possible to specify that the offset should be relative to the
              current position or the end of the file.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file
              descriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not given, using the write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If countvar is given, the number of byte written is stored in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              by retrying; otherwise an error causes the command to return.
              For example, if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking
              output, an error EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may
              result in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the
              parameters to the command, or 2 for an error on the write; no
              error message is printed in the last case, but the parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand flock performs advisory file
              locking (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire contents
              of the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In the first form the named file, which must already exist, is
              locked by opening a file descriptor to the file and applying a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process that created the lock exits; it is therefore often
              convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock
              is automatically released when the subshell exits.  Note that
              use of the print builtin with the -u option will, as a side
              effect, release the lock, as will redirection to the file in the
              shell holding the lock.  To work around this use a subshell,
              e.g. `(print message) >> file'.  Status 0 is returned if the
              lock succeeds, else status 1.

              In the second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic
              expression fd_expr is closed, releasing a lock.  The file
              descriptor can be queried by using the `-f var' form during the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released if
              the file descriptor is closed by any other means, for example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a safety check that the file descriptor is in use for file

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The option -t timeout specifies a timeout for the lock in
              seconds; currently this must be an integer.  The shell will
              attempt to lock the file once a second during this period.  If
              the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
              preserved when the shell uses exec to start a new process;
              otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If the option -r is given, the lock is only for reading,
              otherwise it is for reading and writing.  The file descriptor is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.  It operates silently unless there was a syntax error (i.e.
              the wrong number of arguments), in which case status 255 is
              returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand
              is known but not supported by the current operating system, or
              subcommand is not known (possibly because this is an older
              version of the shell before it was implemented).

   Math Functions
              The systell math function returns the current file position for
              the file descriptor passed as an argument.

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.
              These are typically macros defined in C by including the system
              header file errno.h.  The index of each name (assuming the
              option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds to the error number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:

              pid    Returns the process ID of the current process, even in
                     subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process ID of
                     the main shell process.

              ppid   Returns the process ID of the parent of the current
                     process, even in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns
                     the process ID of the parent of the main shell process.

                     Returns the process ID of the last process started for
                     process substitution, i.e. the <(...) and >(...)

       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the contents of
              its session table.

              If it is run with only the option -L, it will output the
              contents of the session table in a format suitable for automatic
              parsing.  The option is ignored if given with a command to open
              or close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines, one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The file descriptor in use for the connection.  For
                     normal inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this may
                     be read and written by the usual shell mechanisms.
                     However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection created with `ztcp host

              The local host
                     This is usually set to an all-zero IP address as the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the connection is for

              The remote host
                     This is the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if
                     available, else an IP address.  It is an all-zero IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it
              will default to port 23.  The connection will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp -l will open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor associated with that

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the port
              associated with listenfd.  The connection will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If -t is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with fd.  The socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.
       We need to pick an unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output the termcap value corresponding to the capability cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output the terminfo value corresponding to the capability cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps terminfo capability names to
              their values.

       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The zsh/zftp module is a client for FTP (file transfer
              protocol).  It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of
              shell command line editing, file I/O, and job control
              mechanisms.  Often, users will access it via shell functions
              providing a more powerful interface; a set is provided with the
              zsh distribution and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However,
              the zftp command is entirely usable in its own right.

              All commands consist of the command name zftp followed by the
              name of a subcommand.  These are listed below.  The return
              status of each subcommand is supposed to reflect the success or
              failure of the remote operation.  See a description of the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from
              the server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which may be the name of a
              TCP/IP connected host or an IP number in the standard dot
              notation.  If the argument is in the form host:port, open a
              connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.
              This may be the name of a TCP service or a number:  see the
              description of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host should be
              surrounded by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining arguments are passed to the login subcommand.  Note
              that if no arguments beyond host are supplied, open will not
              automatically call login.  If no arguments at all are supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After a successful open, the shell variables ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP and ZFTP_SYSTEM are available; see
              `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login the user name with parameters password and account.  Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal, a prompt for each one will be printed on standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After a successful login, the shell variables ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store the given parameters for a later open command with no
              arguments.  Only those given on the command line will be
              remembered.  If no arguments are given, the parameters currently
              set are printed, although the password will appear as a line of
              stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may need
              to be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this case,
              the appropriate parameter will be read from stdin as with the
              login subcommand, including special handling of password.  If
              the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt for
              reading the parameter instead of the default message (any
              necessary punctuation and whitespace should be included at the
              end of the prompt).  The first letter of the parameter (only)
              may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees
              that the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated
              literally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if
              any, are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no arguments
              will cause an error.

              The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt the user for the corresponding password with the given

       test   Test the connection; if the server has reported that it has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if no connection was open anyway, return status 1; else return
              status 0.  The test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The test is only supported on systems with either the select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any other subcommand for the current session when a connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in the directory
              tree.  Note that cd .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX

       dir [ arg ... ]
              Give a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are
              passed directly to the server. The command's behaviour is
              implementation dependent, but a UNIX server will typically
              interpret args as arguments to the ls command and with no
              arguments return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed
              to standard output.

       ls [ arg ... ]
              Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no arg,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise, up to vagaries of the server implementation, behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print the current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it will
              automatically switch to using binary for file transfers upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a data
              connection is established; this command involves no network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set the mode type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote file ...
       local [ file ... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.  If there is more than one item on the list, the name of
              the file is printed first.  The first number is the file size,
              the second is the last modification time of the file in the
              format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of year, month, date, hour,
              minutes and seconds in GMT.  Note that this format, including
              the length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be directly
              compared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if they
              are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not all servers support the commands for retrieving this
              information.  In that case, the remote command will print
              nothing and return status 2, compared with status 1 for a file
              not found.

              The local command (but not remote) may be used with no
              arguments, in which case the information comes from examining
              file descriptor zero.  This is the same file as seen by a put
              command with no further redirection.

       get file ...
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and
              sending them to standard output.

       put file ...
              For each file, read a file from standard input and send that to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file ...
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the given point in the remote file.  This is useful for
              appending to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this
              ability is not universally supported by servers (and is not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file ...
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site arg ...
              Send a host-specific command to the server.  You will probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote arg ...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be
              familiar with the FTP command set as defined in RFC959 before
              doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT and HELP.  Note
              also the mechanism for returning messages as described for the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in particular that all messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the current data connection.  This unsets the shell
              parameters ZFTP_HOST, ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP, ZFTP_SYSTEM,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows multiple FTP sessions to be used at once.  The name of
              the session is an arbitrary string of characters; the default
              session is called `default'.  If this command is called without
              an argument, it will list all the current sessions; with an
              argument, it will either switch to the existing session called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set of
              connection-specific shell parameters (the same set as are unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and any user parameters specified with the params subcommand.
              Changing to a previous session restores those values; changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just been loaded.  The name of the current session is given by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.  If the current session is deleted, the earliest
              existing session becomes the new current session, otherwise the
              current session is not changed.  If the session being deleted is
              the only one, a new session called `default' is created and
              becomes the current session; note that this is a new session
              even if the session being deleted is also called `default'. It
              is recommended that sessions not be deleted while background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by zftp.  Currently none of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module is loaded, it will be given the default value 60.  A
              value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on the
              control connection it will be closed.  Use a larger value if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote server.  If the
              host was opened as an IP number, ZFTP_HOST contains that
              instead; this saves the overhead for a name lookup, as IP
              numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.  The number of the remote TCP port to which the
              connection is open (even if the port was originally specified as
              a named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In the unlikely event that your system does not have the
              appropriate conversion functions, this appears in network byte
              order.  If your system is little-endian, the port then consists
              of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be reported as
              5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also
              need to be in this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string returned by the server in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which ensures maximum
              compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.  The type to be used for data transfers , either `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user, if any.  Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply from the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The last line of the last reply sent by the server.
              This can still be read after the connection is closed, and is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the
              description of the session subcommand.

              A string of preferences for altering aspects of zftp's
              behaviour.  Each preference is a single character.  The
              following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the string, zftp
                     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:  initiate transfers by the FTP PORT command.
                     If this occurs before any P in the string, passive mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:  use only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This
                     prevents the variables ZFTP_SYSTEM and ZFTP_PWD from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set during a
                     transfer if the server does not send it anyway (many
                     servers do).

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which
              responses from the server should be printed.  All responses go
              to standard error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear in the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with that digit will be printed to standard error.  The first
              digit of the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to
              correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not available', which forces termination of a connection, is
              classified as 421, i.e. `transient negative', an interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last line
              of multiline replies read from the server will be printed to
              standard error in a processed format.  By convention, servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The appropriate reply code, if it matches the same response,
              takes priority.

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set
              to the default value 450, i.e., messages destined for the user
              and all errors will be printed.  A null string is valid and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during a
              get, put or append operation each time sufficient data has been
              received from the host.  During a get, the data is sent to
              standard output, so it is vital that this function should write
              to standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard

              When it is called with a transfer in progress, the following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete file being transferred:
                     the same as the first value provided by the remote and
                     local subcommands for a particular file.  If the server
                     cannot supply this value for a remote file being
                     retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from a pipe
                     the value may be incorrect and correspond simply to a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a number between
                     zero and $ZFTP_SIZE, if that is set.  This number is
                     always available.

              The function is initially called with ZFTP_TRANSFER set
              appropriately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is
              finished, the function will be called one more time with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is otherwise never called twice with the same value of

              Sometimes the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and the file information is not updated in the
       main shell.  In the case of type or mode changes or closing the
       connection in a subshell, the information is returned but variables are
       not updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in
       subshells will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should
       be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can
       have unexpected effects, even if it does not use the session being
       deleted.  This is because all shell subprocesses share information on
       the state of all connections, and deleting a session changes the
       ordering of that information.

       On some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells, on the left hand side of a
       pipeline, or in the background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.

       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).

       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can be
       used to access internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry per widget. The name
              of the widget is the key and the value gives information about
              the widget. It is either
                the string `builtin' for builtin widgets,
                a string of the form `user:name' for user-defined widgets,
                  where name is the name of the shell function implementing
              the widget,
                a string of the form `completion:type:name'
                  for completion widgets,
                or a null value if the widget is not yet fully defined.  In
              the penultimate case, type is the name of the builtin widget the
              completion widget imitates in its behavior and name is the name
              of the shell function implementing the completion widget.

       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The
       profiling results can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made
       available by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.  The format is comparable to that of commands like

              At the top there is a summary listing all functions that were
              called at least once.  This summary is sorted in decreasing
              order of the amount of time spent in each.  The lines contain
              the number of the function in order, which is used in other
              parts of the list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the
              number of calls made to the function.  The next three columns
              list the time in milliseconds spent in the function and its
              descendants, the average time in milliseconds spent in the
              function and its descendants per call and the percentage of time
              spent in all shell functions used in this function and its
              descendants.  The following three columns give the same
              information, but counting only the time spent in the function
              itself.  The final column shows the name of the function.

              After the summary, detailed information about every function
              that was invoked is listed, sorted in decreasing order of the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called the function described, the function itself, and the
              functions that were called from it.  The description for the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the function at the beginning and have their function named
              indented to make it easier to distinguish the line showing the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The information shown in this case is almost the same as in the
              summary, but only refers to the call hierarchy being displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running time lists the time spent in the described function and
              its descendants only for the times when it was called from that
              particular calling function.  Likewise, for a called function,
              this columns lists the total time spent in the called function
              and its descendants only for the times when it was called from
              the function described.

              Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls to a
              function also shows a slash and then the total number of
              invocations made to the called function.

              As long as the zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be
              done and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With the -c option, the zprof builtin command will reset its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.

       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The arguments following name are concatenated with spaces
              between, then executed as a command, as if passed to the eval
              builtin.  The command runs under a newly assigned
              pseudo-terminal; this is useful for running commands
              non-interactively which expect an interactive environment.  The
              name is not part of the command, but is used to refer to this
              command in later calls to zpty.

              With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

              The shell parameter REPLY is set to the file descriptor assigned
              to the master side of the pseudo-terminal.  This allows the
              terminal to be monitored with ZLE descriptor handlers (see
              zshzle(1)) or manipulated with sysread and syswrite (see THE
              ZSH/SYSTEM MODULE in zshmodules(1)).  Warning: Use of sysread
              and syswrite is not recommended; use zpty -r and zpty -w unless
              you know exactly what you are doing.

       zpty -d [ name ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands
              previously started, by supplying a list of their names.  If no
              name is given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting a command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ string ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If no string is provided, the standard input is copied to the
              pseudo-terminal; this may stop before copying the full input if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The exact input is always
              copied: the -n option is not applied.

              Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this input
              as if it were typed, so beware when sending special tty driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read the output of the command
              name.  With only a name argument, the output read is copied to
              the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-terminal is
              non-blocking, copying continues until the command under the
              pseudo-terminal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as
              is immediately available is copied.  The return status is zero
              if any output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one line is read and
              stored in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line may
              be read if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The return
              status is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read until the whole
              string read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.
              The return status is zero if the string read matches the
              pattern, or if the command has exited but at least one character
              could still be read.  If the option -m is present, the return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If the -r option is combined with the -t option, zpty tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When used
              with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed poll is similar to
              when the command has exited:  the return value is zero if at
              least one character could still be read even if the pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether
              the command name is still running.  It returns a zero status if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The last form, without any arguments, is used to list the
              commands currently defined.  If the -L option is given, this is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.

       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe ] [ -t timeout ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] [ fd ... ]
              The zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call,
              which blocks until a file descriptor is ready for reading or
              writing, or has an error condition, with an optional timeout.
              If this is not available on your system, the command prints an
              error message and returns status 2 (normal errors return status
              1).  For more information, see your systems documentation for
              select(3).  Note there is no connection with the shell builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments and options may be intermingled in any order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.  By default, file descriptors are to be tested for
              reading, i.e. zselect will return when data is available to be
              read from the file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read
              operation from the file descriptor will not block.  After a -r,
              -w and -e, the given file descriptors are to be tested for
              reading, writing, or error conditions.  These options and an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation for many implementations of the select system
              call.  According to recent versions of the POSIX specification,
              it is really an exception condition, of which the only standard
              example is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a
              second.  This may be zero, in which case the file descriptors
              will simply be polled and zselect will return immediately.  It
              is possible to call zselect with no file descriptors and a
              non-zero timeout for use as a finer-grained replacement for
              `sleep'; note, however, the return status is always 1 for a

              The option `-a array' indicates that array should be set to
              indicate the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option
              is not given, the array reply will be used for this purpose.
              The array will contain a string similar to the arguments for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0 -w 1' to show that both file descriptors are ready for the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should be set to indicate the file descriptor(s) which are
              ready.  This option overrides the option -a, nor will reply be
              modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready
              for reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0 was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor modified
              in any way).  If there was an error in the select operation the
              appropriate error message is printed.

       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ metapattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style string ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ style ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -{a|b|s} context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -{T|t} context style [ string ... ]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This builtin command is used to define and lookup styles.
              Styles are pairs of names and values, where the values consist
              of any number of strings.  They are stored together with
              patterns and lookup is done by giving a string, called the
              `context', which is matched against the patterns.  The
              definition stored for the most specific pattern that matches
              will be returned.

              A pattern is considered to be more specific than another if it
              contains more components (substrings separated by colons) or if
              the patterns for the components are more specific, where simple
              strings are considered to be more specific than patterns and
              complex patterns are considered to be more specific than the
              pattern `*'.  A `*' in the pattern will match zero or more
              characters in the context; colons are not treated specially in
              this regard.  If two patterns are equally specific, the tie is
              broken in favour of the pattern that was defined first.


              For example, to define your preferred form of precipitation
              depending on which city you're in, you might set the following
              in your zshrc:

                     zstyle ':weather:europe:*' preferred-precipitation rain
                     zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:* preferred-precipitation none
                     zstyle ':weather:europe:germany:*:munich' preferred-precipitation snow

              Then, the fictional `weather' plugin might run under the hood a
              command such as

                     zstyle -s ":weather:${continent}:${country}:${county}:${city}" preferred-precipitation REPLY

              in order to retrieve your preference into the scalar variable


              The forms that operate on patterns are the following.

              zstyle [ -L [ metapattern [ style ] ] ]
                     Without arguments, lists style definitions.  Styles are
                     shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in the
                     order zstyle will test them.

                     If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of
                     calls to zstyle.  The optional first argument,
                     metapattern, is a pattern which will be matched against
                     the string supplied as pattern when the style was
                     defined.  Note: this means, for example, `zstyle -L
                     ":completion:*"' will match any supplied pattern
                     beginning `:completion:', not just ":completion:*":  use
                     ':completion:\*' to match that.  The optional second
                     argument limits the output to a specific style (not a
                     pattern).  -L is not compatible with any other options.

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style string ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the strings
                     as the value.  If the -e option is given, the strings
                     will be concatenated (separated by spaces) and the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is done by the eval builtin command) when the style is
                     looked up.  In this case the parameter `reply' must be
                     assigned to set the strings returned after the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset,
                     and if it is still unset after the evaluation, the style
                     is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ style ... ] ]
                     Delete style definitions. Without arguments all
                     definitions are deleted, with a pattern all definitions
                     for that pattern are deleted and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of an array in which the results are stored. Without any
                     further arguments, all patterns defined are returned.
                     With a pattern the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style, the value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test styles for a
              given context.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The parameter name is set to the value of the style
                     interpreted as a string.  If the value contains several
                     strings they are concatenated with spaces (or with the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

                     Return 0 if the style is set, 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The value is stored in name as a boolean, i.e. as the
                     string `yes' if the value has only one string and that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the value is any other string or has more than one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

                     Return 0 if name is set to `yes', 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in name as an array. If name is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings are used as the keys and the other strings are
                     used as the values.

                     Return 0 if the style is set, 1 otherwise.

              zstyle -t context style [ string ... ]
              zstyle -T context style [ string ... ]
                     Test the value of a style, i.e. the -t option only
                     returns a status (sets $?).  Without any string the
                     return status is zero if the style is defined for at
                     least one matching pattern, has only one string in its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'. If any strings are given the status is zero if and
                     only if at least one of the strings is equal to at least
                     one of the strings in the value. If the style is defined
                     but doesn't match, the return status is 1. If the style
                     is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but
                     it returns status zero (rather than 2) if the style is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format spec ...
       zformat -a array sep spec ...
              This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The
              first form is selected with the -f option. In this case the
              format string will be modified by replacing sequences starting
              with a percent sign in it with strings from the specs.  Each
              spec should be of the form `char:string' which will cause every
              appearance of the sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by
              the string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional minimum
              and maximum field width specifications between the `%' and the
              `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width makes the
              result be padded with spaces to the right if the string is
              shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left can be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field width is specified, the string will be truncated after
              that many characters.  After all `%' sequences for the given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form
              used by prompts.  The % is followed by a `(' and then an
              ordinary format specifier character as described above.  There
              may be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these
              specify a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative numbers
              are also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows the
              format specifier, which is followed by a piece of `true' text,
              the delimiter character again, a piece of `false' text, and a
              closing parenthesis.  The complete expression (without the
              digits) thus looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.'
              character is arbitrary.  The value given for the format
              specifier in the char:string expressions is evaluated as a
              mathematical expression, and compared with the test number.  If
              they are the same, text1 is output, else text2 is output.  A
              parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or
              text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3(c.yes.no)'." c:3

              outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning
              strings.  Here, the specs are of the form `left:right' where
              `left' and `right' are arbitrary strings.  These strings are
              modified by replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
              the left strings with spaces to the right so that the sep
              strings in the result (and hence the right strings after them)
              are all aligned if the strings are printed below each other.
              All strings without a colon are left unchanged and all strings
              with an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.  In
              both cases the lengths of the strings are not used to determine
              how the other strings are to be aligned.  A colon in the left
              string can be escaped with a backslash.  The resulting strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D -E -F -K -M ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] [ - ] spec ...
              This builtin simplifies the parsing of options in positional
              parameters, i.e. the set of arguments given by $*.  Each spec
              describes one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.  If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional `=array' is given, it is instead copied into that
              array, which should be declared as a normal array and never as
              an associative array.

              Note that it is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'. See
              also -F.

              The opt description must be one of the following.  Any of the
              special characters can appear in the option name provided it is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option without the leading
                     `-'.  To specify a GNU-style long option, one of the
                     usual two leading `-' must be included in name; for
                     example, a `--file' option is represented by a name of

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option is appended to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If one of these forms is used, the option takes no
                     argument, so parsing stops if the next positional
                     parameter does not also begin with `-' (unless the -E
                     option is used).

              name:: If one or two colons are given, the option takes an
                     argument; with one colon, the argument is mandatory and
                     with two colons it is optional.  The argument is appended
                     to the array after the option itself.

                     An optional argument is put into the same array element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments indistinguishable).  A mandatory argument is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name and
                     the first colon.

              In all cases, option-arguments must appear either immediately
              following the option in the same positional parameter or in the
              next one. Even an optional argument may appear in the next
              parameter, unless it begins with a `-'.  There is no special
              handling of `=' as with GNU-style argument parsers; given the
              spec `-foo:', the positional parameter `--foo=bar' is parsed as
              `--foo' with an argument of `=bar'.

              When the names of two options that take no arguments overlap,
              the longest one wins, so that parsing for the specs `-foo
              -foobar' (for example) is unambiguous. However, due to the
              aforementioned handling of option-arguments, ambiguities may
              arise when at least one overlapping spec takes an argument, as
              in `-foo: -foobar'. In that case, the last matching spec wins.

              The options of zparseopts itself cannot be stacked because, for
              example, the stack `-DEK' is indistinguishable from a spec for
              the GNU-style long option `--DEK'.  The options of zparseopts
              itself are:

              -a array
                     As described above, this names the default array in which
                     to store the recognised options.

              -A assoc
                     If this is given, the options and their values are also
                     put into an associative array with the option names as
                     keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

              -D     If this option is given, all options found are removed
                     from the positional parameters of the calling shell or
                     shell function, up to but not including any not described
                     by the specs.  If the first such parameter is `-' or
                     `--', it is removed as well.  This is similar to using
                     the shift builtin.

              -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the first
                     string that isn't described by one of the specs.  It can
                     be used to test for or (if used together with -D) extract
                     options and their arguments, ignoring all other options
                     and arguments that may be in the positional parameters.
                     As indicated above, parsing still stops at the first `-'
                     or `--' not described by a spec, but it is not removed
                     when used with -D.

              -F     If this option is given, zparseopts immediately stops at
                     the first option-like parameter not described by one of
                     the specs, prints an error message, and returns status 1.
                     Removal (-D) and extraction (-E) are not performed, and
                     option arrays are not updated.  This provides basic
                     validation for the given options.

                     Note that the appearance in the positional parameters of
                     an option without its required argument always aborts
                     parsing and returns an error as described above
                     regardless of whether this option is used.

              -K     With this option, the arrays specified with the -a option
                     and with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
                     of the specs for them is used.  Otherwise the entire
                     array is replaced when any of the specs is used.
                     Individual elements of associative arrays specified with
                     the -A option are preserved by -K.  This allows
                     assignment of default values to arrays before calling

              -M     This changes the assignment rules to implement a map
                     among equivalent option names.  If any spec uses the
                     `=array' form, the string array is interpreted as the
                     name of another spec, which is used to choose where to
                     store the values.  If no other spec is found, the values
                     are stored as usual.  This changes only the way the
                     values are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so results
                     may be unpredictable if the `name+' specifier is used

              For example,

                     set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
                     zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

              will have the effect of

                     bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

              The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

              As an example for the -E option, consider:

                     set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
                     zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

              will have the effect of

                     bar=(-b y)
                     set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

              I.e., the option -b and its arguments are taken from the
              positional parameters and put into the array bar.

              The -M option can be used like this:

                     set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
                     zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

              to have the effect of

                     bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                 ZSHMODULES(1)