zshzle

ZSHZLE(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ZSHZLE(1)



NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to
       edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid
       terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line
       mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up,
       or if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh,
       and uses no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will
       be unset by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line
       editor. See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see
       Character Highlighting below.  Highlighting of special characters and
       the region between the cursor and the mark (as set with
       set-mark-command in Emacs mode, or by visual-mode in Vi mode) is
       enabled by default; consult this reference for more information.
       Irascible conservatives will wish to know that all highlighting may be
       disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

       In many places, references are made to the numeric argument.  This can
       by default be entered in emacs mode by holding the alt key and typing a
       number, or pressing escape before each digit, and in vi command mode by
       typing the number before entering a command.  Generally the numeric
       argument causes the next command entered to be repeated the specified
       number of times, unless otherwise noted below; this is implemented by
       the digit-argument widget. See also the Arguments subsection of the
       Widgets section for some other ways the numeric argument can be
       modified.

KEYMAPS
       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are eight keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       viopp  vi emulation - operator pending
       visual vi emulation - selection active
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and the name
       can never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which
       can be removed.  In the future other special keymaps may be added;
       users should avoid using names beginning with `.' for their own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables
       contain the string `vi' when the shell starts up then it will be
       `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and -v options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.  If that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except
       for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that is bound to some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more
       characters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer
       string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is defined by the
       KEYTIMEOUT parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if
       the prefix string is not itself bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a
       multibyte character string when it is in the appropriate mode.  (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled;
       typically also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding,
       although any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is
       supported.)  If the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the
       timeout period, the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input
       state.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,
       by using `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement
       string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process starts
       again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke
       further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process
       will be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real
       command being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for
       use in user-defined widgets with the read-command widget, described in
       the subsection `Miscellaneous' of the section `Standard Widgets' below.

   Local Keymaps
       While for normal editing a single keymap is used exclusively, in many
       modes a local keymap allows for some keys to be customised. For
       example, in an incremental search mode, a binding in the isearch keymap
       will override a binding in the main keymap but all keys that are not
       overridden can still be used.

       If a key sequence is defined in a local keymap, it will hide a key
       sequence in the global keymap that is a prefix of that sequence. An
       example of this occurs with the binding of iw in viopp as this hides
       the binding of i in vicmd. However, a longer sequence in the global
       keymap that shares the same prefix can still apply so for example the
       binding of ^Xa in the global keymap will be unaffected by the binding
       of ^Xb in the local keymap.

ZLE BUILTINS
       The ZLE module contains three related builtin commands. The bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command manipulates
       editing widgets and allows command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three categories: keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and
              others.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the current
                     command, and also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the current
                     command, and also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The keymap specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options above
              are used, the `main' keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap names; if any arguments are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If the -L option is also used, list in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey
                     -lL main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any,
                     and hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in
                     effect.  This option does not show the .safe keymap
                     because it cannot be created in that fashion; however,
                     neither is `bindkey -lL .safe' reported as an error, it
                     simply outputs nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the same keymap.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create a new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If an old-keymap
                     name is given, the new keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

              To use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use a new keymap
              `mymap' initialized from the emacs keymap (which remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.  Only keys that are unbound or bound to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind the specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent to binding the strings to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself, if any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will remove all bindings in the vi-insert keymap
                     beginning with an escape character (probably cursor
                     keys), but leave the binding for the escape character
                     itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with
                     the option -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and treated as
                     input to the line editor.  When -R is also used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     Note that both in-string and out-string are subject to
                     the same form of interpretation, as described below.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to each command.  When -R is used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the
                     binding of that string in the selected keymap is
                     displayed.  Otherwise, all key bindings in the selected
                     keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or
                     -v option is used alone, the keymap is not displayed -
                     the implicit linking of keymaps is the only thing that
                     happens.)

                     When the option -p is used, the in-string must be
                     present.  The listing shows all bindings which have the
                     given key sequence as a prefix, not including any
                     bindings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

              When the -R option is used as noted above, a valid range
              consists of two characters, with an optional `-' between them.
              All characters between the two specified, inclusive, are bound
              as specified.

              For either in-string or out-string, the following escape
              sequences are recognised:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \e, \E escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \NNN   character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \M[-]X character with meta bit set
              \C[-]X control character
              ^X     control character

              In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete
              is written as `^?'.  Note that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the
              same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are
              entirely distinct, although they are initialized to the same
              bindings by `bindkey -m'.


       vared [ -Aacghe ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
             [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
             [ -i init-widget ] [ -f finish-widget ]
             [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer,
              and the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the editor.  When the -c
              flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with -c to create an array
              parameter, or the -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.  The -g flag may
              be given to suppress warnings from the WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL and
              WARN_NESTED_VAR options.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted with a backslash, as
              will backslashes themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an immediately
              following separator character or backslash; no other special
              handling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is
              performed.

              Individual elements of existing array or associative array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be taken as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the right.  If
              the -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The -M option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to the vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For emacs-style
              editing, only -M is normally needed but the -m option may still
              be used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              Vared calls the usual `zle-line-init' and `zle-line-finish'
              hooks before and after it takes control. Using the -i and -f
              options, it is possible to replace these with other custom
              widgets.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -f flag [ flag... ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions
              concerning ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that even if non-zero status is returned, zle may still be
              active as part of the completion system; this does not allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is used, list in the form of zle commands to create the
                     widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are
                     listed, including the builtin ones. In this case the -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, and -a is present or -L
                     is not used, nothing will be printed.  The return status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and non-zero if at least one string is not a name of a
                     defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names
                     are used for the comparison including builtin widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If at least one string is present and the -L option is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both names refer to the same widget.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a
                     widget with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When
                     the new widget is invoked from within the editor, the
                     specified shell function is called.  If no function name
                     is specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.
                     For further information, see the section `Widgets' below.

              -f flag [ flag... ]
                     Set various flags on the running widget.  Possible values
                     for flag are:

                     yank for indicating that the widget has yanked text into
                     the buffer.  If the widget is wrapping an existing
                     internal widget, no further action is necessary, but if
                     it has inserted the text manually, then it should also
                     take care to set YANK_START and YANK_END correctly.
                     yankbefore does the same but is used when the yanked text
                     appears after the cursor.

                     kill for indicating that text has been killed into the
                     cutbuffer.  When repeatedly invoking a kill widget, text
                     is appended to the cutbuffer instead of replacing it, but
                     when wrapping such widgets, it is necessary to call `zle
                     -f kill' to retain this effect.

                     vichange for indicating that the widget represents a vi
                     change that can be repeated as a whole with
                     `vi-repeat-change'. The flag should be set early in the
                     function before inspecting the value of NUMERIC or
                     invoking other widgets. This has no effect for a widget
                     invoked from insert mode. If insert mode is active when
                     the widget finishes, the change extends until next
                     returning to command mode.

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion widget will behave like the built-in
                     completion-widget whose name is given as
                     completion-widget. To generate the completions, the shell
                     function function will be called.  For further
                     information, see zshcompwid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay the command line; this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes to become
                     visible.  If a display-string is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately below the
                     line being edited).

                     If the optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in the same way as completion lists are
                     printed. If no strings are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that do
                     not exit immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately after return from
                     the widget.

                     This command can safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while if zle is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the command line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the status line but will instead be
                     printed normally below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the widget returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently executed
                     finishes ZLE will behave as if the characters in the
                     string were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option is used repeatedly
                     the last string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each string will be
                     processed in the order in which they appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error message will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This keymap selection affects the interpretation of
                     following keystrokes within this invocation of ZLE.  Any
                     following invocation (e.g., the next command line) will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input from file descriptor fd.  Installing a handler for
                     an fd which is already handled causes the existing
                     handler to be replaced.  Any number of handlers for any
                     number of readable file descriptors may be installed.
                     Note that zle makes no attempt to check whether this fd
                     is actually readable when installing the handler.  The
                     user must make their own arrangements for handling the
                     file descriptor when zle is not active.

                     When zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
                     the terminal and the list of handled fd's.  If data
                     becomes available on a handled fd, zle calls handler with
                     the fd which is ready for reading as the first argument.
                     Under normal circumstances this is the only argument, but
                     if an error was detected, a second argument provides
                     details: `hup' for a disconnect, `nval' for a closed or
                     otherwise invalid descriptor, or `err' for any other
                     condition.  Systems that support only the `select' system
                     call always use `err'.

                     If the option -w is also given, the handler is instead a
                     line editor widget, typically a shell function made into
                     a widget using `zle -N'.  In that case handler can use
                     all the facilities of zle to update the current editing
                     line.  Note, however, that as handling fd takes place at
                     a low level changes to the display will not automatically
                     appear; the widget should call `zle -R' to force
                     redisplay.  As of this writing, widget handlers only
                     support a single argument and thus are never passed a
                     string for error state, so widgets must be prepared to
                     test the descriptor themselves.

                     If either type of handler produces output to the
                     terminal, it should call `zle -I' before doing so (see
                     below).  Handlers should not attempt to read from the
                     terminal.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error
                     message is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied,
                     a list of handlers is printed in a form which can be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally be given with
                     the -L option; in this case, the function will list the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.
                     Activity on one of the fd's which is not properly handled
                     can cause the terminal to become unusable.  Removing an
                     fd handler from within a signal trap may cause
                     unpredictable behavior.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.  A
                     connection to a remote TCP port is created using the ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).  Then a handler is installed which simply
                     prints out any data which arrives on this connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs handling if the remote side has closed the
                     connection; we handle that by testing for a failed read.

                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually, this option is most useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions, though it may be used within if normal
                     output to the terminal is required.  It invalidates the
                     current zle display in preparation for output; typically
                     this will be from a trap function.  It has no effect if
                     zle is not active.  When a trap exits, the shell checks
                     to see if the display needs restoring, hence the
                     following will print output in such a way as not to
                     disturb the line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                              # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                              # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In general, the trap function may need to test whether
                     zle is active before using this method (as shown in the
                     example), since the zsh/zle module may not even be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before
                     control is returned to the editor; the display will only
                     be invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of manipulating
                     the display from within zle widgets; see, for example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated, even
                     though this may have been by a previous call to `zle -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be called at this point, execute zle with no arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal
                     transformations on the processing performed by the line
                     editor.  It is typically used only for debugging or
                     testing and is therefore of little interest to the
                     general user.

                     `zle -T transformation func' specifies that the given
                     transformation (see below) is effected by shell function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list all transformations
                     currently in operation.

                     Currently the only transformation is tc.  This is used
                     instead of outputting termcap codes to the terminal.
                     When the transformation is in operation the shell
                     function is passed the termcap code that would be output
                     as its first argument; if the operation required a
                     numeric argument, that is passed as a second argument.
                     The function should set the shell variable REPLY to the
                     transformed termcap code.  Typically this is used to
                     produce some simply formatted version of the code and
                     optional argument for debugging or testing.  Note that
                     this transformation is not applied to other non-printing
                     characters such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done when
                     ZLE is active; normally this will be within a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numeric argument
                     will be saved and then restored after the call to widget;
                     `-n num' sets the numeric argument temporarily to num,
                     while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
                     none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used as the current
                     keymap during the execution of the widget.  The previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not set the
                     special parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by the user were still active.  With the option -w,
                     WIDGET and related parameters are set to reflect the
                     widget being executed by the zle call.

                     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget; note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any
                     general argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is
                     a shell function, these are passed down as positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the
                     history-search-forward and -backward and the
                     corresponding functions prefixed by vi-, and by
                     universal-argument.  No error is flagged if the command
                     does not use the arguments, or only uses some of them.

                     The return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by the widget, or if it is a
                     user-defined widget the return status of the shell
                     function.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell to beep when
                     the widget exits, unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle command.  Thus if a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.

WIDGETS
       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job
       is simply to perform some small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can be
       user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built into ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined by other modules (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal
       canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.' name is
       special: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the
       widget available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as
       shell functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other) actions.  It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any normal shell command.  They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command. The standard
       input of the function is redirected from /dev/null to prevent external
       commands from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the
       terminal, but read -k or read -q can be used to read characters.
       Finally, they can examine and edit the ZLE buffer being edited by
       reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside ZLE, that value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       Note that the parameters appear as local to any ZLE widget in which
       they appear.  Hence if it is desired to override them this needs to be
       done within a nested function:

              widget-function() {
                # $WIDGET here refers to the special variable
                # that is local inside widget-function
                () {
                   # This anonymous nested function allows WIDGET
                   # to be used as a local variable.  The -h
                   # removes the special status of the variable.
                   local -h WIDGET
                }
              }

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to,
              the cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently
              displayed on screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.
              One of the values:

              start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

              cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

              select In a select loop (at prompt PS3).

              vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the range 0 to $#BUFFER, and is by definition equal to
              $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end of the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string
              which the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries in
              the kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the command
              `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text of
              the cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving up or down in the history to the corresponding history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in the history.  Note this is not the same as the parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added to the main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line
              being retrieved within zle.

       ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_START (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_END (integer)
              ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE indicates whether a part of the BUFFER is
              currently matched by an incremental search pattern.
              ISEARCHMATCH_START and ISEARCHMATCH_END give the location of the
              matched part and are in the same units as CURSOR. They are only
              valid for reading when ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string;
              read-only.

       KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT (integer)
              The number of bytes pushed back to the input queue and therefore
              available for reading immediately before any I/O is done;
              read-only.  See also PENDING; the two values are distinct.

       killring (array)
              The array of previously killed items, with the most recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop in the same order.  Note, however, that the most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length
              may be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of the array effectively sets the maximum length of the kill
              ring, while the number of non-zero strings gives the current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search that was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark. With vi-mode operators that wait
              for a movement command to select a region of text, setting MARK
              allows the selection to extend in both directions from the
              initial cursor position.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric argument was given, this
              parameter is unset. When this is set inside a widget function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes
              which have already been typed and can immediately be read. On
              systems where the shell is not able to get this information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.
              See also KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT; the two values are distinct.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed before the start of the editable text
              buffer.  This does not have to be a complete line; to display a
              complete line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text
              is reset on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.
              This does not have to be a complete line; to display a complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the right of the cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the old $LBUFFER and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0 or 1 to deactivate and activate the region respectively. A
              value of 2 activates the region in line-wise mode with the
              highlighted text extending for whole lines only; see Character
              Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting for an arbitrary region of the command line that
              will take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.
              Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the command line in
              PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but note that the P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              ·      Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end
                     offset that follow include any string set by the
                     PREDISPLAY special parameter; this is needed if the
                     predisplay string itself is to be highlighted.
                     Whitespace may follow the `P'.

              ·      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              ·      An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              ·      A highlight specification in the same format as used for
                     contexts in the parameter zle_highlight, see the section
                     `Character Highlighting' below; for example, standout or
                     fg=red,bold

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and
              disappears as soon as the line is accepted.

              The final highlighting on the command line depends on both
              region_highlight and zle_highlight; see the section CHARACTER
              HIGHLIGHTING below for details.

       registers (associative array)
              The contents of each of the vi register buffers. These are
              typically set using vi-set-buffer followed by a delete, change
              or yank command.

       SUFFIX_ACTIVE (integer)
       SUFFIX_START (integer)
       SUFFIX_END (integer)
              SUFFIX_ACTIVE indicates whether an auto-removable completion
              suffix is currently active. SUFFIX_START and SUFFIX_END give the
              location of the suffix and are in the same units as CURSOR. They
              are only valid for reading when SUFFIX_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.  The only
              use of this is passing as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       UNDO_LIMIT_NO (integer)
              A number corresponding to an existing change in the undo
              history; compare UNDO_CHANGE_NO.  If this is set to a value
              greater than zero, the undo command will not allow the line to
              be undone beyond the given change number.  It is still possible
              to use `zle undo change' in a widget to undo beyond that point;
              in that case, it will not be possible to undo at all until
              UNDO_LIMIT_NO is reduced.  Set to 0 to disable the limit.

              A typical use of this variable in a widget function is as
              follows (note the additional function scope is required):

                     () {
                       local UNDO_LIMIT_NO=$UNDO_CHANGE_NO
                       # Perform some form of recursive edit.
                     }

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The name of the shell function that implements a widget defined
              with either zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this is the
              second argument to the zle -N command that defined the widget,
              or the first argument if there was no second argument.  In the
              latter case this is the third argument to the zle -C command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion widget
              currently being executed; the second argument that followed zle
              -C when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin
              completion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set
              to the empty string.  Read-only.

       YANK_ACTIVE (integer)
       YANK_START (integer)
       YANK_END (integer)
              YANK_ACTIVE indicates whether text has just been yanked (pasted)
              into the buffer.  YANK_START and YANK_END give the location of
              the pasted text and are in the same units as CURSOR.  They are
              only valid for reading when YANK_ACTIVE is non-zero.  They can
              also be assigned by widgets that insert text in a yank-like
              fashion, for example wrappers of bracketed-paste.  See also zle
              -f.

              YANK_ACTIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_RECURSIVE (integer)
              Usually zero, but incremented inside any instance of
              recursive-edit.  Hence indicates the current recursion level.

              ZLE_RECURSIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe the
              current zle state.

              Currently, the states shown are the insert mode as set by the
              overwrite-mode or vi-replace widgets and whether history
              commands will visit imported entries as controlled by the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if
              characters to be inserted on the command line move existing
              characters to the right or `overwrite' if characters to be
              inserted overwrite existing characters. It contains
              `localhistory' if only local history commands will be visited or
              `globalhistory' if imported history commands will also be
              visited.

              The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that if you
              want to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *globalhistory*insert* ]]; then ...; fi

   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special to the shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment
       provided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch prompt is removed from the display.  See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search when the display is about to
              be redrawn.  Additional output below the incremental search
              prompt can be generated by using `zle -M' within the widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note the line output by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from
              incremental search.  This can be done from a zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-pre-redraw
              Executed whenever the input line is about to be redrawn,
              providing an opportunity to update the region_highlight array.

       zle-line-init
              Executed every time the line editor is started to read a new
              line of input.  The following example puts the line editor into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special
              parameter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line
              editor is active.  Initialising the keymap when the line editor
              starts does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This can be used for detecting switches between the vi command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.

STANDARD WIDGETS
       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default
       bindings in emacs mode, vi command mode and vi insert mode (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps;
       the shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences reported
       by the terminal-handling library (termcap or terminfo).  The key
       sequences shown in the list are those based on the VT100, common on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the case of the viins keymap, the initial escape character of the
       sequences serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this
       happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-backward-blank-word-end (unbound) (gE) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, where a word is defined as
              a series of non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       vi-backward-word-end (unbound) (ge) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       down-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this
              command, the cursor will be moved to the end of the line
              (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the
              current word, to the end of the next word, where a word is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

       up-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (gg) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, search forward in the history for a line beginning with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.  This
              defaults to the current history line (i.e. the one that isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward incrementally for a specified string.  The
              search is case-insensitive if the search string does not have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the
              following statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1, if the search
              failed; 2, if the search term was a bad pattern; 3, if the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special isearch keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap (note that by default
              the isearch keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal, as defined
              by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to the
              original line.  An undefined key will have the same effect.
              Note that the following always perform the same task within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined
              widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              supported functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the usual function after exiting incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back up one place in the search history.  If the search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a
                     character in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit incremental search, retaining the command line but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not bound by default and has no effect outside
                     incremental search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character in the minibuffer; if multiple
                     searches have been performed since the character was
                     inserted the search history is rewound to the point just
                     before the character was entered.  Hence this has the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find the next occurrence of the contents of the
                     mini-buffer. If the mini-buffer is empty, the most recent
                     previously used search string is reinstated.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay the command line, remaining in incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Select the `vicmd' keymap; the `main' keymap (insert
                     mode) will be selected initially.

                     In addition, the modifications that were made while in vi
                     insert mode are merged to form a single undo event.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.  The direction of the search is
                     indicated in the mini-buffer.

              Any character that is not bound to one of the above functions,
              or self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be
              exited.  The character is then looked up and executed in the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the
              incremental search commands can take a string argument.  This
              will be treated as a string of keys, as for arguments to the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters in the string which are unused by the incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the minibuffer
              containing the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions available in the mini-buffer are the same as for
              history-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is treated
              as a pattern, respecting the current settings of the various
              options affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION in
              zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no numeric
              argument was given lowercase letters in the search string may
              match uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may
              simply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note that only non-overlapping matches are reported, so an
              expression with wildcards may return fewer matches on a line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty
              setting,  will stop the search.  The functions available in the
              mini-buffer are: accept-line, backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, backward-kill-word,
              vi-backward-kill-word, clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert
              and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored. If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the current one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the
              cursor position.  If a positive numeric argument is given,
              insert that word from the end of the previous history event.  If
              the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this
              command replaces the word just inserted with the last word from
              the history event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments
              can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When called from a shell function invoked from a user-defined
              widget, the command can take one to three arguments.  The first
              argument specifies a history offset which applies to successive
              calls to this widget: if it is -1, the default behaviour is
              used, while if it is 1, successive calls will move forwards
              through the history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that
              the history line examined by the previous execution of the
              command will be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers should
              be preceded by a `--' argument to avoid confusing them with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command line in normal array index notation (as a more natural
              alternative to the numeric argument).  Hence 1 is the first
              word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is
              used to signify that the history offset is relative to the
              current history line, rather than the one remembered after the
              previous invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always copies the first word of the line in the history
              immediately before the line being edited.  This has the side
              effect that later invocations of the widget will be relative to
              that line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       set-local-history
              By default, history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this on
              and off, or set it with the numeric argument. Zero for both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change, change the current
              line.

              For compatibility with vi, if the command is vi-forward-word or
              vi-forward-blank-word, the whitespace after the word is not
              included. If you prefer the more consistent behaviour with the
              whitespace included use the following key binding:

                     bindkey -a -s cw dwi

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If called from a ZLE widget function in the form `zle
              copy-region-as-kill string' then string will be taken as the
              text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark and the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell
              parsing, whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a
              difference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       vi-down-case (unbound) (gu) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all
              characters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement to lowercase.  If the movement command is vi-down-case,
              swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the one under the cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket
              character, move forward without going past the end of the line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case (unbound) (g~) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of
              all characters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  If the movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If
              the kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it below the current line.

       put-replace-selection (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Replace the contents of the current region or selection with the
              contents of the kill buffer. If the kill buffer contains a
              sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), the current line
              will be split by the pasted lines.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next
              character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt
              character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this command, it overrides the remembered count, and is
              remembered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer
              specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace the character under the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at end
              of line, else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

              With a positive numeric argument N, the word around the cursor,
              or following it if the cursor is between words, is transposed
              with the preceding N words.  The cursor is put at the end of the
              resulting group of words.

              With a negative numeric argument -N, the effect is the same as
              using a positive argument N except that the original cursor
              position is retained, regardless of how the words are
              rearranged.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       vi-up-case (unbound) (gU) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all
              characters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement to lowercase.  If the movement command is vi-up-case,
              swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history
              of previously killed text) and yank the new top.  Only works
              following yank, vi-put-before, vi-put-after or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy the region
              from the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank, copy the current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start a new numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside a widget function, a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which called the widget as the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an integer (positive or
              negative), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus
              digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if
              this command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char,
              move forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2,
              then forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle
              universal-argument num', the numeric argument will be set to
              num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must
              be in the range 2 to 36 inclusive.  Subsequent use of
              digit-argument and universal-argument will input a new numeric
              argument in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is
              used: the letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments
              in bases requiring digits from 10 upwards are more conveniently
              input with universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually
              bound to digit-argument.

              The function can be used with a command argument inside a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a key out of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion is used.  See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform menu completion, like menu-complete, except that if a
              menu completion is already in progress, move to the previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute the contents of the buffer.  Then search the history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event
              following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do nothing.
              Removing the suffix ends any active menu completion or menu
              selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, force it to be preserved.
              Otherwise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu
              completion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       bracketed-paste
              This widget is invoked when text is pasted to the terminal
              emulator. It is not intended to be bound to actual keys but
              instead to the special sequence generated by the terminal
              emulator when text is pasted.

              When invoked interactively, the pasted text is inserted to the
              buffer and placed in the cutbuffer.  If a numeric argument is
              given, shell quoting will be applied to the pasted text before
              it is inserted.

              When a named buffer is specified with vi-set-buffer ("x), the
              pasted text is stored in that named buffer but not inserted.

              When called from a widget function as `bracketed-paste name`,
              the pasted text is assigned to the variable name and no other
              processing is done.

              See also the zle_bracketed_paste parameter.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter command mode; that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for vi users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       deactivate-region
              Make the current region inactive. This disables vim-style visual
              selection mode if it is active.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the position of the
              mark.  Unless a negative numeric argument is given, the region
              between point and mark is activated so that it can be
              highlighted.  If a zero numeric argument is given, the region is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  Aliasing
              this widget with `zle -A' or replacing it with `zle -N' has no
              effect when interpreting key bindings, but `zle
              execute-named-cmd' will invoke such an alias or replacement.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal,
              as defined by the stty setting, will abort the function.  Note
              that the following always perform the same task within the
              executed-named-cmd environment and cannot be replaced by user
              defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              allowed functions are: backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert, backward-kill-word, vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,
              expand-or-complete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to one of these functions, will complete the name and then list
              the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option is set.  Any other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Like execute-named-cmd, this command may not be redefined, but
              it may be called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the
              cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the current
              parser construct is only a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is popped with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the
              buffer.  Next time the editor starts up, the buffer will be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the
              editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current multiline
              construct into the editor buffer.  The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  A keystroke is read
              just as in normal operation, but instead of the command being
              executed the name of the command that would be executed is
              stored in the shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key sequence is not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this point in the
              function, the editor regains control until one of the standard
              widgets which would normally cause zle to exit (typically an
              accept-line caused by hitting the return key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned is non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but
              the function still continues executing and hence may tidy up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the
              command line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.

                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat

              This causes typed letters to be inserted capitalised until
              either accept-line (i.e. typically the return key) is typed or
              the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is handled by
              saving the old definition of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.  Note that an error
              from the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded, then redisplay the edit buffer.  This reflects
              changes both to the prompt variables themselves and changes in
              the expansion of the values (for example, changes in time or
              directory, or changes to the value of variables referred to by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display has been interrupted by output from another
              part of the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the
              command line to be reprinted.

              reset-prompt doesn't alter the special parameter LASTWIDGET.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function, e.g. execute-named-command,
              or the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line; in this case the aborted line
              is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.  If the
              editor is aborted from within vared, the variable
              ZLE_VARED_ABORTED is set.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.  run-help is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              37 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to
              "z, the `yank' buffer "0, the nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9 and
              the `black hole' buffer "_.  The named buffers can also be
              specified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut, change or yank command,
              the text concerned replaces the previous contents of the
              specified buffer. If a named buffer is specified using a
              capital, the newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of
              overwriting it. When using the "_ buffer, nothing happens. This
              can be useful for deleting text without affecting any buffers.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut or change command, "1 is
              used, and the contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one
              buffer; the contents of "9 is lost. If no buffer is specified
              for a yank command, "0 is used. Finally, a paste command without
              a specified buffer will paste the text from the most recent
              command regardless of any buffer that might have been used with
              that command.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the
              buffer can optionally be specified with an argument. For
              example,

                     zle vi-set-buffer A

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative
              numeric argument, do not set the mark but deactivate the region
              so that it is no longer highlighted (it is still usable for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       split-undo
              Breaks the undo sequence at the current change.  This is useful
              in vi mode as changes made in insert mode are coalesced on
              entering command mode.  Similarly, undo will normally revert as
              one all the changes made by a user-defined widget.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is not bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (u) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a user-defined widget, takes an optional argument indicating a
              previous state of the undo history as returned by the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications are undone until that
              state is reached, subject to any limit imposed by the
              UNDO_LIMIT_NO variable.

              Note that when invoked from vi command mode, the full prior
              change made in insert mode is reverted, the changes having been
              merged when command mode was selected.

       redo (unbound) (^R) (unbound)
              Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the
              modification.

       visual-mode (unbound) (v) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style visual selection mode. If line-wise visual mode
              is currently enabled then it is changed to being character-wise.
              If used following an operator, it forces the subsequent movement
              command to be treated as a character-wise movement.

       visual-line-mode (unbound) (V) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style line-wise visual selection mode. If
              character-wise visual mode is currently enabled then it is
              changed to being line-wise. If used following an operator, it
              forces the subsequent movement command to be treated as a
              line-wise movement.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (ga) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal,
              decimal and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position
              within the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current
              line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and print the listing of key
              sequences that invoke the specified command.  A restricted set
              of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are
              looked up in the special command keymap, and if not found there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `which-command cmd'. where cmd is the current command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

   Text Objects
       Text objects are commands that can be used to select a block of text
       according to some criteria. They are a feature of the vim text editor
       and so are primarily intended for use with vi operators or from visual
       selection mode. However, they can also be used from vi-insert or emacs
       mode. Key bindings listed below apply to the viopp and visual keymaps.

       select-a-blank-word (aW)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, where a word is defined
              as a series of non-blank characters. With a numeric argument,
              multiple words will be selected.

       select-a-shell-word (aa)
              Select the current command argument applying the normal rules
              for quoting.

       select-a-word (aw)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, using the normal
              vi-style word definition. With a numeric argument, multiple
              words will be selected.

       select-in-blank-word (iW)
              Select a word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank
              characters. With a numeric argument, multiple words will be
              selected.

       select-in-shell-word (ia)
              Select the current command argument applying the normal rules
              for quoting. If the argument begins and ends with matching quote
              characters, these are not included in the selection.

       select-in-word (iw)
              Select a word, using the normal vi-style word definition. With a
              numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.

CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING
       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of
       the line that have a particular significance.  This is controlled by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry none all highlighting is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other
              highlighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command
              line is not affected.

       isearch
              When one of the incremental history search widgets is active,
              the area of the command line matched by the search string or
              pattern.

       region The currently selected text. In emacs terminology, this is
              referred to as the region and is bounded by the cursor (point)
              and the mark. The region is only highlighted if it is active,
              which is the case after the mark is modified with
              set-mark-command or exchange-point-and-mark.  Note that whether
              or not the region is active has no effect on its use within
              emacs style widgets, it simply determines whether it is
              highlighted. In vi mode, the region corresponds to selected text
              in visual mode.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable
              representation but are shown in a special manner by the line
              editor.  These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used in completion for characters that are
              marked as suffixes that will be removed if the completion ends
              at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/) after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may differ
              for different completions.

       paste  Following a command to paste text, the characters that were
              inserted.

       When region_highlight is set, the contexts that describe a region --
       isearch, region, suffix, and paste -- are applied first, then
       region_highlight is applied, then the remaining zle_highlight contexts
       are applied.  If a particular character is affected by multiple
       specifications, the last specification wins.

       zle_highlight may contain additional fields for controlling how
       terminal sequences to change colours are output.  Each of the following
       is followed by a colon and a string in the same form as for key
       bindings.  This will not be necessary for the vast majority of
       terminals as the defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The start of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.
              This is followed by one to three ASCII digits representing the
              colour.  Only used for palette colors, i.e. not 24-bit colors
              specified via a color triplet.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape sequence for the background colour.  See
              fg_start_code above.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not
              useful for this to appear with other types of highlighting; it
              is used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal
              integer, the name of one of the eight most widely-supported
              colours or as a `#' followed by an RGB triplet in hexadecimal
              format.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that do, not all
              provide facilities to test the support, hence the user should
              decide based on the terminal type.  Most terminals support the
              colours black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and
              white, which can be set by name.  In addition. default may be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.
              Abbreviations are allowed; b or bl selects black.  Some
              terminals may generate additional colours if the bold attribute
              is also present.

              On recent terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal
              database the number of colours supported may be tested by the
              command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a limit on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The number of colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the
              range 0 to 255).

              Some modern terminal emulators have support for 24-bit true
              colour (16 million colours). In this case, the hex triplet
              format can be used. This consists of a `#' followed by either a
              three or six digit hexadecimal number describing the red, green
              and blue components of the colour. Hex triplets can also be used
              with 88 and 256 colour terminals via the zsh/nearcolor module
              (see zshmodules(1)).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works
              similarly to the foreground colour, except the background is not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in a bold font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's
              standout mode.  The actual effect is specific to the terminal;
              on many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such terminals,
              where the cursor does not blink it appears with standout mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some
              terminals show the foreground in a different colour instead; in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.  The
       formatting described here is used irrespective of whether the
       characters are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^' followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This item applies to control characters not in the ASCII range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining
              characters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option
              is off, or if a character appears where a combining character is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal
              number between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of
              the character in the wide character set; this may or may not be
              Unicode, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any sequence of one or
              more bytes that does not form a valid character in the current
              character set is treated as a series of bytes each shown as a
              special character.  This case can be distinguished from other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two
              hexadecimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the
              four or eight digits that are used for unprintable characters
              that are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not all systems support this: for it to work, the system's
              representation of wide characters must be code values from the
              Universal Character Set, as defined by IS0 10646 (also known as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When a double-width character appears in the final column of a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in the original position is highlighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to a particular
       context, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline paste:standout)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary regions may be highlighted by setting the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.

zsh 5.8                        February 14, 2020                     ZSHZLE(1)